Skip to main content

Full text of "A narrative of a visit to the Australian colonies"

See other formats

This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  library  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 
to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 
to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 
are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  marginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 
publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  have  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 

We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  from  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attribution  The  Google  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liability  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.  Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at  http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/| 


A  narrative  of  a  visit 
to  the  Australian  colonies 

James  Backhouse 

s^^^^  \ 











ffl)  X  (cK) 



y  (9ytJ±£C>_         \ 

^      edbyCOOQle 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


i^^    I      ,9 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 












A  ] 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

•      •    •  • 

'     ..i*r*'.  •••• 













Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



TOBX:  rKnrTSD  ^t  johv  l.  UBirBT. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Introdaction   xv 


TojBge  to  Tan  Diemens  Land. — Embarkation. — ^Emigrant  Pensioners. — ^Dis- 
orderly Conduct. — Intemperance. — The  Ocean. — ^Bottled  Water. — Petrels. — 
Coast  of  Spain. —  Birds. —  Storm. —  Danger. —  Equator. —  Sunset. — Trinidad 
and  Martin  Va«. — ^Funeral. — ^Whales. — Fishes. — ^Albatross. — ^African  Coast — 
Cape  Town. — Schools. — Slavery. — Public  Institutions. — ^Religious  Meeting. — 
Departure. — L'Agullas  Bank. — Southern  Ocean. — Birds. — Religious  Labours. 
— Coast  of  Van  Diemens  Land. — Colour  of  the  Sea. — Piratical  Yessel. — Sharks. 
—Bad  Bay. — ^ArriTal  at  Hobart  Town 1 


Hobart  Town. — Colonel  Arthur. — Intense  Sleep. — J.  Leach. — ^Unexpected  Meet- 
ing.— Home. — Meetings  for  "Worship. — ^The  Liberty. — Conyict  Ship. — ^Pri- 
soners.— Settlement  of  the  Colony. — Female  Factory. — ^Trees. — Animals. — 
Chain-gang. — ^Woody  Hills. —  OoTemment  Ghurden. —  Bees. — ^Assigned  Pri- 
soners.— ^New  Norfolk.— Bush  Road. — ^The  Clyde.— Green  Valley. — ^Bothwell. 
— ^Hamilton. —  Fences. — Remarkable  Rock. —  Porter  and  Thieying. —  Emi- 
grants.— Style  of  Living. —  Animals. —  Hostile  Aborigines. —  Hospitality. — 
Bush-rangers. — She  Oak. — ^Plains. — ^Remarkable  Impression. — Sawyers'  Huts. 
—Inn 14 

Hobart  Town. — Pious  Persons. —  Penitenfiary. — ^Temperance  Society. —  Kings 
Pits. — Shrubs. — ^Fem  VaUey. — School  Meeting. — ^Voyage  to  Macquarie  Har- 
bour.— ^Prison  Ship. — ^Piracy  of  the  Cypress.— Prisoners. — ^Loss  of  the  Science. 
— ^Flsh. — ^Penguin. — Storm. — ^Port  Davey. — Cockatoos. — Land  Lobster. — ^Ex- 
cursions.— Sharks. — Swearing. — Storm.--Sea  Fowl. — ^Entrance  of  Macquarie 
Harbour 82 


Macquarie  Harbour. — ^Mountains. — ^Trees. — Rivers. — Sarahs  Island. — ^Timber. — 
State  of  Prisoners. — ^Mortality. — ^Murders. — Privations. — Escapes. — Cannibal- 
ism.— ^Example. — Punishment. — Reformation. —  Pious  Prisoner. — Depravity. 
— ^Employment. — ^Provisions. — ^Pine-roads. — ^Phillips  Island. — ^Fems. — ^Health. 
—Climate. — Spirits. — Bermuda  Prisoners.- Wellington  Head.— Jail  Meetings. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


— Prisoner  Steward. — Spaniel  and  Blackfish. — ^Aborig^nes. — ^Eelp. — Lichen. — 
Birds 47 


Report  to  the  Lieutenant  Governor. — ^Thanksgiving. — Death  of  a  Pensioner. — 
War. — Clarence  Plains. — Hospitality. — Government  Schools. — Chain-gang. — 
Scorpion. — Centipedes. — Muddy  Plains. — Settlers. — South  Arm. — ^Liberty. — 
Kangaroo. — Box  and  Cow  Fishes. — ^Illicit  Spirit  Dealer. — Princess  Royal 
Stranded. — Snow  Storm. — Richmond. — ^Trees. —  Imported  Fruit-trees. — ^New 
Houses. — Bush-rangers. — Security. — ^Meeting. — Coal  River. — Settlers. — Oven 
Hills.— Orielton.— Wages  paid  at  Public  Houses.— Sorell  Town.— Windmill. 
— Rich  Land. — ^Temperance  Meeting. — Lower  Settlement. — Sober  Anglo- 
Tasmanians. — ^View. — Spring. — ^Birds,  &c. — Anniversary  of  Departure  from 
England 60 


Attendance  of  Meetings. — Religious  Communications. — Embarkation  for  Flinders 
Island. — Cape  Roaul. — Port  Arthur. — Perilous  Situation. — ^Cape  Pillar. — 
Birds. — ^Maria  Island. — Spring  Bay. — Prisoner  Seaman. — Octopodia. — Frey- 
cineta  Peninsula. — ^Trees,  &c. — ^Black  Swans. — Schouten  Passage. — ^Mutton 
Birds. — Swan  Island. — ^Banks's  Strait. — Superstition  of  Sailors. — ^Wreck. — 
Preservation  Island. — Sealers  and  Native  Women. — Black  Snakes.— Green 
Island 70 


Discovery  of  Van  Diemens  Land. — Its  Position  and  Character. — Aborigines. — 
Erroneous  Ideas  of. — Attack  upon. — Provocations. — ^Hostilities  of. — Attempt 
to  Capture. — G.  A.  Robinson's  Mission. — Settlement  in  Bass's  Straits. — ^Flin- 
ders Island. — ^Productions. — ^Manners  of  the  Natives. — ^Dances. — Civilization. 
— Sealer  and  Child. — Breakwinds. — Song. — Clothing. — Capacity. — Ornaments. 
— Sickness. — ^Birds,  &c. — ^Excursion. — Cookery. — ^Dogs . — ^Mang^ves. — ^Kan- 
garoo Rat. — Bandicoot. — Bain. — Commandant*s  Hut. — "  Boatswain,"  a  Na- 
tive Woman. — Sealers. — ^Tasmanian  Porcupine. — Wallowing  in  Ashes. — Gra- 
titude.— ^Weapons. — Green  Island. — ^Mutton  Birds. — ^Music. — ^Tide-ripple. — 
Arrival  at  George  Town 78 


George  Town. —  The  Tamar  River. —  Launceston.  —  Meeting. — ^Aborigines. — 
Plants. — ^Leeches. — ^Kangaroos. — ^Middle  Arm. — ^Tide  Ripple. — ^North  Coast 
— Blacks  charged  with  Murder. — ^Mode  of  Transferring  Fire. — ^Black  Women 
Rescued. — Circular  Head. — Van  Diemens  Land  Company's  Establishment. — 
Islands. — Woolnorth. — Rocks. — Cape  Grim. — ^Bird  Islands. — Kelp. — ^Mutton 
Fish. — Native  Doctor. — Seeking  a  Needle. — ^Decoration. — Remembrance  of 
Absent  Friends. — Habitations. — ^Tribes. — Burning  the  Dead 95 


Circular  Head. — ^Anchorage. — Highfield  Plain. — ^Work  People. — ^Indentured  Ser- 
vants.— ^Flagellation. — Eagles. — Sponges. — Shells — Crabs. — ^Weather. — ^Ants. 
— Journey. — ^Rivers. — Grass-trees . — Blandfordia. — ^Banksia  serratifoUa. — Hu- 
man Bones. — Scrub  and  Fern. — ^Fossil  Shells. — ^Table  Cape. — ^Trees,  &c-^Ema 
Bay. — Magnificent  Forest.— Gigantic  Trees. — Tree  Ferns. — ^Plains.— Abori- 
gines.—Road.^Arrival  at  the  Hampshire  Hills 107 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

coNTEirrs.  V 


Hampshire  Hilk FlanU Bumiog  the  Orast,  &c — Surrey  HiUf — St.  Marys 

Plain. — Shrubs. — Ezcursion  to  Emu  Bay. — Rocks — Gigantic  Trees. — ^Man 
Lost. — Dense  Forest. — Aborigines.— St.  Valentines  Peak. — Animals. — ^Hos- 
tile Natives. — ^Edible  Fungi.-— Native  Potato.-^Measurement  of  Trees.— Ex- 
ploratory Ramble. — Skill  of  Aborigines. — ^Myrtle  Forest. — Animals. — Com- 
pass.— Attack  upon  the  Aborigines. — ^lioeches.— Dense  Forest. — Cataract. — 
Free  Servants. — Reckless  Drunkenness. — Quantity  of  Rain. — Snow. — Bur- 
leigh.—Black  Bluff.— Yale  of  Belvoir.— Epping  Forest.— Snakes.— "Great 
Western  Road." — Forth  and  Mersey  Rivers. — Circular  Pond  Marshes. — 
Burning  Forest. — Caverns.— Dairy  Plains.— Westbury.— Depravity.— Arrival 
at  Launceston 110 


Launceston. —  Foolish  Washerwoman. —  Lixard  and  Grasshopper.—  Religious 
Meetings.-Perth.— Norfolk  Plains.— Wheat  Crops  —Rioter.— Lake  and  Mac- 
quarie  Rivers. — Summer  Snow. — ^Hummocky  Hills. — ^Profanity. — Campbell 
Town  and  Ross.— Salt  Pan  Plains.— Oatlands.— Jericho.— The  Jordan.— 
Cross  Marsh. — Green  Ponds.— Constitution  Hill.— Bagdad.— Blistered  Feet. 
—Rate  of  Walking.— Hobart  Town 131 


Hobart  Tovm. — Lieutenant  Governor. — Penal  Discipline. — Reformed  Prisoners. 
— Intemperance  and  Indiscretion.— Sheriff's  Writs. — Timber-fellers. — ^Meeting 
Room  Engaged. — Meeting. — Journey. — ^Anxiety  for  Liberty. — Infidel  Prison- 
ers.— Binshy  Plains. — Prisoner's  View  of  Transportation. — Prossers  River. — 
Spring  Bay. — Kangaroo  Grass.— Swan  Port— Cultivated  Land. — ^Oyster  Bay 
Pine. — Boad. — ^Kelvedon. — Waterloo  Point — Gunnia  australis. — Ministry  of 
F.  C. — Character  of  the  Land. — Shrubs. — ^Black  Swans. — Boomer  Kangaroo. 
—St.  Patricks  Head.— Dwelling.— Timber.-— Whales.— Mountains.— Tea. — 
Break  o'day  Plains.— «  Dead  Mens  Graves."— Buffalo  Plains.— Kindness  of 
Aborigines. — Launceston. — Flinders  Blacks. — ^Road  Party. — Flagellation. — 
Weather. — ^Diseases. — ^Death  of  a  Prisoner. — Intemperance. — Music. — Spring. 
—Ben  Lomond.— Gums.— Fossil  Tree.— Salt  Spring8.—Eagle8.— Trees. .   137 

Meeting  for  Discipline  Established. — Meetings  for  Worship. — Temperance  Lec- 
ture.— ^Flagellation. — Causes    of   Crime. — Judicial    Oaths. — Peculiarities   of 
Friends. — Chain  Gang. — Unsteady  Emigrant — Ascent  of  Mount  Wellington. 
—Notice  of  a  Pious  Prisoner 164 


Second  Visit  to  Flinders  Island.— West  Coast  Aborigines.— Dislike  to  Fat.— 

Emigrants.- Bruny  Island.— Port  Arthur.  —Guard  of  Dogs,  &c.— Discipline 

Diving  of  Native  Women.— Shamrock  Stranded. — ^Flinders  Island  — PUnting 
Potatoes. — ^Difference. — Civilisation.- Grass-tree  Plains. — Prime  Seal  Island. 
—Spears. — ^Climbing  Trees. — Comparative  Skill.— Mustering. — Cleanliness. — 
Catechist.  ^Light-house.— Bush-rangers. — ^Launceston 166 


Launceston. — ^Meetings. — Pious  Prisoner.— Improvements. — ^| Aborigines'  Mer- 
chandise.—Meeting  at  George  Town. —  Rambles.- York  Town. — Trout— 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Voyage. — Flinders  Island. — Kangaroo  Apple. — Greeting. — Distribution  of 
Clothing. — Native  Chief. — ^Fire. — Notions  of  Supernatural  Influence,  and  a 
Future  Existence. — ^Departure  from  Flinders  Island. — Intemperance. — Cutter 
driven  upon  the  Bocks. — Recklessness. — ^Dangerous  Situation. — Arriyal  at 
Kelvedon 176 


Kelvedon.— -Meetings.— Soldier  Injured. — ^Papal  Penance. — Animals  Poisoned. — 
Instinct.— Use  of  Spirits  in  Whaling,  &c.— Toad-fish.— The  Saddle.— Eastern 
Marshes. — ^Dead  Trees.— Farm. — Settler  and  his  Flock. —  Sheep  Lands. — 
Opossums. — Meetings  at  Oatlands  and  Jericho. — Sheep  and  Wool. — ^Native 
Cat.— Dairy  Farm — ^Vale  of  the  Jordan. — Platypus.- Black  Brush.— The 
Carlton. — Visiters  — Inns Temperance  Reformation. —  Richmond. — Jerusa- 
lem.— Drought. — Parrots. — Green  Ponds. — Settlers. — ^Invalid  Road  Party. — 
Mill. — New  Norfolk. — ^Meetings. — Forlorn  Prisoner. — Pious  Settler. — Prison- 
ers at  Bridgewater. — Return  to  Hobart  Town. — Indisposition 185 


Hobart  Town. — ^Meeting  Places. — Discontinuance  of  Reading  Meetings.— Week- 
day Meetings. — Ministers. — Meetings  to  which  the  Public  were  Invited. — 
Prayer. — Principles  of  Friends. — ^Base-line.< — ^Perjury. — Prisoner  Boy. — Grass- 
tree  Hill. — Esculent  Vegetables. — Silent  Meetings. — ^Flagellation. — ^Monthly 
Meetings.- Reflections. — ^Report  on  Chain  Gangs  and  Road  Parties. — ^Traffic 
of  the  Blacks. — "  Guide  to  True  Peace." — Colonial  Hospital. — J.  Johnson. — 
Orphan  School. — Penitentiary 195 


Browns  River. —  Potatoes. —Cordage-trees. — ^Hobart  Town  Jail. — Meetings. — 
Baptism. —  Condemned  Criminals. —  Ministry. —  Comparison  of  the  Stock- 
keepers  with  the  Sons  of  Jacob. —  Musk  Rat. —  Conrincement  by  Reading 
"  Barclay's  Apology." — ^Ministry. — Kangaroo  Hunter. — ^Naming  of  Places  in 
Van  Diemens  Land. — Penguins. — ^Albatross. — ^Morepork. — Delay. — ^Ministry 
of  G.  W.  W. — ^Penitent  Prisoner. — Trying  Occurrences. — Seven-mile  Beach. 
— Holothurida:.— Drunken  Prisoners,  &c.— Awkward  Travelling, — Arrival  at 
Kelvedon.— Fruit  Trees. — Black  Swans.- Arrival  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — 
Coralines,  &c. — Cranes. — ^Track  Lost. — Return  to  Hobart  Town 206 


Old  Johnson. — Prayer. — Spiritual  Poverty. — ^Yearly  Meeting. — Meeting  at  New 
Norfolk.— Influenza.— Cold  of  Mount  Wellington. — Mantis.— Sale  of  Spirits. 
— Calumny. — Visit  to  Port  Arthur. — Doughboy  Island. — Black-backed  GuU. 
— Commandant  bewildered  in  the  Forest. — State  of  the  Penal  Settlement. — 
Scurvy. — Educated  Prisoners. — School. — ^Employment. — Convict  Boys. — Coal 
Mine.— Black  Snake.— Coal.— Plants.— Return  to  Hobart  Town.— Letter.— 
Meetings. — Laws  of  Primogeniture  and  Entail. — Pensioners. — Rural  Dean. 
— Surgeon  of  the  Alligator 221 


Voyage  to  Sydney. — Cape  Howe. — Diversity  of  Gifts. — Dangerous  Situation. — 
Port  Jackson. —Sydney. —Religious  Instruction. — Aborigines. — Rock  Oysters. 
— Brugmansia.— Visit  to  the  Governor. — Projected  Visit  to  Norfolk  Island. — 
Meetings  on  Ship-board.— S.  Marsden.— New  Year's  Day.— Shrubs. — "Brick- 

Digitized  by 



fielder.*' — ^Fint  Meetings  on  Shore. — ^Temperance  Meeting.— Works  of  Crea- 
tion.— ^Visit  to  the  Ooyemor,  at  Parramatta. — Card  Playing. — Snake. — 
Blizabeth  Bay. — ^Fig-tree  and  Acrosticum  grande. — Peaches. — ^Plants.— School 
Meeting. — Group  of  Aborigines. — ^Parasites. — ^Meeting  in  the  Conrt-House. — 
Iiominoixs  Appearances  in  the  Sea. — ^New  Zealand  Hostages. — ^Imposition  on 
Medical  Men. — Meeting  on  Board  the  Henry  Porcher 230 


Arrangements  for  Visiting  Norfolk  Island. — ^Departure. — Adyerse  Winds. — 
Shark  and  Pilot-fish.— Seamen.— Spiritual  Navigation.— Jelly-fish.— "  The 
Elisabeth"  Whaler. — ^Tropic  Bird.— Norfolk  Island.— Departure  of  D.  and  C. 
Wheeler.— Orange  Yale.— Oak.— Geology.— Features  of  the  Island.— Norfolk 
Island  Pine  and  Tree-fern. — ^Fruits. — ^Description  of  Prisoners. — ^Assemblies 
for  Worship. — Jail 245 


Norfolk  Island. — ^Kings  Town. — Occupation  of  Prisoners. — ^Mitigation  of  Sen- 
tence.— Freycinetia. — New  Zealand  Flax. — Agriculture. — ^Pigeons. — ^Cats. — 
Fly-catchers. — Parrots. — ^Dying  Prisoner. — Ansons  Bay. — Wistaria? — ^Ipomcea 
pendula. — "  The  Sisters"  Pines  — Jasminum  gracile. — ^Lagunea  Patersonii. — 
Burixd  of  a  Prisoner. — Improyement  among  the  Prisoners. — Proyisions. — 
Sweet  Potato. — Profanity. — Perjury. — Madrapores. — Sea  Anemonies. — Papal 
Prayers. — ^Teaching  of  the  Spirit 256 


Norfolk  Island. — ^Disinclination  to  receiye  Religious  Instruction. —Prisoners* 
Barracks. — Iron. — ^Flagellation. — Oyerseers. — Sentence  to  Penal  Settlements. 
— Sick  Prisoners. — Rocks. — Cape  Gooseberry. — ^Palm. — Wood-quest.  N.  I. 
Pines. —  Roman  Catholic  Prisoners. — Cleanliness. — ^Temperature. —  Reckless 
Prisoner. —  Felling-gang. —  Plants. — ^The  Cascade. — Flora  of  N.  I. —  Sugar 
Cane. —  Rum. —  Christian  Doctrine 262 


Norfolk  Island. — Caye. — Remarkable  Shrubs. — Mount  Pitt — Group  of  Islands. 
— Capture  of  a  Parrot. — Marrattia. — Petty  Sessions. — ^Marine  Animals. — 
Tree-ferns. — ^Animals. — Visit  of  Officers  to  Phillip  Island. — Guayas. — True 
Church. —  Return  of  Officers. — Wild-boar. —  Runaway  Prisoner. — ^Religious 
Interviews. — Luminous  Fungus. — Prisoner's  History. — ^Tidings. — Relapses. — 
Parting  Opportunities. — Penitent  Prisoners.— Departure. — Prisoners*  Letters. 
— Voyage. — Storm. — Lord  Howes  Island — Portuguese  Man-of-War. — Arrival 
at  Sydney. — Disorderly  Soldiers 270 


Sydney. — Penal  Discipline  of  Norfolk  Island  Re-modelled. — Epistle  to  Friends 
in  Hobart  Town. — ^Meetings. — Unclaimed  Property  of  Deceased  Persons. — 
Drought. — Shrubs, — Thoughtless  Young  Men. — Conceited  Woman. — Prayer 
in  Spirit. — Australian  School  Society. — Unworthy  Descendants  of  Friends. — 
Blacks  Fishing. — Species  of  Callitris. — ^Ministry. — Shrubs. — Friends'  Books. 
— D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — J.  Leach. — Consumption. — Meeting  at  Cooks  River. 
— Travelling  in  New  South  Wales. — Mounted  Police.— Meeting  at  the  North 
Shore. —Botany  Bay. — ^Dye-woods,  &c. — Grass-tree. —  Sweet  Tea. — Miasmal 
Fever 286 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Sydney.— Meetings —AtLitralian  Settlers.— Weather.— ZaiuUu—Tegetable  In- 
stinct— ^BeneTolent  Society. — ^Aborigine!. — Goepel  Labourers. — ^Temperance 
Lectures. — LiTerpooL— Bible  Meeting. — Hospital.— Unsteady  Emigrants. — 
Work  of  the  Spirit —Perserering  Prayer. — ^L.  E.  Threlkeld.— Invalids  from 
India. — Temperance  Committee. — Bible  Meeting.— Spring. — ^Loqnat — Deci- 
duoos  Trees 293 


Journey  to  Wellington  Yalley.^Preliminary  Arrangements.— Visit  to  Panra- 
QUitta. — ^Factory. — Orphan  School. — Lunatic  Asylum. — Elissing  Point. — Bush 

Fire.— Drought Schools,   &c.— Meetings. — CiTilisation  of   the    Natives. — 

Forest.— South  Creek. — ^Dislike  of  the  Blacks  to  go  ftur  from  Home.— Penrith. 
— ^Blue  Mountains. — ^Ironed-gangs. — Huts  and  Carayans  of  Prisoners.— Wea^ 
ther-board  Hut.— Views.— Cold.— Black  Heath.— Mountain  Road.— Bullocks. 
-Eagles.— Mount  Victoria  Pass.— Vale  of  Clywd.— HeUvellyn. — ^BiyerOak. 
— Junction  Stockade. — Honeysuckle  Hill.— Drunken  Landlord. — ^Bathurst. — 
Drunkenness. — ^Famine. — ^The  Rocks. — ^Newton. — Sheep.^Wild  Dogs. — ^Ex- 
haustion.—Molong  Riyer.— Birds— Limestone.— Newry.— Welcome,— Stock- 
keeper  and  Blacks.— Sheep-feeding — Cottages.— Arriyal  at  Wellington 
Valley 800 


Wellington  Valley. — ^Mission  Station. — ^Worship. — Doctrine. — Mission  Stock. — 
Aboi%ines. — Morals. — Language. — Aquatic  Plants.— Myami. — ^Honey. — Ani- 
mals,— Food  of  theNatiyes. — Cayem. — ^Mount  Arthur. — Shrubs,  Ac. — Burial 
Place. — ^Public  Worship  of  Friends. — European  Influence. — Ghrass. — Initiation 
of  Blacks  as  Toung  Men. — Natiye  Women. — ^Prisoner  Servants. — ^Molong. — 
Effects  of  Drunkenness. — Infanticide. — ^Feigned  Intoxication. — ^Kangaroo  Bay. 
— Civilization  and  Missionary  Labours. — Milk. — ^Help  in  Time  of  Need. — 
Pious  Fellow  Traveller.- Definition  of  Love.— Bathurst — ^Verdure 815 


Bathurst.— Climate  of  N.  S.  Wales.— Public  Worship.— Doctrine  of  Baptism. — 
Settlers. — Bank. — Prisons.  —Woodlands. — Geology. — O'Connell  Plains.- Spi- 
ritual Worship. — ^Fish  River. — ^Dogs  and  Snakes. — Milk. — Prisoners. — Shrubs. 
— ^Blue  Mountains. —Black  Heath. — Govetts  Leap. — ^AwM  Death. — Couch 
Grass.— Penrith. — ^Flagellation. — ^Nepean. — ^Doctrine. — ^Vineyard. — Absence  of 
Dew. — ^Horses  destroyed  by  Thirst.- Nepean  River. — Castlereagh. —Windsor. 
— ^Richmond. — ^Information  of  a  Black. — Pitt  Town  and  WUberforoe. — ^Unfidth- 
ful  Professor. — Pious  Persons. — Temperance  Meeting. — Jail. — ^Religious  Meet- 
ings.— ^Currajong. — Country. — Maize  and  Wheat  Crops. — Orange  Orchards. — 
Return  to   Sydney 331 


Opening  of  Friends*  Meeting  House,  at  Sydney.— Voyage  to  Van  Diemens  Land. 
— Escape  from  Danger.— Electric  Phenomena. — Arrival  at  Hobart  Town. — 

State  of  the  Congregation  of  Friends  —Yearly  Meeting Journey  to  Kelve- 

don,  Falmouth,  Launceston,  ftc. — Dangerous  Riding. — Hunting  Cattle. — Gen- 
tleness of  Bulls. — Accident — Launceston. — Influence  of  Strong  Drink. — Re- 
ligious Attainments. — ^Mounds  of  Oyster  Shells. — Remarkable  Tide. —  High 
Rents.—  Hospitals. —  Irrigation. —  Wesleyans.—  Progress  of  Temperance. — 
Return  to  Sydney 343 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Sydney.— fidigton  of  FeeUngs.—  Botanie  Gardai.--Co]leciion  of  Tmes — Self 
Kxamination^— libngy  of  Friends'  Books.— Destnietkm  of  Spirita.— IMsoord 
and  Tale-bearing.->TempeTance  Lecture. — Sdiptnre  LeMwns  of  the  British 
and  Foreign  School  Society. — ^Voyage  to  Moreton  Bay.>-State  of  the  Prison- 
ers.— EfEeots  of  Spirit^drinking. — Afflictions. — ^Moont  Warning,  Ao, — ^Axrival 
in  Moreton  Bay.— Tree  Oysters.— ArriTal  at  Brisbane  Town 850 


Moreton  Bay^— Brisbane  Town.— Qardens.-— Tread-miU. — Swearing.— Plants, 
Ac. — ^Natires.— Prisoners. — ^Family  Worship. — Trees,  Ac — Plants,  and  Ani- 
mals.— ^Female  Prisoners. — Wood. — ^Destmction  of  Spirits. — ^Teredo. — ^Kan- 
garoos, &c.— Birds.— Want  of  Bibles.— Ab8oondffrs.~Aborig]nes 858 


Departure  firom  Brisbane  Town. — Plumbago.— Fishes  and  Birds.— Dugong.- 
Stradbroke  Island. — Amity  Point. — Aborigines. — Penal  Begnlations. — ^More- 
ton  Island. — ^Trees. — Crabs. — ^Amnsements. — ^Hnts. — Native  Dogs. — Fish. — 
Mannfactore. — Mangroyes,&c. — Animals. — ^Fight  of  NatiTCS. — ^Mistake  in  the 
Name  of  Biscuit. — ^Departure  from  Moreton  Bay. — Storms. — ^Arriyal  at  New- 
castle. —  Natiye  Guides. — Ebeneser. — Aborigines. — Amusement. — ^Missionary 
Labours.— CiTiUsation  of  the  Blacks. — ^Amomit  of  Native  Population. — ^Forest. 
— Remarkable  Spring.— Gregarious  Caterpillars.— Wages  of  Blacks 368 


Sydney. — ^Tidings  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — Aborigines  in  Towns.— Work  of  the 
Spirit. — G^rant  of  a  Burial  Ground. — ^Reformed  Prisoner. — ^Wills. — Trial  of 
Blacks. — Bibles  in  Strange  Tongues. —  Meetings.- Voyage  to  Maitland.— 
I>ninkeime8s. — Season. —  Ironed  Gangs.—  Fossils. — Country. — Plants. — ^Ar- 
thurs Yale. — ^Management  of  Prisoners.— St.  Aubins. — "  Prisoners  of  Aus- 
tralia."—Plants.— Rain. — Sheep. — Snow. — Mount  Wingen.— Objects  of  Curi- 
oeity.— Return  to  Maitland. — Compass,  &c. — Geology. — Cockfighters  Bridge. 
— ^Prisoners.- Bibles  and  Card  Playing.— Small  Congregations. —  Friends' 
Principles.— Self  Delusion 385 


Maitland. — Cedar  Bmshes.—Morpeth.— Retired  Officer. —  FaithAil  Spaniel.— 
Raymonds  Terrace.— Pottery.- Coimtry. —  Plants.— Reformed  Prisoner. — 
Fort  Stephens. — Carrington. — Territory  of  the  Australian  Agricultural  Com- 
pany.—  Xurua  River.  —  BooraL  —  Stroud. —  Stock. —  Land  Speculations. — 
Blacks. — ^Dingadee. —  Wallaroba. —  Paterson. — Libraries. —  Maitland. —  New- 
castle.— Meetings. — Coal-works. — ^Voyage  to  Port  Macquarie. — ^Lake  Cottage. 
— ^Penal  Establishment  — ^Town. — Rocks. — ^Prisoners. — WiUon  River. — ^Trees, 
Ac — Rollins  Plains. — Natives.— Sugar  Canes. — Tacking  Point  Wood. — Acros- 
ticum  grande. — State  of  Prisoners. — Return  to  Sydney 397 


Sydney. — ^Plants. — Liverpool. — Hospital  Patient. — State  of  Society. — Lansdowne 
Bridge. — Jail. — ^Male  Orphan  School. — Campbell  Town. — ^Wretched  Prison. — 
Fall  of  the  Limb  of  a  Tree. — ^Appin. — State  of  the  Population. — ^Buli  Road. — 
niawarra. — WoUongong. — Five  Islands. — Hlawarra  Lake.  — Country. — Pious 
Cottager. — Mountain  Road. — Snake.— Effects  of  Drunkenness.  —  Trees. — 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Cabbage  Palm,  &e. — ^Dapto. — ^Manball  Mount. — ^Aborigines. — Parrots,  Ac. — 
Kiama.— Friends'  Meetings.— Colomgatta.— Wattle  Tick.— Plants.— -Coluber 
porphyryaceus. — Transmutation. — Stinging  Trees. — Snakes. — ^Black  disposed 
to  Settle. — ^Want  of  Religious  Instruction. — Implements  of  Blacks. — Cambe- 
warra  Mountains. —  Kangaroo  Ground.— Compassion. — Aborigines. — Journey 
to  Bong  Bong 416 


Bong  Bong. — Berrima. — ^Trees  and  Birds. — Marulan. — ^Ironed-gang. — ^Towrang. 
— Goulbium. — Hospital. — Ooulburn  Plains. — Menara  Plains. — Sheep  Feeding. 
— Journey  to  Lumley. — Effects  of  Porter. — Aquatic  Plants,  &c. — Roads. — Tra- 
yelling. — Penalties. — ^Arthurslee. — English  Plants. — ^Wombat  Brush.— White 
Ants. — ^Return  to  Throsby  Park  and  Bong  Bong. — Sheep  Shearing. —Mitta- 
gong. — Bargo  Brush. — ^Drunkenness. — JarTis  Field. — Brownlowe  Hill. — ^Hot 
Winds. — ^Prisoner  Shepherd.  — Camden. — Seasons. — ^Hay. — Opossums. — Pur- 
suits of  Settlers. — Cobbity. — Influenza. — Winboume. — Mulgoa. — ^Duneyed. — 
Milking  Wild  Cattle.— The  Vineyard.— Parramatta.— Pennant  Hills.— Kiss- 
ing Point. — Lunatic  Asylum.— Return  to  Sydney 487 


Sydney. — ^Married  Emigrants. — High  Wind.— Sudden  Death. — Coach  TraTclling. 
— ^Delusion. — Hot  Wind,  &c. — Meetings  in  Sydney. — Destitute  NewZealanders. 
— ^Visit  to  the  Prisons  in  Sydney. — Hyde  Park  Barracks. — Carters  Barracks. 
— ^Tread-mill. — ^New  Jail. — Tunnel  from  the  Botany  Bay  Swamps. — Phoenix 
Hulk. — Goat  Island. — ^Address  to  the  Prisoner  Population. — Old  Jail. — Colo- 
nial Hospital. — Prisoner's  Letter. — Benevolent  Asylum. — Books,  &c. — Oaths 
and  Affirmations. — Address  to  the  Free  Inhabitants 451 


North  Harbour. — Pumice-stone. — Animals,  &c. — School  and  Temperance  So- 
cieties.— ^Tidings  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — Report  to  the  Governor. — Sense 
of  Unprofitableness. — Botany  Bay. — ^La  Perouse. — Circumnavigation. — But- 
terflies.— ^Fishermen. — Silent  Meetings. — Drunkenness. — ^Convict  Servants. — 
Arrival  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — Visit  to  the  Governor. — Refraction. — ^Factory. 
— Aborigines. — ^Elizabeth  Macquarie. — Departure  from  N.  S.  Wales. — Voyage 
to  V.  D.  Land. — Jervis  Bay. — Sheds,  &c.  of  Aborigines. — Jelly-fish. — Storm. 
— ^Lying  to. — ^Albatross. — Arrival  at  Hobart  Town. 461 


Hobart  Town. — State  of  the  Meeting  of  Friends. — Sir  John  Franklin. — Party 
Spirit. — Temperance. — Pensioners. — J.Johnson. — Weight. — Aurora  australis. 
— Schools. —  Infants  at  Meeting.  —  Journey. — Improvements. — Kelvedon. — 
Baptism  for  the  Dead. — Drought. — Increase  of  Opossums,  &c. — Affecting  Acci- 
dent.—  Gibbet.  —  Launceston.  —  Barton.  —  Successful  Emigrant. — Campbell 
Town  and  Ross. — Frost. — Observations  on  Temperature. — Vale  of  Bagdad. — 
Prisoners  at  Work. — Return  to  Hobart  Town 471 


Hobart  Town. — Recording  Ministers. — Conversion  of  a  Unitarian. — Journey. — 
Climate  and  Diseases. — Hamilton. — Frost. — Falling-stars. — Stranded  Whale. 
— Birth-day. — Convict  Discipline. — Captain  Maconochic's  System. — D.  and  C. 
Wheeler. — Meeting  Premises  and  Burial  Ground. — Death  of  J.  Johnson. — 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


New  Norfolk. — Sudden  Death. — ^Affirmation  Act. — ^Yearly  Meeting.-^Abo- 
rigines  on  Flinders  iBland. — Sir  John  and  Lady  Franklin. — ^Dr.  Foreman  and 
Female  Prisoners. — ^Reformed  Drunkard. — ^Departure  from  V.  D.  Land  . .  480 


Voyage  to  Port  Phillip.— Passengers.— Mutton  Birds.— Islands.— Port  Phillip. 
— ^Mission  Station. — ^Effect  of  Fear  upon  a  man  bitten  by  a  Serpent. — Indiffer- 
ence.— ^Melbourne. — Business  'and  Wages. — ^Aborigines. — Influence  of  Society. 
— Esculent  Roots. — ^Animals. — Country. — Natives*  Baskets. — ^W.  Buckley. — 
Lyre  Bird.— "Wild  Dog.— Sheep 495 


Voyage  to  South  Australia. — Kings  Island.— South  Coast  of  Australia. — St. 
Vincents  Gulf.  —  Holdfast  Bay.— South  Australia.— Adelaide.— Port  Ade- 
laide.— ^Torrens  River. — Country. — ^Drunkenness. — Fires. — ^Aborigines. — Un- 
just Legislation.  —  Religious  Loss. — Cruelty.  —  Geology,  Vegetation,  and 
Entomology. — ^Heat. — Departure 608 


Voyage  to  King  Georges  Sound. — Kangaroo  Island. — Danger  of  Landing  in 
Uninhabited  Places. — Birds,  &c. — King  Georges  Sound. — Albany. — ^Vegeta- 
tion.— Inebriety. — Indolence. — ^Aborigines — Country. — Plants Gape  Leeu- 

win. — Voyage  to  the  Swan  River. 622 


Swan  River  Settlement. — ^Freemantle. — Swan  and  Canning  Rivers. — Perth. — 
Visit  to  the  Governor,  &c. — Sentiments  respecting  the  Aborigines. — ^Plain  of 
Quartania. — ^Trial  of  a  Black. — Country. — Shells,  Fish,  &c. — ^Temperature, 
and  Heated  Sand. — ^Books,  &c. — The  Peninsula. — Guildford. — York  District. 
— ^Poisoning  of  Sheep. — ^Toogee  Country. — Ruinous  Effects  of  Rmn. — Price 
of  Land. —  Revenue  and  Sources  of   Income. — Population. —  Spirit  Law. — 

Fruits Upper  Swan. — Customs  of  the  Aborigines.— Neglect  of  Civilization. 

— ^Meeting. —  Bush  Fires. — Zamias. — Native  Fair  and  Customs 529 


Swan  River. — Drunkenness.— Fights  of  the  Aborigines. — Temperance  Meeting. 
— ^Evils  connected  with  the  use  of  Spirits. — ^Ezplorators. — ^Weapons  of  the 
Blacks.— Retribution. — ^Amount  of  Black  Population,  &c. — Jelly-fish. — Edu- 
cation.— ^Visit  of  the  Blacks. — Birds,  &c. — Aurora  australis. — Intemperance  of 
Seamen. — Revenge  and  Expiation  of  Injuries  among  the  Aborigines. — Em- 
barkation.—  Peaceful  Retrospect 543 


Mistake  respecting  the  falling  back  of  the  Aborigines.  —  Contact  of  the 
Australians  with  the  Malays. — ^Belief  in  Spiritual  Influence. — Conscientious- 
ness.— Superstitions. —  Koin. — Tippakallenn. —  Kumir-kurran. —  Nungngun. 
— Murramai. —  Sentiments  respecting  Death. —  Traces  of  Ideas  of  a  Fu- 
ture State. — ^Traditions  respecting  Creation  and  the  Flood. — Australian  Lan- 
guage.— Evidence. — Importance  of  Inquests. —  Change  of  Feeling  toward 
Aborigines. — Importance  of  Christian  Principle. — Aborigines  Protection  So- 
ciety.— ^Disappointment  of  Emigrants. — Causes  of  Unsettlcment. — Needf^il 
Considerations  respecting  Emigration 554 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



A.— Certificatefl  of  J.  Backhouse  and  G.  W.  Walker i 

B. — A  Concise  Apology  for  the  Peculiarities  of  the  Societj  of  Friends,  commonly 
called  Quakers,  in  their  Iianguage,  Costume,  and  Manners vi 

C. — The  Question,  "Are  Judicial  Oaths  LawAil?"  Answered,  with  some  Ob- 
serrations  on  the  Moral  Influence  of  Judicial  Oaths ty 

D,— Remarks  on  the  Indigenous  Vegetable  Productions  of  Tasmania,  arailable 
as  food  for  man zzxi 

E. — ^Extract  from  a  Report,  on  the  State  of  the  Chain  Gangs  and  Road  Parties, 
in  Van  Biemens  Land xli 

F. — ^Report  upon  the  State  of  the  Prisoners  in  Van  Diemens  Land,  with  Remarks 
upon  the  Penal  Discipline,  and  Observations  on  the  General  State  of  the 
Colony  in  1884    xlvi 

G.— Testimonials  of  Hobart  Town  Monthly  Meeting  of  Friends,  respecting  the 
Religious  Labours  of  G.  W.  Walker    Ixvii 

H. — ^A  Letter  to  Colonel  Arthur,  respecting  Spirituous  Liquors ,  Ixix 

I. — A  Letter  to  the  Catechist  at  Port  Arthur    Ixxii 

J. — Prisoners'  Letters Ixxvi 

K. — An  Epistle  to  Friends  in  Hobart  Town Ixxx 

L, — An  Address  to  the  Prisoner  Population  of  New  South  Wales  and  Van 
Diemens  Land    Ixxxiii 

M. — ^A  Letter  addressed  to  James  Backhouse  and  George  Washington  Walker, 
by  a  Conyict  confined  on  Goat  Island,  New  South  Wales cii 

N. — A  Christian  Address  to  the  Free  Inhabitants  of  New  South  Wales  and  Van 
Diemens  Land cvi 

O. — ^A  Report  on  New  South  Wales cxxiv 

P. — Letters  to  the  GoTemor  of  New  South  Wales  respecting  the  Abori- 
gines   cxxxiv 

Q. — ^An  Epistle  to  persons  attending  the  Meetings  of  Friends  in  Sydney. ...   cxl 

R.— A  Letter  to  Van  Diemens  Land  Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends  cxUii 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hobart  Town,  1834 (Frontiapieee.) 

Bocks  of  Martin  Vaz page      6 

View  on  the  Clyde,  V.  D.  Land    , . . .     27 

A  Fern  Valley,  V.  D.  Land 86 

Entrances  to  Port  Dayey 38 

Kelyedon.    The  Residence  of  Francis  Cotton 142 

Ben  Lomond,  V.  D.  Land 151 

A  Chain  Gang  of  Conyicts  going  to  work 158 

Flinders  Island  Grass  Trees ^ 171 

Heads  of  Port  Jackson 232 

Aborigines  of  N.  8.  Wales 240 

Jelly-fish.     fi^.  2,  a  8p€ci$$  ofVyrowma.) 247 

Ditto 248 

Ditto 249 

Norfolk  amd  Phillips  Islands 260 

Trees  of  Norfolk  Island , 266 

Mount  Warning 356 

Hat  of  a  Natiye,  on  Stradbroke  Island    373 

Boatman,  a  Natiye  of  N.  S.  Wales 380 

Acrosticnm  grande 418 

Cabbage  Pahn  of  N.  S.  Wales 426 

Spears,  &c.  of  the  Natiyes  of  N.  S.  Wales 483 

Huts  of  the  Natiyes  of  N.  S.Wales 469 

Jelly-fish 469 

Entrance  to  the  Derwent,  V.  D.  Land 487 

JeUy-flah 648 

Chart  of  the  World,  with  the  track  of  J.  B.  and  G.  W.  W At  the  end. 

Map  of  Tasmania  or  Van  Diemens  Land,  with  Do.* At  the  end. 

Map  of  New  South  Wales,  with  Do At  the  end. 

*  In  tkiM  map,  ike  namei  qf  Cmmiiei  are  in  open.  Soman  OapUali  ;  thate  t(fHmdredt  and 
Principai  Placet,  in  plain,  Boman  CapiUOt ;  ani  tho$e  ofParithet  m  JtaUc  CapitaU. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Page.    Line. 

60— 3rd  from  foot,  for  *<  their  feeling/'  read  thia  feeling. 

98 — 13th  from  top,  for  "  linestone,"  read  limestone. 
112— 7th  from  top,  for  <<  thes  mall/'  read  the  email, 
113— 4th  from  foot,  for  "  OxUlis/'  read  OxaUe 
150 — 13th  from  foot,  for  "prisoners,"  xeaA penaionere. 
158— foot  of  plate,  for  "Sidney,  N.  S.  Wales,"  read  Hobart  Town,  V.  D.  Land. 
267— 8th  from  foot,  for  "  diforme,"  read  difforme, 
286— 10th  from  foot,  for  "  19th  of  8th  mo.  1837/'  read^Mi^tf  486. 
410 — 19th  from  top,  for  "  calamifolium,"  read  calamiforme. 
427 — 6th  from  top,  for  do.  do. 

553— 2nd  from  foot,  for  "  1341,"  read  1841. 
IyU — 6th  from  foot,  for  "  as  in  the  case,"  read  aaiathe  ease. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


The  Visit  to  the  Australian  Colonies^  a  Narrative  of 
which  is  contained  in  the  following  pages^  occupied  a 
period  of  six  years,  terminating  with  1838.  It  was  under- 
taken, solely,  for  the  purpose  of  discharging  a  religious 
duty.  During  its  course,  the  writer  kept  a  Journal,  in 
which,  haying  been  trained  to  habits  of  observation,  re- 
cords were  made,  not  only  on  religious  subjects,  but  also, 
on  such  as  regarded  the  productions  of  the  Countries 
visited,  the  state  of  the  Aborigines,  and  of  the  Emigrant 
and  Prisoner  Population,  &c. 

From  this  Journal,  the  Narrative  has  been  prepared,  re- 
gard being  generally  had,  to  the  point  of  time  at  which 
the  record  was  made;  but  this  has  sometimes  been  de- 
viated from,  in  order  to  give  a  more  concise  and  dear 
view  of  a  subject,  and  to  avoid  repetition.  A  copious 
Appendix  is  added  to  the  work,  containing  a  variety  of 
documents,  connected  with  subjects  introduced  into  the 

The  writer  was  accompanied  in  this  visit,  by  his  friend 
George  Washington  Walker,  of  Newcasfle-upon-Tyne;  who 
united  in  the  service,  under  the  belief,  that  he  also,  was 
called  to  this  work.     Under  impressions  of  religious  duty. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


the  subject  was  brought  before  the  meetings  for  discip- 
line^ of  the  Society  of  Friends^  to  which  the  writer  and 
his  Companion  respectively  belonged;  and  they  received 
Certificates  of  the  unity  of  these  meetings  with  them^  in 
regard  to  their  proposed  visit  As  these  certificates  are 
introduced  in  Appendix.  A.  further  notice  on  this  point 
is  unnecessary  here. 

A  feeling  of  Christian  interest,  on  behalf  of  a  company 
of  Pensioners^  emigrating  to  Van  Diemens  Land,  induced 
the  writer  and  his  friend,  to  make  the  voyage  to  that  Co- 
lony, on  board  a  vessel,  in  which  a  number  of  these  people 
were  passengers.  In  the  Australian  Colonies,  J.  Backhouse 
and  O.  W.  Walker  visited  a  laige  proportion  of  the  coun- 
try Settlers,  in  their  own  houses,  holding  religious  meet- 
ings with  such  of  them  as  they  could  collect,  almost  every 
evening,  in  the  course  of  their  journeys.  These  journeys 
were  generally  performed  on  foot;  this  mode  of  travelling 
being  the  most  independent,  and  giving  the  easiest  access 
ta  that  part  of  the  prisoner  population,  assigned  to  the 
Settlers^  as  servants.  In  towns,  meetings  were  held  for 
the  promotion  of  religion  and  good  morals,  to  which  the 
Inhabitants  were  invited;  and  many  visits  of  a  religious 
character  were  paid  to  Penal  Establishments.  To  avoid 
repetition,  the  particular  notice  of  many  of  these  visits 
and  interviews,  is  omitted  in  the  Narrative,  generally  when 
nothing  occurred  to  inform  or  instruct,  of  a  diaracter 
different  from  what  had  been  previously  noticed. 

For  the  purpose  of  conveying  more  distinct  ideas  on 
various  subjects^  than  could  be  conveyed  by  words,  three 
maps,  with  fifteen  etchings^  on  steel,  and  several  wood- 
cuts have  been  introduced  into  this  volume.  Hie  one,  at 
page  158,  was  inadvertently  entitled,  by  the  engraver^  ^'A 
Chain  Gang  going  to  work,  near  Sidney,  New  South 
Wales,''    instead    o^    ^^at  Hobart   Town^    Van   Diemens 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Land/^  In  many  respects,  this  plate  would  correctly 
represent  the  Ironed  Gangs  of  Sydney,  or  any  other  part 
of  New  South  Wales,  as  well  as  the  Chain  Grangs  in 
Van  Diemens  Land,  or  the  Penal  Settlements  of  these 
Colonies;  but  it  was  originally  drawn  firom  the  Hulk 
Chain  Grang,  at  Hobart  Town.  For  this  error,  and  a 
few  others,  that  will  be  found  in  the  volume,  some  of 
which  are  noticed  in  the  list  of  Errata^  it  is  hoped  that 
the  reader  will   make  due  allowance. 

As  dates  are  of  considerable  importance  to  be  ob- 
served, in  works  on  newly-occupied  and  rapidly  advancing 
countries,  those  of  the  month  and  year  have  been  placed 
at  the  heads  of  the  pages.  Should  any  extracts  be  made 
firom  this  volume,  the  writer  hopes  that  diey  may  be 
accompanied  by  the  dates,  where  these  have  a  bearing 
upon  the  subject  treated  of. 

The  Settlements  on  the  south  coast  of  Australia  have 
made  rapid  advances  since  the  visits  here  recorded,  but 
as  the  writer  was,  in  great  measure,  cut  off  from  com- 
munication with  the  Australian  regions,  by  a  subsequent 
sojourn  in  Southern  Africa,  he  apprehends  that  he  shall 
not  render  his  readers  a  service,  by  going  out  of  the  line 
of  his  own  observations,  and  commenting  upon  these 
changes,  respecting  which,  he  supposes,  that  the  public  are 
in  possession  of  better  information,  from  other  sources, 
than  he  has  it  in  his  power  to  communicate.  For  a 
similar  reason,  he  has  refirained  from  observations  on  some 
modifications  of  the  Penal  Discipline,  of  New  South  Wales 
and  Van  Diemens  Land,  which  are  of  recent  date. 

In  the  course  of  the  Narrative,  the  term  Savages  is 
sometimes  used  in  reference  to  the  Aborigines  of  the 
coimtries  visited;  but  it  is  only  intended,  by  this  term, 
to  designate  human  beings,  living  on  the  wild  produce  of 
the  earth,  and  destitute  of  any  traces  of  civilization;  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


by  no  means,  to  convey  the  idea,  that  these  people  are 
more  cruel  than  the  rest  of  the  human  race,  or  of  inferior 

A  hope  is  entertained  by  the  writer,  that  this  volume 
may  convey  a  measure  of  useful  information,  and  excite 
some  interest  on  behalf  of  the  Aborigines,  and  the  Emi- 
grant and  Prisoner  Population  of  Australia,  as  well  as 
s^gcst  important  considerations,  in  connexion  with  the 
relation  of  man  to  his  Creator  and  Redeemer.  Under 
this  hope,  and  with  the  desire,  that  the  perusal  of  the 
work  may  be  attended  by  the  divine  blessing,  without 
which,  nothing  can  be  of  any  real  benefit,  the  volume  is 
submitted  to  the  attention  of  the  reader. 

York,  15th  of  12th  mo.  1842. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



Voyage  to  Tan  Diemene  Land. — ^Embarkation — ^Emigrant  Pensionert. — ^Dis- 
orderly conduct. — Intemperance. — ^The  Ocean. — Bottled  Water. — ^Petrela. — 
Coast  of  Spain. -^  Birds. — Storm. — Danger. — ^Equator. — Sunset. — Trinidad 
and  Martin  Vaz. — ^FuneraL — ^Whales. — ^Fishes. — Albatross. — African  Coast. — 
Cape  Town. — Schools. — Slavery. — Public  Institutions. — Religious  Meeting. — 
I)eparture. — L'Agullas  Bank. — Southern  Ocean. — Birds. — ^Religious  Labours. 
'^-Coast  of  Y.  D.  Land.— -Colour  of  the  Sea.—- Piratical  yesseL-^Sharkfl*— Bad 
^ay. — ^ArriTal  at  Hobart  To^m. 

A£L  necessary  arrangements  for  a  long  voyage  having  pre- 
viously been  made,  we  embarked  in  St.  Katharine's  Dock, 
London,  on  the  3rd  of  the  9th  month,  1831,  on  board  the 
Science — ^a  fine  barque,  of  236  tons,  William  Saunders,  mas- 
ter. A  few- of  our  Mends  accompanied  us  to  Gravesend, 
where  we  anchored  that  afternoon,  and  others  joined  us  there 
on  the  following  day,  with  whom  we  went  to  meeting,  at 
Rochester.  In  this,  the  last  assembly  for  public  worship 
which  we  attended  in  our  native  land,  we  were  favoured  to 
feel  much  of  the  comfort  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  of  confirma- 
tion respecting  our  projected  voyage  being  undertaken  in  the 
divine  counsel. 

In  the  cabin  of  the  Science,  there  were  two  other  passen- 
gers ;  and  in  the  steerage,  forty-six  Chelsea  pensioners,  who 
had  commuted  their  pensions  for  an  advance  of  four  years' 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

2  THE  DOWNS.  [9ih  mo. 

payment;  nine  women^  chiefly  pensioners' wives ;  six  chil> 
dren^  and  a  young  man^  whom  one  of  the  pensioners  had 
befriended.  These,  with  the  crew,  amounted  to  above  eighty 

On  the  5th,  some  of  the  pensioners  received  a  part  of  their 
advance  from  the  Government,  to  enable  them  to  purchase 
necessaries  for  the  voyage,  for  which  purpose  some  of  them 
went  on  shore ;  but  they  wasted  their  money  in  strong  drink, 
and  returned  on  board  so  much  intoxicated,  that  the  necessity 
of  preventing  others  doing  the  same,  was  obvious.  The  men 
became  very  unruly,  but  were  appeased  by  the  women  being 
allowed  to  go  on  shore  to  make  purchases,  and  by  a  boat 
with  supplies  of  clothing,  bedding,  &c.  being  sent  off  to  the 
ship. — In  the  evening  we  proceeded  farther  down  the  river, 
and,  on  the  6th,  dropped  anchor  off  Deal.  Here  the  men 
were  determined  to  go  on  shore,  and  were  taken  from  the 
vessel  by  Deal  boatmen,  in  spite  of  remonstrance  and  threats 
from  the  captain :  many  of  them  came  back  intoxicated,  but 
one  returned  no  more. 

We  sailed  from  the  Downs  on  the  9th,  and  from  that  time 
till  we  reached  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  few  days  passed 
without  some  of  the  pensioners  being  intoxicated  and  quar- 
relling :  sometimes  but  few  were  sober ;  and,  occasionally, 
the  women  were  as  bad  as  the  men.  Three  times  the  captain 
was  seized  by  different  men,  who  threatened  to  throw  him 
overboard.  One  man  was  nearly  murdered  by  one  of  his  fel- 
lows, and  all  kinds  of  sin  prevailed  among  them.  A  fruitful 
source  of  this  disorder  was  a  daily  allowance  to  each  person 
of  about  five  liquid  ounces  of  spirits.  Some  saved  it  for  a  few 
days,  and  then  got  drunk  with  it :  some  purchased  it  from 
others,  and  so  long  as  their  money  lasted,  or  they  could  sell 
their  clothes,  were  constantiy  intoxicated.  The  general  ex- 
citement produced  by  this  quantity  of  spirits,  made  them 
irritable  in  temper,  and  seemed  to  rouse  every  corrupt  passion 
of  the  human  mind.  To  all  expostulation,  the  constant  reply 
was :  *^  We  are  free  men,  and  it  is  our  own :  we  have  paid 
for  it,  and  have  a  right  to  do  as  we  please  with  it.'' 

From  having  been  long  accustomed  to  act  in  obedience 
to  military  discipline,  instead  of  upon  principle,  these  men 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1831.]  ATLANTIC   OCEAN.  S 

were  generally  as  incapable  of  taking  care  of  themselves^ 
when  temptation  was  in  the  way,  as  children ;  and  the 
state  of  confusion  they  were  in  was  often  appalling.  From 
first  going  on  board  we  read  to  them  twice  a  day  from  the 
Bible  or  religious  tracts.  This  was  nearly  the  only  time  they 
were  quiet.  At  first  some  of  them  tried  to  stop  us  by  making 
a  noise,  but  finding  we  proceeded  without  noticing  them,  they 
ceased :  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  voyage,  some  of  them 
acknowledged,  that  the  time  of  our  reading  had  been  the  only 
time  in  which  they  had  had  any  comfort. 

On  arriving  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  the  captain  deli- 
vered three  of  the  most  disorderly  men  to  the  civil  authori- 
ties: two  of  them  were  detained,  and  three  others  and  a 
woman  of  bad  character,  left  the  vessel  of  their  own  accord. 
Those  who  remained  on  board  conducted  themselves  better 
after  we  got  to  sea  again,  notwithstanding  several  of  them 
had  become  of  evil  notoriety  during  our  short  stay  in  Cape 

But  to  return  to  our  voyage.  On  the  16th  pf  9th  month, 
in  the  evening,  we  now  and  then  caught  a  glimpse  of  the 
light  on  the  Lizard  Point,  Cornwall;  which  was  the  last 
trace  we  saw  of  our  native  shores.  Several  of  the  pensioners 
had  begun  to  repent  of  having  embarked,  before  reaching 
this  point !  On  the  l7th,  we  were  out  of  soundings,  and  the 
ocean  presented  the  dark  blue  colour  that  prevails  where  it 
is  unfathomably  deep.  The  circle  of  view,  not  being  broken 
by  other  objects,  appeared  very  limited.  From  the  ordinary 
elevation  of  a  ship^s  deck,  this  circle  is  only  estimated  at 
about  eight  miles  in  diameter.  The  night  of  the  18th  was 
stormy,  and  we  were  in  some  danger  from  want  of  skill  in  the 
second  mate,  in  whose  watch  the  vessel  was  "taken  aback^^ 
in  a  squalL  On  the  19th,  our  water  began  to  be  very 
disagreeable ;  and  we  found  bottled  spring-water,  of  which 
we  brought  out  a  good  stock,  a  great  luxury.  Many  Stormy 
Petrels  followed  the  vessel  on  the  20th,  and  at  various  subse- 
quent periods.  These  little  birds,  which  are  about  the  size  of 
a  swallow,  have  a  propensity  to  keep  about  the  wake  or  track 
of  a  ship  in  windy  weather,  and  before,  as  well  as  during  a 
storm ;   therefore  when  they  follow  a  vessel  in  calm  weather, 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

4  THE   EQUATOR.  £9th  mo. 

they  are  considered  as  the  harbingers  of  a  breeze:  but 
notwithstanding  this,  they  are  frequently  to  be  seen  in  the 
same  situation  in  continued  fine  weather,  especially  about 
meal  times,  when  various  crumbs  of  refuse  food  are  cast 
overboard,  which,  floating  into  the  wake  of  the  vessel, 
are  picked  up  with  avidity  by  these  lively  little  birds, 
that  skim  over  the  surface,  sometimes  alighting  upon  the 
unbroken  waves,  and  running  upon  them  with  their  webbed 
feet,  balancing  themselves  by  means  of  their  wings,  which 
they  hold  erect,  and  ready  for  flight. 

We  were  oflF  Cape  Finisterre,  on  the  N.  W.  coast  of  Spain, 
on  the  21st;  some  of  the  land  seemed  of  considerable  eleva- 
tion. On  the  8th  of  10th  month,  we  entered  the  Torrid 
Zone ;  and  saw  a  few  Flying-fish ;  the  first  living  creatures, 
except  the  Petrels,  that  we  had  seen  for  many  days. 
A  Swallow  also  cheered  us  by  a  visit :  it  flew  many  times 
arotmd  the  vessel.  A  great  number  of  Black  and  White 
Gulls,  and  some  Porpoises,  were  seen  in  the  evening. 
On  the  17th,  we  lost  the  trade  winds,  that  had  urged 
us  on  rapidly  for  many  days,  and  reached  a  latitude 
where  squalls,  often  attended  by  thunder  and  heavy  rain, 
and  dead  calms  and  variable  breezes,  frequently  follow 
each  other  in  quick  succession,  the  thermometer  varying 
from  78o  to  82®  in  the  shade.  During  a  severe  squall  on  the 
25th,  large  patches  of  phosphorescent  light  were  seen  on  the 
surface  of  the  ocean  for  a  short  time :  they  presented  a  scene 
of  great  beauty,  the  interest  of  which  was  not  diminished  by 
the  raging  of  the  sea.  The  Swallow  noticed  on  the  8th,  and 
another  which  joined  it,  perished  in  the  storm.  On  the 
25th,  we  were  in  considerable  danger,  in  consequence  of  the 
second  mate  getting  intoxicated,  and  falling  asleep  in  his 
watch,  when  the  wind  was  strong,  and  only  an  inexperienced 
youth,  at  the  wheel  by  which  the  vessel  is  steered.  The 
mate  was  in  consequence  degraded  from  his  office. 

26th  of  10th  month,  we  crossed  the  Equator  in  27®  west 
longitude.  None  of  those  disagreeable  scenes  took  place, 
that  are  often  exhibited  on  such  occasions,  and  that  are  as 
heathenish  in  their  origin  as  in  their  practice;  in  which 
Neptune  is  represented  by  some  person,  and  ceremonies  are 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by 


/  » 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


.1      V     ' 

:-.  !,    ..-  -  I  •    .- 

.  ^        ...       Im:   ■    • 

.1  '.: 

-i>  ^t     :     1      !. 

)t-  •. 

.1 !  ^    ..'    ,   » 

.?■.'"     '   '  ■.."     •      '.      !l      1.      *. 

.V    ^''ii:.. 

.    .1 

• r    J.'.-  .  .'     : '' 

i^  •     ■(  i«  iiT  a  ';r\  vf 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1831.]  ATLANTIC   OCEAN.  5 

performed,  outrageous  to  Christianity  and  to  civilization.  We 
passed  under  the  vertical  sun  on  the  2nd  of  11th  mo.  having 
had  a  fine  breeze  since  crossing  the  equator.  Within  the 
tropics,  the  sky  at  sunset  frequently  presents  a  scene  of  great 
beauty,  in  the  softest  tints.  Blue  is  the  prevailing  colour  in 
the  zenith;  nearer  the  horizon,  verdigris  green  is  shaded  into 
rose  colour,  and  sometimes  into  glowing  red;  with  which  also 
some  of  the  patches  of  rich  brown  cloud  of  various  shade  are 
tinged.  A  purple  shade  is  cast  over  the  ocean,  which  is  sel- 
dom rough ;  and  the  atmosphere  being  of  a  pleasant  warmth, 
the  eflfect  of  the  whole  is  remarkably  soothing  and  luxurious. 

On  the  4th  of  11th  mo.  we  passed  between  the  rocks  of 
Martin  Vaz  and  the  little  island  of  Trinidad,  oflF  the  coast  of 
South  America.  As  we  approached  them,  the  swell  became 
bolder,  and  some  Terns  and  Black  Gulb,  and  a  few  Boobies 
were  seen.  The  sight  of  land  was  cheering,  notwithstanding, 
it  was  only  that  of  an  uninhabited  island,  and  of  the  grotesque 
rocks  occupied  by  sea  fowl,  depicted  in  the  annexed  etching. 

On  the  12th,  the  remains  of  an  old  man  of  some  piety, 
named  John  Salmon,  were  committed  to  the  deep.  He  had 
been  in  declining  health  from  the  time  he  came  on  board. 
His  situation  among  a  number  who  were  swift  to  do  evil,  was 
painful,  but  he  bore  it  patiently.  On  being  inquired  of,  a 
short  time  before  he  died,  if  he  felt  peaceful,  he  replied,  that 
he  was  very  comfortable ;  and  on  being  asked,  if  all  his  hope 
was  in  Christ,  he  said,  ^^  O  yes !  it  had  need.''  Last  night, 
the  corpse,  wrapped  in  a  blanket  and  sewed  up  in  a  hammock, 
with  three  eighteen  pound  shots  to  make  it  sink,  was  brought 
on  deck,  placed  upon  a  hatch  turned  upside  down,  and 
covered  with  a  union  jack.  This  morning  it  was  removed  to 
the  quarter-deck,  around  which  the  passengers  and  crew  were 
seated.  A  flag  was  hoisted  half-mast  high,  and  the  vessel 
was  laid  to,  or  made  still  upon  the  waters.  The  Captain 
read  the  funeral  service  of  the  Episcopal  Church  for  such 
occasions ;  and  when  he  came  to  the  words,  "  Commit  the 
remains,  &c.  to  the  deep,*'  the  men  who  were  stationed  for 
the  purpose,  removed  the  union  jack,  raised  the  head  of  the 
hatch,  and  launched  the  corpse  over  the  ship's  side  into  the 
ocean,  in  which  it  instantly  sunk.    At  this  moment  a  cry  of 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

6  ATLANTIC    OCEAN.  [11th  mO. 

distress  burst  from  the  widow  of  the  deceased^  but  she  soon 
became  collected  again,  and  the  Captain  proceeded  with  the 
service.  He  afterwards  addressed  the  company  on  the  folly 
of  wasting  their  lives  in  riot  and  excess^  and  I  added  an 
exhortation  to  "watch  and  be  sober :^^  but  nevertheless, 
some  of  the  pensioners  were  again  intoxicated  before  night ! 

The  seaman  who  was  lately  raised  to  the  office  of  second 
mate^  betrayed  his  trust  on  the  l7th^  and  persuaded  one  of 
the  boys  to  steal  liquor,  with  which  they  both  got  drunk,  and 
he  consequently  forfeited  his  place. — On  the  27th,  a  sail  was 
in  sight,  which  proved  to  be  the  Borneo,  of  London,  on  a 
whaling  voyage.  Whales  had  frequently  been  seen  for  some 
time  past,  and  at  one  time,  a  shoal  of  Porpoises  of  vast 
extent  passed  us,  swimming  in  a  westerly  direction,  at  a  very 
rapid  rate.  The  Borneo  captured  two  whales  while  within 
sight.  One  of  them  spouted  blood  to  a  great  height  when 
struck,  and  dragged  the  boat  at  a  fearful  rate,  almost  round 
the  circle  of  our  horizon.  After  the  whale  was  towed  along- 
side the  vessel,  we  went  on  board,  and  inspected  the  huge 
animal,  which  was  of  the  same  species  as  those  taken  in  the 
northern  latitudes :  it  is  called  in  this  hemisphere  the  Right 
Whale.  A  shark  was  aheady  at  its  side  watching  for  prey. 
The  Himipbacked  and  the  Fin  Whales  have  also  been  occasion- 
ally seen  of  late,  and  the  Right  Whale  in  considerable  numbers. 
They  make  a  noise  resembling  that  occasioned  by  tlie  escape 
of  steam  from  the  boiler  of  a  steam  engine,  but  this  is  not 
heard  at  a  great  distance :  their  heads  are  often  beset  with 
barnacles.  The  near  view  of  these  enormous  animals,  rising 
majestically  to  the  surface  of  the  ocean,  and  spouting  clouds 
of  spray,  whilst  the  water  is  pouring  off  their  ample  sides,  is 
very  interesting.  Within  the  warmer  southern  latitudes, 
a  number  of  Pilot-fish  frequently  accompanied  us,  swimming 
rapidly,  either  dose  before  the  bow,  or  after  the  stem  of  the 
vessel.  They  are  about  the  size  of  mackerel,  and  are  marked 
with  alternate  dark  and  silvery  bands.  A  sharp  nosed  fish 
supposed  to  be  a  Sword-fish,  about  nine  feet  long,  fol- 
lowed us  for  several  days.  Several  thick,  dark-coloured  fish 
about  a  foot  and  a  half  long,  were  frequently  swimming  close 
by  the  rudder.     Sometimes  small  Dolphins  were  playing 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1831.]  CAPB   OP   GOOD   HOPE.  7 

about  the  vessel ;  and  numerous  Flying-fish^  of  two  species, 
darted  from  the  bosom  of  the  deep^  and  made  aerial  excur- 
sions of  various  length,  sometimes  of  more  than  a  hundred 
yards,  endeavouring  to  escape  the  voracity  of  Bonitas  and 
Albacores,  which  frequently  sprung  out  of  the  water  after 
them.  The  Flying-fish,  which  are  about  the  size  of  small 
herrings,  and  of  a  silvery  hue,  often  meet  an  enemy  in  the 
air,  in  the  long-winged  Wandering  Albatross ;  which,  in 
small  numbers,  and  of  plumage  so  varied  as  to  admit  of  the 
individual  birds  being  identified,  accompanied  us  in  this 
part  of  our  voyage,  sailing  almost  motionless  on  the  wing. 

On  the  2nd  of  12th  mo.  we  sighted  the  coast  of  Africa,  off 
Seldanha  Bay ;  from  whence  we  beat  up  past  Dassen  and 
Robben  Islands,  into  Table  Bay,  which  we  entered  on  the 
5th.  The  sea  broke  heavily  on  Dassen  Island,  which  is  low 
and  sandy,  and  against  the  main  land ;  the  coast  of  which 
appeared  hilly,  with  mountains  remote  from  the  shore. 
Some  of  the  slopes  near  the  sea  were  very  sandy,  and  the 
hills  looked  arid  and  brown,  except  where  ttiere  were 
patches  of  cultivation.  About  Table  Bay,  the  scenery  is 
very  beautiful.  Hills  of  moderate  elevation,  with  a  few 
scattered  farms,  bound  the  northern  side :  on  the  east  is  an 
extensive  sandy  flat ;  beyond  which,  at  a  distance  of  about 
30  miles,  rise  the  peaked  and  rugged  mountains  of  Hot- 
tentot's Holland.  And  on  the  south,  at  the  foot  of  Table 
Mountain,  which  is  3,582  feet  high,  with  the  Devil's  Hill  to 
the  lefik,  and  the  Lion's  Hill  to  the  right.  Cape  Town,  with 
its  clean-looking,  white  houses,  interspersed  with  trees,  is 
situated.  The  ships  and  boats  in  the  bay,  the  houses 
scattered  along  the  shore,  and  the  numerous  sea  fowl — Gulls, 
Albatrosses,  Terns,  Divers,  and  Penguins — flying  and  swim- 
ming around,  contribute  to  cheer  the  eye  which  has  for 
many  weeks  looked  upon  little,  but  the  unvarying  circle  of 
the  dark  blue  ocean. — ^The  Penguins  are  unable  to  fly  on 
account  of  the  shortness  of  their  wings,  but  these  serve  as 
fins  to  impel  them  through  the  water,  in  which  they  swim 
with  their  bodies  submerged. 

On  the  6th,  we  went  on  shore,  and  became  the  guests  of  Dr. 
and  Jane  Philip ;   from  whom,  as  well  as  from  some  other 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

8  CAPE  TOWN.  [12tih  mo. 

Christian  friends^  before  strangers  to  us^  we  received  much 
kind  attention.  Dr.  Philip  introduced  us  to  the  Governor, 
Sir  Galbraith  Lowry  Cole,  who  received  us  politely,  and- 
permitted  us  to  land  some  cases  of  religious  books  and  tracts 
for  gratuitous  distribution,  free  of  duty,  and  without  subject- 
ing the  vessel  to  port  charges,  more  than  are  usual  on  putting 
into  the  bay  merely  for  refreshments.  We  also  received  a 
kind  welcome  from  John  Bell,  the  Colonial  Secretary,  and 
from  several  other  persons  of  influence. 

In  company  with  Dr.  Philip,  we  visited  several  schools 
and  other  public  institutions  for  the  amelioration  of  the 
human  race.  One  of  the  infant  schools  contained  a  set  of 
interesting  children  of  the  upper  class,  who  were  all  of 
white  complexion :  the  separation  between  these  and  the 
other  ranks  was  effected  by  a  higher  rate  of  payment.  In 
the  lower  school  there  was  a  lively  group,  of  varied  shade  of 
skin,  including  the  children  of  the  fair  European,  the  brown 
Hottentot,  and  the  Black  of  various  nations,  torn  from  his 
native  land,  by  the  ruthless  hand  of  slavery.  The  animated 
countenances  of  all  colours,  and  the  prompt  and  pertinent 
answers  the  children  gave,  shewed  intellectual  powers,  that 
under  such  cultivation,  promised  well  for  future  days. 

Slavery,  with  its  train  of  abominations,  was  still  in  ex- 
istence at  this  period  in  Cape  Town.  I  one  day  saw  a  young 
man  attempting  to  sell  a  coloured  child,  which  I  had  ground 
to  believe  was  his  own ;  and  the  reason  he  then  retained  it 
was,  that  he  could  not  get  his  price  ! — Several  times  we  rode 
in  a  carriage  driven  by  a  young  man  of  white  skin,  good 
person  and  agreeable  countenance,  whom  benevolence  had 
placed  in  a  situation  to  earn  the  price  of  the  cost  of  his  own 
freedom.  This  circumstance  forcibly  reminded  me  of  the 
question:  ^^Who  maketh  thee  to  differ  from  another,  and 
what  hast  thou  that  thou  didst  not  receive  ?''  It  was  not  the 
young  man's  fault  that  he  was  born  a  slave :  it  was  not  my 
merit  that  I  was  bom  free.  I  felt  thankful  imder  the  con- 
viction that  God  was  increasing  the  friends  of  the  oppressed, 
and  opening  the  eyes  of  men  to  see  the  incompatibility  of 
slavery  with  the  Gospel. 

At  a  committee  meeting  of  the  Philanthropic  Institution, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

183  L]  SOUTH    AFRICA.  9 

for  redeeming  female  children  fitmi  slavery^  it  was  deeply 
interesting  to  see  sprightly  children,  the  age  of  my  own, 
brought  forward  to  be  sold  for  manumission.  As  I  watched 
a  slave  mother  who  held  a  little  girl  by  each  hand,  and 
observed  her  animated  countenance,  lighted  up  by  the  hope 
of  obtaining  the  boon  of  liberty  for  her  offspring,  the  question 
recurred  to  me.  Why  were  these  children  bom  in  bondage 
and  mine  bom  jfree  ?  Was  it  only  because  the  oppressor  laid 
his  unhallowed  hand  upon  their  parents,  and  because  mine, 
by  divine  mercy,  were  saved  jfrom  such  oppression  ?  A  reck- 
less persecutor  was  indeed  permitted  to  cast  one  of  my 
predecessors  into  prison,  because  he  dared  not  to  violate 
his  conscience;  and  to  keep  him  there  till  his  days  were 
ended  by  the  severity,  long  before  he  had  attained  to  my 
own  age;  but  this  entailed  no  curse  on  me  or  on  my 
children.  The  persecutor  bore  the  curse !  But  were  men 
to  act  on  the  great  Christian  principle,  "Whatsoever  ye 
would  that  men  should  do  unto  you,  do  ye  even  so  unto 
them;^'  there  would  be  neither  persecution  nor  slavery. 

We  visited  the  noble  Library,  the  reading  room  of  which 
is  open  to  all  classes,  also  the  College,  Hospital,  and  Pri- 
sons. We  attended  a  meeting  for  the  formation  of  a  Tem- 
perance Society,  and  were  present  at  a  meeting  for  religious 
purposes  in  the  chapel  of  the  London  Missionary  Society. 
In  this  meeting  my  companion  spoke  for  the  first  time  in 
the  line  of  gospel  ministry.  I  was  also  favoured  with  an 
opportunity  to  express  my  Christian  interest  on  behalf  of 
those  assembled,  in  whose  company  we  felt  the  force  of 
the  declaration  "God  is  no  respecter  of  persons:  but  in 
every  nation  he  that  feareth  him,  and  worketh  righteousness 
is  accepted  of  him.^^ 

On  the  15th,  having  parted  from  our  kind  friends  in  Cape 
Town,  with  earnest  desires  that  many  more  might  be  added 
to  those  already  labouring  to  spread  the  knowledge  of  Christ, 
and  to  ameliorate  the  condition  of  their  fellow-men,  we 
returned  on  board  the  Science,  being  accompanied  by  Dr. 
Philip,  who  before  he  left  us,  prayed  vocally  for  our  pre- 

On  the  18th,  we  were  again  out  of  sight  of  land ;   which. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

10  CAPS  l'aoullas.  [1831. 

while  it  was  in  view^  was  bo  attractiye  as  to  keep  us  too 
unsettled  to  attend  much  to  other  things.  In  the  evening 
a  breeze^  which  we  had  had  during  the  day^  increased  into  a 
gale^  and  as  we  were  in  the  act  of  crossing  L'Agullas  Bank, 
whidi  lies  off  Cape  L'AguUas — the  southermost  point  of 
Africa — the  wayes  were  magnificently  bold.  Sometimes  we 
were  in  a  deep  hollow,  and  the  next  minute  moimted  on  the 
top  of  a  lofty  biQow,  which,  as  it  approached,  seemed  ready 
to  swallow  us  up ;  but  the  buoyancy  of  the  vessel  occasioned 
it  to  rise  over  the  surge;  in  mounting  which,  the  masts 
would  form  an  angle  of,  perhaps,  45  degrees  with  the  horizon, 
in  an  opposite  direction  to  that  in  which  the  billow  advanced: 
on  reaching  its  top  the  inclination  was  suddenly  reversed, 
the  wind  at  the  same  time  pressing  the  vessel  against 
the  receding  mass  of  water,  which  boiled  from  under 
the  leeward  side,  or  sometimes  flowed  over  a  portion  of 
the  deck.  Sometimes  the  top  of  a  broken  billow  struck 
against  the  ship's  side,  and  covered  half  the  vessel  with 
spray.  Now  and  then  a  shower  fell,  but  often  the  sun 
shone  brightly  on  the  agitated  scene,  illimiinating  the  spray 
from  the  tops  of  the  broken,  dark  blue  waves,  with  the 
colours  of  the  rainbow,  and  sometimes  shewing  light  of 
emerald  green  through  the  unbroken  water.  Vast  numbers 
of  Stormy  Petrels  were  sailing  on  the  wing,  within  a  few 
yards  of  the  stem  of  our  bark,  and  numerous  Wandering 
Albatrosses  were  flying  around,  or  occasionally  settling  on 
the  surface  of  the  boisterous  ocean,  and  riding  with  careless 
dignity  over  t^e  highest  billows,  scarcely  regarding  their 
surfy  tops. 

When  custom  has  taken  away  the  nervous  excitement 
occasioned  by  the  rolling  of  the  ship,  it  is  surprising  how 
little  the  mind  recognizes  danger  under  such  circumstances ; 
and  "  how  thoughtless  still  the  thoughtless  seem.''  For  my 
own  part,  I  enjoyed  the  spectacle ;  but  the  remembrance, 
that  He  who  rules  over  all  is  our  Father,  merciful  and  kind, 
regarding  us  for  good,  was  necessary  for  the  enjoyment: 
and  the  knowledge,  that  such  scenes  were  often  the  preludes 
of  a  summons  to  the  bar  of  eternal  judgment,  rendered  it  to 
me,  a  time  of  deep  searching  of  heart ;  and  one  in  which  self 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  SOUTHERN   OCBAN.  11 

was  deeply  abased  under  a  sense  of  unworthiness ;  notwitib- 
standing  a  capacity  was  granted  to  trust  in  Jesus  for  mercy. 

Our  voyage  was  made  between  the  39th  and  45th  degrees 
of  south  latitude.  Most  of  the  way  we  had  a  strong  breeze^ 
and  the  weather  so  cold  that  we  found  it  needful  to  use 
warmer  clothing  than  we  had  been  accustomed  to  wear 
in  England. — Persons  making  voyages  of  this  kind  ought 
not  only  to  be  provided  with  warm  clothing,  but  with  such  as 
is  adapted  for  wet  weather  at  sea. — Fin^  Spermaceti,  and  Riglit 
Whales  were  often  seen  in  this  part  of  the  voyage,  also  the 
Wandering  and  the  Black  Albatross.  The  latter  is  the 
bolder  bird,  though  the  smaller  species.  One  taken,  measured 
3ft.  from  the  tip  of  the  bill  to  that  of  the  tail,  and  7ft.  from 
the  extremity  of  one  wing  to  that  of  the  other.  Sometimes 
a  few  Sooty  and  other  Petreb  were  also  seen,  and  on  the 
10th  of  1st  month,  1832,  when  upwards  of  100  miles 
south  of  the  island  of  Amsterdam,  a  Penguin  passed  us* 
To  the  south  of  NewHoUand  we  saw  a  Fishing  Eagle  chasing 
the  Albatrosses,  and  observed  long  pieces  of  sea  weed. 

On  the  first  day  of  the  week,  during  the  voyage,  we 
regularly  assembled  the  pensioners  along  with  such  of  the 
ship's  company  as  could  be  present>  and  imparted  religious 
instruction  to  them,  according  to  the  fresh  ability,  from  time 
to  time  afforded  us.  On  these  occasions  we  read  to  them 
from  the  Holy  Scriptures ;  directed  them  to  the  convictions 
of  the  Divine  Spirit  on  their  own  minds,  condemning  them 
for  sin ;  counselled  them  to  seek  mercy  with  God  through 
a  crucified  Redeemer;  and  often  prayed  with  them  for  the 
continuance  of  the  long-suffering  of  the  Most  High.  When 
approaching  the  land  of  our  destination,  under  a  fresh  sense 
of  duty,  we  had  religious  interviews  with  them  singly  or  in 
families,  in  which  several  of  them  were  much  contrited. 

On  the  4th  of  2nd  month,  we  were  cheered  by  the  sight 
of  Van  Diemens  Land,  which  we  made  opposite  Port  Davey, 
in  consequence  of  the  south-easterly  direction  of  the  wind. 
We  had  not  seen  land  for  fifty  days,  but  had  become  so 
much  accustomed  to  the  solitude  of  the  ocean,  as  to  feel 
reconciled  to  it,  and  at  home  upon  its  bosom. —  The  water 
this  morning  presented  the  olive  colour,  common  where  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

12  OFF  PORT  DAVEY.  [2nd  mo. 

depth  is  fathomable^  or  to  use  a  sea  term  ^'within  soundings/' 
It  has  this  colour  generally^  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  to 
about  opposite  the  island  of  Amsterdam. — ^A  small  sail  was 
seen  to  the  northward.  The  number  of  vessels  sighted  since 
we  left  England;  has  only  been  about  six.  One  of  these^  in 
the  Atlantic^  was  of  piratical  appearance  and  suspicious 
movements.  We  had  no  defence  but  in  the  Lord ;  our  trust 
was  in  him ;  we  lifted  up  our  hearts  to  him  in  prayer  for 
protection;  and  were  separated  by  a  thunder  storm  from 
the  object  of  our  fears^  when  it  seemed  to  be  bearing  down 
upon  us  :  thus^  if  these  fears  were  not  groundless^  were  we 
^'  delivered  from  unreasonable  and  wicked  men.'* 

The  south-west  coast  of  V.  D.  Land  is  mountainous. 
Some  of  its  features  reminded  us  of  the  north  front  of  the 
Cleveland-hills  of  Yorkshire,  but  it  is  more  lofty  and  rugged, 
and  the  scattered  herbage  and  bushes  upon  it  looked  as 
brown  as  an  English  heath. — ^Large  bubbles  ascended  in  slow 
succession  to  the  surface  of  the  ocean,  while  we  were  becalm- 
ed opposite  Port  Davey;  numerous  animalcules  were  sporting 
on  the  surface,  and  fringed  Jelly-fishes  tinged  with  purple  or 
crimson,  were  swimming  at  various  depths.  Several  sharks 
were  cruising  around  the  vessel. — In  the  course  of  our 
voyage,  a  few  Grey  Sharks,  6  to  8ft.  long,  were  captured  by 
means  of  hooked  lines,  baited  with  pork.  When  a  vessel  is 
making  four  knots,  or  miles,  an  hour,  a  shark  cannot  take 
the  bait;  because  the  voracious  animal  is  under  the  necessity 
of  turning  on  one  side  to  sieze  its  prey,  and  before  this  can 
be  effected,  the  bait  has  passed  beyond  reach.  To  remedy 
this  the  bait  was  bawled  close  under  the  stem,  and  line  given 
out,  so  as  to  render  the  bait  still  upon  the  water;  it  was 
then  immediately  seized.  One  of  these  sharks  had  several 
Sucking-fish  adhering  to  it,  some  of  them  within  its  gills. 
These  fish  when  suffered  to  fasten  on  the  hand,  produced  a 
strange  and  unpleasant  sensation.  The  heart  of  the  Shark 
being  taken  out  of  the  body,  and  put  into  a  bucket  of  salt 
water,  continued  to  beat  for  several  minutes. 

During  the  night  of  the  6th,  we  passed  to  the  south  of 
y.  D.  Land.  The  sea  again  assumed  its  dark  blue  colour. 
Three  large  Grampuses  came  close  to  the  vessel :  they  made 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  13 

a  snorting  noise^  but  did  not  eject  water  like  the  larger  species 
of  the  whale  tribe.  A  breeze  on  the  morning  of  the  7th 
carried  us  to  the  south  of  the  Mew  Stone — ^a  large  conical 
rock  a  few  miles  from  the  shore.  The  mountains  on  the 
south  coast  are  rugged^  and  some  of  them  peaked.  Patches 
of  snow  were  lying  on  a  lofty  one  near  South  Cape*  Wood 
covered  their  sides  and  reached  in  some  places  to  the  water's 
edge.  We  were  in  danger  of  being  driven  into  Bad  Bay, 
after  passing  too  close  to  the  Acteon  Reef, — possibly  through 
an  opening  in  it, — ^but  were  enabled  to  escape  from  this 
perilous  position  by  a  sudden  change  of  wind  accompanying 
a  thunder  storm.  After  being  thus  mercifully  delivered 
from  this  peril,  and  having  rounded  the  rocky  islets  fronting 
Tasman^s  Head,  the  wind,  before  daylight  was  quite  gone, 
resumed  its  former  position,  and  we  proceeded  up  Storm 
Bay,  along  the  east  side  of  Bruny  Island,  as  far  as  Fluted 
Cape — a  fine  mass  of  columnar  basalt. — Having  the  advan* 
tage  of  a  bright  moon  we  continued  our  course  until  so 
dazzled  by  numerous  fires  of  large  extent,  consuming  the 
adjacent  woods,  as  to  be  imable  to  see  our  way.  The  vessel 
was  therefore  kept  ^^  standing  off  and  on''  till  day  light. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  8th  of  2nd  mo.  we  entered 
the  Derwent ;  and  at  a  short  distance  from  Hobart  Town, 
took  in  a  pilot,  who  brought  us  to  anchor  in  Sulivans  Cove. 
Our  feelings  were  those  of  reverent  thankfulness  to  the 
Great  Pj-eaerver  of  men,  for  having  brought  us  safely  over 
the  great  deep ;  and  our  prayers  earnest  for  the  continuance 
of  his  care  over  us,  and  for  ability  to  go  in  and  out  accept- 
ably before  him. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hobart  Town. — Col.  Arthor. — Intense  Sleep. — J.  Leach. — Unexpected  Meeting. 
— Home. — Meetings  for  "Worship.  —The  Liberty. — Convict  Ship. — Prisoners. 
— Settlement  of  the  Colony. — ^Female  Factory. — ^Trees. — Animals. — Chain- 
gang. — Woody  Hills. — OoTemment  Garden. — ^Bees. — Assigned  Pnsoners. — 
New  Norfolk.— Bush  Road.— The  Clyde.— Green  Valley.— Bothwell. — Hamil- 
ton.— ^Fences. — Remarkable  Rock. — Porter  and  ThieTing. — ^Emigrants. — Style 
of  living  — ^Animals. — Hostile  Aborigines. — Hospitality. — Bush-rangers. — She 
Oak.— Plains. — ^Remarkable  ImpreB8ion.-^awyer*8  Huts. — Inn. 

HoBART  Town^  the  capital  of  Tasmania  or  Van  Diemens 
Land^  is  beautifully  situated  on  undulating  ground  by  the 
side  of  an  estuary  called  the  Derwent,  from  its  resemblance 
to  the  lake  of  that  name  in  Cumberland — In  1831,  the  num- 
ber of  its  inhabitants  was  8,360,  In  1837  it  had  become 
augmented  to  14,461,  and  was  still  rapidly  increasing.  The 
streets  are  spacious,  and  most  of  them  cross  at  right  angles. 
The  houses  are  chiefly  brick,  and  covered  with  shingles  that 
have  the  appearance  of  slates :  they  stand  separately  in  little 
gardens,  except  in  a  few  of  the  streets  best  situated  for  busi- 
ness, and  extend  over  several  low  hills  at  the  foot  of  Mount 
Wellington,  which  is  4,000  feet  high,  and  covered  with  wood, 
except  where  bassaltic  cliffs  protrude  near  the  top. — ^The 
view  from  the  town  toward  the  sea  is  exceedingly  beautiful, 
extending  over  many  miles  of  water,  enlivened  by  shipping 
and  bounded  by  woody  hills,  on  which  the  greenness  of 
numerous  patches  of  cultivated  ground,  ornamented  by  white- 
washed cottages,  has  taken  the  place  of  the  sombre  forest. 
The  sketch  of  this  picturesque  spot  forming  the  frontispiece 
of  this  volume,  was  taken  by  my  friend  Charles  Wheeler,  in 
1833.  Since  that  period  it  has  undergone  several  alterations, 
and  a  tall  cupola  has  been  substituted  for  the  spire  of  the 
Episcopal  place  of  worship. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS   LAND.  15 

Soon  after  we  came  to  anchor  in  Snlivans  Cove^  on  which 
the  town  stands^  several  persons  came  on  board  to  enquire 
for  intelligence  from  England,  and  among  them  a  merchant, 
on  whom  we  had  letters  of  credit.  With  him  we  went 
on  shore,  and  he  introduced  us  to  the  Lieutenant  Governor, 
Col.  George  Arthur ;  to  whom  we  delivered  a  letter  of  intro- 
duction fipom  Lord  Goderich,  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the 
Colonies,  commending  us  to  the  protection  of  the  Lieut* 
Governor,  and  requesting  him  to  forward,  what  Lord  Gode- 
rich was  pleased  to  call,  our  benevolent  object,  so  far  as 
he  could  consistently  with  the  public  good.  Our  first  inter- 
view with  Col.  Arthur,  gave  us  a  favourable  impression  of 
his  character,  as  a  Governor  and  as  a  Christian,  which  fur- 
ther acquaintance  with  him  strongly  confirmed  :  he  took 
great  interest  in  the  temporal  and  spiritual  prosperity  of  the 
Colonists,  and  in  the  reformation  of  the  prisoner  population, 
as  well  as  in  the  welfare  of  the  surviving  remnant  of  the 
native  Black  Inhabitants;  and  he  assured  us  that  every 
facility  should  be  granted  us,  in  attempts  to  further  any  of 
these  objects. 

In  the  evening  we  returned  on  board  the  Science,  and  the 
chief  mate  requested  us  to  wake  him  at  10  o^clock,  that  he 
might  see  the  lights  of  the  steerage  passengers  put  out ;  some 
of  them  having  been  on  shore  and  having  returned  intoxica- 
ted: he  had  been  kept  up  during  the  past  two  nights,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  position  of  the  vessel  in  regard  to  the  land ; 
and  now,  when  10  o'clock  arrived  and  he  had  been  a  short 
time  asleep,  we  found  it  impracticable  to  awake  him*  After 
vainly  trying  a  variety  of  expedients,  some  of  which  made  him 
speak,  but  without  consciousness,  we  extinguished  the  lights 
ourselves,  the  captain  being  on  shore.  The  mate  slept 
soundly  till  five  in  the  morning,  when  he  awoke  in  terror, 
under  a  vague  idea  of  neglect  of  duty. 

2nd  mo.  9th.  We  went  on  shore  with  John  Leach,  a  young 
man  from  Bradford,  Yorkshire,  professing  with  the  Wesleyans, 
who  came  to  V.  D.  Land  under  an  apprehension  of  religious 
duty :  at  this  time  he  worked  as  a  journeyman  cabinet  maker 
three  days  in  the  week  for  his  support,  and  devoted  the  re- 
mainder of  his  time  to  religious  purposes. — ^We  made  calls 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

16  HOBART  TOWN.  [2nd  mo. 

on  several  persons  to  whom  we  had  letters  of  introduction^ 
and  engaged  a  lodging  in  Liverpool  Street^  near  the  entrance 
into  the  Government  Domain. — When  walking  in  the  town, 
my  companion  met  one  of  his  nephews,  whose  residence  was 
in  a  distant  part  of  the  island,  and  who  was  greatly  surprised 
to  see  his  relative,  having  had  no  notice  of  his  intention  to 
visit  this  part  of  the  world.  This  unexpected  interview  was 
mutually  agreeable ;  for  thus  far  from  home,  (and  every  one 
in  this  country  calls  his  native  land  Home)  the  mind  clings 
with  increased  attachment  to  every  tie  and  every  recollection. 

12th.  We  sat  down  together  to  wait  upon  the  Lord,  in  our 
own  sitting  room,  and  were  joined  by  the  captain  of  a  vessel 
who  had  lately  taken  some  of  the  Aborigines  to  Flinders 
Island,  where  they  are  provided  for  by  the  Government. — ^We 
continued  the  practice  of  holding  our  meetings-  for  worship, 
on  first  days  and  once  in  the  course  of  the  week,  for  a  consi- 
derable period  by  ourselves,  unless,  as  on  this  occasion,  any 
one  casually  stepped  in.  In  the  evening  we  accepted  an  invi- 
tation from  the  Lieut.  Governor,  to  take  tea  with  him  and  his 
family — a  numerous  and  interesting  group.  After  tea,  at  the 
request  of  the  Lieut.  Governor,  I  read  to  them  the  6th  chap- 
ter of  John,  the  servants  being  Ukewise  assembled  at  the 
evening  devotion  of  the  family ;  and  after  a  subsequent  pause, 
I  also  expressed  a  few  words,  on  the  importance  of  an  indivi- 
dual participation  in  the  bread  which  came  down  from  heaven, 
which  Christ  declared  to  be  his  flesh,  that  he  would  give  for 
the  life  of  the  world.  We  were  favoured  on  this  occasion, 
to  feel  comfort  from  the  Lord,  especially  in  a  short  interval 
of  silence,  which  terminated  in  vocal  prayer. 

15th.  The  little  vessel  which  we  saw  on  the  4th  instant, 
proved  to  be  the  Liberty,  she  arrived  at  Hobart  Town  yester- 
day: we  went  on  board  of  her  to  day,  and  learned  from  the 
captain  that  she  was  built  out  of  the  wreck  of  the  Betsy  and 
Sophia,  which  sailed  from  London  on  the  4th  of  the  6th 
month,  1831,  on  a  whaling  expedition,  and  which  had  gone 
to  the  Island  of  Desolation  or  Kerguelens  Land,  to  take  a 
kind  of  seal  called  the  Sea  Elephant :  she  had  nearly  com- 
pleted her  cargo  from  the  blubber  of  this  animal  and  that  of 
the  Black  Whale,  and  was  coming  out  of  one  of  the  bays^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  17 

when  she  unshipped  her  rudder^  and  in  spite  of  all  exertions, 

went  to  leeward  upon  the  rocks,  and  became  a  wreck :  the 

papers  and  stores  were  saved,  and  the  latter  were  sufficient 

to  serve  four  months ;   but  calculating  upon  the  uncertainty 

of  escaping  for  a  long  time  from  these  inhospitable  shores, 

the  men  immediately  took  to  the  scanty  allowance  of  2lbs 

of  biscuit  each,  with    about   4lbs.  of  pork  per  week,  for 

the  whole  nineteen  men ;   two  of  whom  had  been  brought 

from  Prince  Edward's  Island,  where  they  had  been  left  by 

the  captain  of  another  ship.      They  used  the  flesh  of  Sea 

Elephants  and  of  birds,  to  supply  the  deficiency  in  other 

food.     They  were  wrecked  on  the  16th  of  3rd  mo.  1831. 

After  being  on   the  island  about  a  month,   they  began  to 

build  their  little  vessel,  which  they  named  "  The  Liberty  ;*' 

and  in  which  fourteen  of  them  sailed  on  the  12th  of  the 

12th  mo.     Their  sufierings  made  many  of  them  thoughtful, 

and  they  kept  up  religious  service  on  board.     They  made 

this  voyage  in  the  latitude  of  44°  S.  and  had  plenty  of  wind. 

Three  times  they  had  heavy  gales,  but  their  little  bark,  which 

had  one  mast  and  was  about  twenty  tons  burden,  rode  so 

well  over  the  billows,  that  they  shipped  no  seas;    but  they 

had  almost  constantly  to  work  the  pumps.     They  leached 

Macquarie   Harbour,    on    the   west    coast   of   this    Island, 

when  they  had  only  6lbs.  of  biscuit  left.     It  was  late  when 

they  arrived  at  the  Penal  Settlement,  and  the  Commandant 

was  in  bed;    the   captain  therefore  remained  till  morning 

before    seeing   him,    but  was    furnished   with   comfortable 

accommodation.      When  he  awoke,   and  found  himself  in 

a   house,   he    said   it   was   long   before   he    could    realize 

his  situation,  or  be  sure  that  he  was  not  dreaming.     The 

Commandant  treated   this   crew  with   great  kindness,  and 

a    pious    minister    addressed    them    so    movingly    in    the 

chapel,  that  the  hardy  sailor  said,  f^  There  was  hardly  any 

body  there  that  did  not  cry. "    They  were  furnished  with  a 

plentiful  supply  of  provisions,  and   sailed   from  Macquarie! 

Harbour  on  the  4th  inst.  and  were  favoured  to  arrive  here  in 

good  health,  after  a  voyage  of  about  3,500  miles.     Five  men 

whom  they  left  on  the  island,  were  afraid  to  come  in  the 

Liberty ;    the   provision    and   ammunition   were    therefore 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

18  HOB  ART  TOWN.  [2nd  mo. 

divided  with  them.  A  vessel  was  afterwards  sent  firom 
V.  D.  Land;  to  bring  these  men  away^  but  they  had  been 
previously  taken  off  by  an  American  Whaler. 

16th.  We  went  on  board  the  Elizabeth^  in  company  with 
Captain  Forster^  the  chief  police  magistrate,  to  whom  we  had 
been  introduced  by  the  Governor,  and  witnessed  the  exami* 
nation  of  part  of  the  convicts,  just  arrived  from  England  in 
this  ship.  A  variety  of  questions  were  put  to  them  relating 
to  the  crimes  for  which  they  had  been  sentenced  to  transpor- 
tation, the  number  of  times  they  had  previously  been  appre- 
hended, the  causes  of  their  apprehension,  the  punishments 
they  had  received,  the  state  of  their  families,  what  their 
parents  were,  whether  they  could  read  or  write,  their  occu- 
pation, &c.  of  all  which  a  record  is  kept.  The  Government 
was  already  in  possession  of  information  on  many  of  these 
subjects,  but  further  particulars  are  often  elicited  after 
the  arrival  of  the  prisoners.  The  convicts  are  assigned  as 
servants  to  the  colonists,  and  the  vacancies  occasioned  by 
any  others  having  obtained  tickets-of-leave  are  first  sup- 
plied; the  rest  are  then  assigned  to  the  service  of  such 
as  apply  for  them,  except  in  cases  of  second  transporta- 
tion, When  they  are  mostly  sent  to  a  penal  settlement. — 
In  the  present  instance,  a  man  was  brought  out  a  second 
time;  but  on  account  of  his  having  behaved  well  on  the 
voyage,  and  some  other  circumstances  in  his  favour,  he  was 
ordered  by  the  Governor  into  a  chain-gang;  where,  if  he 
continue  to  improve,  he  will  after  a  certain  time  be  assigned 
to  private  service. 

Dr.  Martin,  the  Surgeon-superintendent,  who  came  out 
with  the  ship,  went  over  it  with  us  :  it  had  been  kept 
so  clean  and  well  ventilated,  that  it  was  perfectly  free 
from  unpleasant  smell,  notwithstanding  the  prisoners,  220 
in  number,  had  slept  in  it  last  night. — ^The  boys  were 
separated  from  the  men,  and  a  system  of  discipline  and 
instruction  was  pursued  amongst  them,  that  was  attended 
with  very  pleasing  results.  Some  of  the  convicts  were 
employed  by  the  Doctor  as  assistants  and  monitors.  Oat 
of  120  of  the  prisoners,  7^  could  not  read;  and  many  of 
them  seemed  never  to  have  had  any  care  bestowed  upon  them 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN  DIEMEN8  LAND.  19 

before.  Several  of  them  learned  to  read  and  write,  and 
improved  in  their  conduct  upon  the  passage. 

Dr.  Martin's  system  of  discipline  does  not  exclude  corporal 
punishment  in  extreme  cases ;  but  it  unites  firmness  with 
kindness,  and  such  an  appeal  to  the  convictions,  as  brings 
a  sense  of  its  justice  with  the  exercise  of  coercion.  The 
prisoners  of  good  behaviour,  particularly  the  boys,  were 
encouraged  by  a  reward,  of  a  little  more  time  on  deck  than 
the  others.  I  was  much  gratified  with  the  inspection  of  this 
ship :  it  in  no  degree  diminished  the  interest  I  have  felt  for 
this  degraded  part  of  the  human  family:  and  I  thought  it  very 
evident,  that  persons  coming  out  under  religious  impressions, 
might  be  very  useful  in  assisting  the  surgeons,  in  the  discharge 
of  the  important  duties  that  devolve  upon  them  in  convict 
vessels.  On  mentioning  my  views  to  Dr.  Martin,  he  said  he 
should  have  been  very  glad  of  such  help ;  and  I  apprehend 
such  would  be  the  general  feeling  of  the  surgeons  employed 
in  this  service.  It  is  impracticable  for  them  personally  to 
superintend  the  adults  and  the  boys  at  the  same  time,  when 
they  are  confined  in  separate  places. 

20th.  We  went  to  the  Penitentiary  to  see  the  convicts  from 
on  board  the  Elizabeth,  examined  by  the  Lieut.  Governor,  who 
spoke  to  several  of  them  individually:  he  alluded  to  the  degra- 
ded state  into  which  they  had  brought  themselves  by  their 
crimes ;  this  he  justly  compared  to  a  state  of  slavery ;  he  gave 
them  counsel  regarding  their  future  conduct,  warning  them 
particularly  against  the  influence  of  bad  company,  and  of 
drunkenness;  and  told  them  they  might  regard  the  door  of  a 
public  house,  through  which  many  of  them  had  come  into 
their  present  situation,  as  the  entrance  to  a  jail;  that  their  con- 
duct would  be  narrowly  watched,  and  if  it  should  be  bad,  they 
would  be  severely  punished,  putTto  work  in  a  chain-gang,  or 
sent  to  a  penal  settlement,  where  they  would  be  under  very 
severe  discipline;  or  their  career  might  be  terminated  on  the 
scaffold.  That,  on  the  contrary,  if  they  behaved  well,  they 
would  in  the  course  of  a  proper  time,  be  indulged  with  a 
ticket-of-leave,  which  would  permit  them  to  reap  the  profit 
of  their  own  labour :  that  if  they  should  still  persevere  in 
doing  well,  they  would  then  become  eligible  for  a  conditional 

c  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

20  HOBART  TOWN.  [2nd  mo. 

pardon^  which  would  give  them  the  liberty  of  the  colony : 
and  that  a  further  continuance  in  good  conduct,  would  open 
the  way  for  a  free  pardon,  which  would  liberate  those  who 
received  it,  to  return  to  their  native  land.  That  the  masters 
to  whom  they  were  assigned,  would  in  the  meantime,  provide 
them  a  sufficiency  of  food,  clothing,  and  bedding ;  and  that 
the  Government  expected  them  to  labour  for  their  masters 
without  wages,  and  to  do  it  cheerfully. 

After  the  Lieut.  Governor  had  concluded,  I  begged  leave 
to  say  a  few  words,  and  my  request  was  readily  granted. 
I  endeavoured  to  enforce  what  the  Governor  had  said, 
pointing  out  its  bearing  upon  their  immortal  interests ;  also 
directing  their  attention  to  their  own  experience,  in  regard  to 
the  cause  of  the  sins  for  which  they  stood  convicted  before  a 
human  tribunal,  and  of  many  others,  of  which  they  were 
guilty  in  the  sight  of  God,  at  whose  judgment-seat  they  must 
all  stand.  This  cause,  I  suggested  to  them,  was  their  neg- 
lecting to  confer  with  their  own  consciences,  and  I  recom- 
mended them  to  the  daily  exercise  of  this  duty,  in  order  that 
they  might  understand  their  need  of  the  help  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  to  resist  sin,  and  of  the  atonement  of  a  Saviour  for 
pardon,  and  thus  be  prepared  to  pray  for  help  and  pardon 
in  the  name  of  Jesus,  who  came  to  save  men^om  their  sins, 
and  not  in  them ;  and  in  order  that  they  might  keep  these 
things  in  remembrance,  I  recommended  them  daily  to  read 
their  Bibles. 

Several  of  the  convicts  who  arrived  by  the  Elizabeth,  had 
belonged  to  a  society  of  thieves  in  London,  who  limited 
their  number  to  forty  members,  admitted  by  their  captain, 
at  any  age,  but  preferring  the  young.  They  were  distin- 
guished by  marks,  which  had  occasionally  been  changed 
because  others  had  imitated  them.  They  met  at  certain 
times  to  be  trained  to  expertness  in  pocket-picking,  and  to 
divide  their  booty,  which  was  expended  in  dissipation  and 
profligacy,  unless  any  of  their  number  were  in  prison ;  in 
which  case  a  portion  was  devoted  to  paying  counsel  for  them 
on  their  trial.  Several  other  such  societies  are  said  to 
exist  in  the  metropolis  of  England.  Some  of  the  juvenile 
prisoners  had  been  confined  on  board  a  hulk  before  being 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  21 

sent  to  V.  D.  Land.  In  this  situation  they  appeared  to 
have  corrupted  each  other  greatly.  There  is  much  ground 
to  apprehend  that  the  juvenile  hulks  are  nurseries  of  vice 
and  crime. 

22nd.  I  had  some  conversation  with  a  person  who  was 
brought  to  the  Colony  in  1804,  at  the  time  that  Lieut. 
Governor  Collins  first  formed  a  settlement  in  V.  D.  Land. 
At  that  period  she  was  but  a  child;  and  on  landing  was 
lodged  with  some  others  under  a  blanket  supported  by  sticks, 
near  the  place  where  the  Commissariat-office  now  stands  in 
Hobart  Town,  which  at  that  time  was  covered  with  wood. 
After  spending  a  night  there,  they  were  removed  to  the  spot 
where  the  village  of  New  Town  now  stands,  and  lodged  in  a 
hollow  tree.  Here  they  were  first  visited  by  the  Aborigines, 
with  whom  the  children  were  often  left,  and  who  treated  them 
kindly.  Provisions  becoming  scarce,  the  people  often  cooked 
maritime  plants  collected  on  the  sea  shore,  which  bear  to 
this  day,  the  name  of  Botany  Bay  Greens.  Sometimes  they 
collected  for  food  the  crap  or  refuse  of  the  blubber  of  whales^ 
out  of  which  the  oil  had  been  taken  by  whaling  vessels^ 
and  which  was  washed  up  on  the  shores.  At  length  the 
pressure  of  hunger  was  so  great,  as  to  oblige  the  Governor  to 
give  leave  to  some  of  the  convicts,  to  go  into  the  country  and 
shift  for  themselves.  Many  of  these  committed  outrages 
upon  the  natives,  whose  animosity  toward  the  white  people 
thus  became  excited  at  an  early  period,  notwithstanding 
many  years  elapsed  before  they  were  in  open  hostilty. 

23rd.  We  visited  the  House  of  Correction  for  females, 
termed  the  Factory,  a  considerable  building  of  several  wards, 
with  apartments  for  the  Superintendent,  and  a  chapel.  It 
contains  about  230  prisoners,  who  are  employed  in  picking 
and  spinning  wool,  and  in  washing  for  the  Hospital,  Orphan- 
school,  &c.  Most  of  the  inmates  sleep  in  hammocks,  and 
every  thing  about  the  place  is  very  clean.  On  being  sent 
hither  for  misconduct,  the  women  are  dressed  in  a  prison 
garb  and  have  their  hair  cut  off,  which  they  esteem  a  great 
punishment ;  and  in  some  cases  they  are  subjected  to  solitary 

25th.   We  occupied  a  little  leisure  by  a  walk  to  one  of  the 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

22  HOBART  TOWN.  [2nd  mo. 

woody  hills  near  the  town,  which  was  clothed  with  the  Gum 
trees — species  of  Eucalt/pttut — of  large  size,  having  foliage 
somewhat  like  willows,  and  growing  among  grass  and 
small  shrubs.  Many  trees  were  lying  on  the  ground, 
and  in  various  stages  of  decay.  Smaller  trees,  called  here 
Honey  Suckle,  She  Oak,  Cherry  Tree,  and  Wattle,  wfere 
interspersed  among  the  others,  and  the  ground  was  decorated 
with  Leptospermam  scopariumy  Cornea  virena,  Indigofera 
australisy  and  Epacris  impressa ;  the  last  of  which  resembles 
heath  with  white,  pink,  or  crimson  flowers.  The  trees  in 
this  country  often  bear  the  name  of  others  belonging  to 
the  Northern  Hemisphere.  Thus  the  Honey-suckle  of  the 
Australian  regions  is  generally  some  species  of  Banksia, 
often  resembling  a  fir  in  growth,  but  having  foliage  more 
like  a  holly ;  and  the  Cherry-tree  is  an  Exocarpos — a 
leafless,  green,  cypress-like  bush,  with  small  red  or  white 
fruit,  bearing  the  stone  outside ! — ^The  vallies  here  are  termed 
gullies.  In  one  of  these  we  set  up  from  among  some  dead 
wood,  two  Opossums  and  some  animals  called  Bandicoots, 
both  about  the  size  of  rabbits.  Some  pretty  birds  were 
sporting  among  the  branches,  gay  butterflies  fluttering  among 
the  flowers,  and  a  Mole-cricket,  enlivened  by  a  recent  shower, 
was  merrily  chirping  in  the  ground.  Grasshoppers  with  wings 
of  black  and  yellow  were  very  numerous,  so  as  to  be  injurious 
to  vegetation ;  and  among  the  rocks,  and  on  the  trunks  of 
trees,  little  dark  lizards  were  plentiful,  basking  in  the  clear 

26th.  We  visited  a  chain-gang  of  upwards  of  100  prisoners, 
at  Bridgewater,  11  miles  from  Hobart  Town;  they  were  em- 
ployed under  the  superintendence  of  a  military  officer,  in 
making  a  raised  causeway  across  a  muddy  flat  in  the  Derwent, 
and  were  generally  in  good  health,  notwithstanding  the  water 
here  is  not  of  the  best  quality ;  but  like  much  in  the  colony, 
contains  a  large  quantity  of  alamine.  A  guard  of  soldiers 
under  arms  stood  over  the  prisoners  while  we  addressed  them 
in  the  barrack  yard.  They  were  quiet  and  attentive,  and  we 
were  well  satisfied  in  having  gone  to  see  them. 

27th.  We  walked  to  the  Government-garden,  which  is 
situated  on  the  beautiful  banks  of  the  Derwent,  about  a  mile 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN  DlEliRNS  L.AND.  23 

from  the  town,  and  comprises  several  acres^  enclosed  with  a 
wall,  except  on  the  side  next  the  river.  The  climate  is 
almost  too  cold  for  grapes  and  cucumbers,  but  apples,  pears, 
quinces,  mulberries,  and  walnuts,  succeed  better  than  in 
England.  Oaks,  ashes,  and  sycamores,  raised  from  English 
seed,  attain  to  three  or  four  feet  the  first  year.  Bees  have  been 
lately  introduced :  the  first  hive  swarmed  sixteen  times  this 
summer !  Many  of  the  little  shrubs  which  ornament  English 
greenhouses  are  natives  of  this  country,  so  that  the  gardens 
here  have  the  advantage  of  having  them  in  the  open  ground; 
and  to  these  are  added  several  from  Africa  and  New-South- 
Wales  :  here  also  are  some  fine,  young  Norfolk  Island  Pines. 
28th«  We  looked  into  the  King's  School,  conducted  on 
the  National  School  plan ;  in  which  there  are  upwards  of 
forty  boys,  who  pay  from  4d.  to  Is.  a  week,  but  attend 
irregularly. — ^The  inefficiency  of  this  school  occasioned  it  to 
be  subsequently  remodelled  under  a  more  efficient  teacher. — 
In  a  walk  in  the  evening,  on  a  partially  cleared  hill,  in  the 
environs  of  the  town,  we  had  conversation  with  several 
assigned  prisoners,  who  were  breaking  up  plots  of  ground 
for  their  respective  masters.  On  remarking  to  one  of  them, 
that  he  had  perhaps  found  his  way  to  this  country  ^^  through 
the  door  of  a  public-hotise  :^'  he  replied  with  some  feeling, 
"  You  say  right ;  and'  if  I  had  known  sooner  what  I  know 
now,  perhaps  I  should  not  have  come  here  at  all.'^  Another 
said,  with  an  expression  of  pleasure,  that  on  his  way  out,  he 
had  learned  to  read  the  Testament,  and  that  he  thought  he 
could  read  the  tracts  we  had  given  him.  Another,  that  he 
had  lately  become  aware  of  his  danger  from  sin,  and  was 
now  seeking  peace.  On  the  remark  being  made,  that  peace 
was  offered  to  man  on  the  condition  of  repentance  toward 
God,  and  faith  toward  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ;  and  that  when 
it  was  obtained,  the  help  of  the  Holy  Spirit  must  be  sought, 
for  ability  to  walk  in  the  right  way,  he  added,  ^^  Yes,  and  we 
must  not  grieve  the  Holy  Spirit.^*  One  of  these  men  became 
pious,  and  after  some  years  made  a  profession  with  the 
Society  of  Friends  :  he  subsequently  became  free,  and 
continued  to  conduct  himself  creditably  to  his  religious 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

24  NEW  NORFOLK.  [2nd  mo. 

29th.  We  walked  to  Elizabeth  Town,  usually  called  New 
Norfolk,  in  consequence  of  a  number  of  persons,  formerly 
residing  on  Norfolk  Island,  being  settled  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. The  distance  from  Hobart  Town  is  about  22  miles,  by 
the  road,  which  is  a  pretty  good  one  for  carriages ;  and,  which 
passing  through  the  little  villages  of  New  Town,  O'Briens 
Bridge,  and  Glenorchy,  winds  under  the  mountains  by  the 
side  of  the  Derwent,  which  retains  the  appearance  of  a  chain 
of  picturesque  lakes  most  of  the  way.  It  is  navigable  for 
small  vessels  to  New  Norfolk,  where  it  is  about  as  wide  as 
the  Thames  at  Battersea.  The  mountains  are  clothed  with 
wood;  but  in  many  places  the  timber  is  not  so  thick 
as  to  exclude  the  growth  of  grass.  Some  narrow  flats  of 
good  land,  partially  cultivated,  occur  near  the  river.  The 
rocks  exposed  by  cutting  the  road  are  basalt  and  sand- 
stone, or  more  dense  silicious  formations,  and  limestone 
imbedding  marine  fossils.  A  considerable  piece  of  road  has 
been  recently  cut  near  New  Norfolk,  by  a  chain-gang, 
stationed  in  three  poor  looking  huts,  into  one  of  which  we 
stepped,  to  give  the  men  a  few  tracts.  They  were  without 
Bibles,  which  one  of  them  remarked,  they  might  often  spend 
half  an  hour  advantageously  in  reading.  This  we  represented 
to  one  of  the  Episcopal  Chaplains  of  the  Colony,  who  caused 
the  deficiency  to  be  supplied,  and  placed  some  copies  of  the 
Scriptures  at  our  disposal,  to  apply  in  other  cases  of  need. 
Evening  closed  in,  very  dark,  before  we  reached  our  destina- 
tion, and  the  noise  of  strange  birds,  lizards  and  frogs, 
became  great,  and  very  striking  to  an  English  ear.  We 
passed  several  neat  farm  houses,  and  some  decent  inns  on 
the  way,  and  at  the  end  of  our  journey  found  accommodation 
at  the  Bush  Inn,  little  inferior  to  that  of  decent  inns,  a  step 
below  first-rate,  in  England. 

3rd  mo.  1st.  The  site  of  New  Norfolk  is  so  laid  out,  that 
the  streets  will  cross  at  right  angles.  The  houses  were  at 
this  time  about  thirty  in  number,  exclusive  of  an  Episcopal 
place  of  worship  and  an  unfinished  hospital.  We  visited  the 
latter,  which  contained  about  forty  patients,  under  the  super- 
intendence of  one  of  the  Colonial  Surgeons.  We  also  visited 
a  respectable  boarding-school,  of  about  twenty  fine  looking 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENg    LAND.  25 

boys,  kept  by  a  yoimg  man  with  whose  family  I  was  ac- 
quainted in  England. 

2nd.  We  returned  to  Hobart  Town,  calling  at  a  few  small 
cottages  on  the  Sorell-rivulet ;  where  we  reasoned  with  the 
occupants  on  ^^  temperance,  righteousness,  and  judgment  to 
come.*'  Learning  that  there  was  ^^  a  marked  tree  road,*'  or  a 
way  through  *'the  bush,**  as  the  forest  is  termed  in  this 
country,  marked  by  pieces  of  bark  being  chopped  oflF  the 
sides  of  trees,  we  ventured  to  take  it ;  and  though  the  dis- 
tance was  five  miles,  and  it  was  extremely  hilly  and  rough, 
the  variety  was  pleasant.  Some  of  the  species  of  Gum-tree 
have  deciduous  bark,  and  consequently  white  trunks ;  these 
are  generally  blackened  at  the  base  by  fire,  that  has  been 
kindled  to  clear  off  the  underwood  and  long-grass,  at  various 
intervals ;  long  strips  of  bark  hang  from  the  branches,  and 
great  numbers  of  dying  and  dead  trees,  the  wreck  of  ages,  lie 
on  the  ground  in  these  forests.  The  only  quadruped  we  saw 
was  an  Opossum.  A  fiock  of  Black  Cockatoos  were  scream- 
ing and  tearing  off  the  bark  from  dead  trees,  to  obtain  the 
grubs  on  which  they  feed.  Near  the  main  road,  a  prisoner 
was  at  work  splitting  the  wood  of  the  Peppermint-tree,  a 
species  of  EticalyptuSy  into  posts  and  rails :  he  was  one  who, 
as  well  as  his  master  and  family,  had  been  recently  awakened 
to  the  inportance  of  eternal  things,  by  the  labours  of  John 
Lieach,  and  belonged  to  a  little  congregation  of  Wesleyans,  at 
O'Briens  Bridge.  The  warmth  of  feeling  of  the  master  was 
like  that  described  by  the  apostle  Paul,  in  some  of  the  early 
converts  to  Christianity;  who,  he  says,  ^^If  it  had  been 
possible,  would  have  plucked  out  their  own  eyes,  and  given 
them  to  him.** 

5th.  Apprehending  it  would  be  right  for  us  to  take  the 
first  opportunity  of  visiting  the  penal  settlement,  at  Mac- 
quarie  Harbour,  we  conferred  with  the  Lieut.  Governor,  on 
the  subject,  and  received  his  sanction. — 6th.  We  accom- 
panied the  Lieut.  Governor  to  the  Old  Orphan  School,  and 
to  an  unfinished  building,  designed  for  the  better  accommoda- 
tion of  this  institution.  The  latter  is  prettily  situated  near 
New-town,  and  is  intended  for  about  six  hundred  children. 

On  the  7th,  we  went  to  New  Norfolk  by  a  coach,  which 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

26  COUNTRY.  [3rd  mo. 

changed  horses  at  the  Black  Snake  Inn^  on  the  road ;  and  on 
the  8th,  accompanied  by  Robert  Officer,  the  surgeon  in  charge 
of  the  Hospital,  made  calls  on  several  of  the  inhabitants, 
and  visited  a  Government  School  at  the  Back  River.  On 
the  9th,  we  accompanied  George  Dixon,  an  old  school-fellow 
of  mine,  and  three  of  his  nieces,  to  his  house  at  Green 
Valley,  on  the  Lower  Clyde,  travelling  twenty  seven  miles 
on  foot,  by  the  side  of  a  little  cart,  drawn  by  four  oxen 
and  driven  by  a  prisoner,  and  proceeding  at  the  rate  of 
about  two  miles  and  a  half  per  hour,  along  a  road,  a  large 
part  of  which  was  a  mere  cart  track.  Much  of  the  country 
was  settled :  it  consisted  of  hills,  generally  covered  with  open 
grassy  forest,  and  interspersed  with  little  patches  of  cultivated 
ground.  In  locations  of  land  of  two  or  three  thousand  acres, 
it  is  seldom  that  as  many  hundreds  have  been  tilled.  Large 
portions  are  of  woody  and  rocky  hills  that  cannot  be  ploughed, 
but  on  which  sheep  feed.  In  this  country,  these  animals  keep 
in  good  health  in  the  woods,  the  climate  being  exceedingly 
drj\  Where  the  ground  is  free  from  timber,  the  grass  is  in 
tufts,  often  not  covering  more  than  one-third  of  the  surface. 

On  the  way  we  looked  into  a  school  near  Macquarie 
Plains,  and  called  at  the  huts  of  a  chain-gang,  employed  at 
a  place  called  the  Deep  GuUey,  in  cutting  a  point  of  land,  so 
as  to  admit  the  road  to  pass  by  the  side  of  the  Derwent.  At 
this  place  coal  is  visible,  in  narrow  strata  alternating  with 
sandstone  and  shale.  On  Macquarie  Plains  we  called  on 
John  Terry,  an  emigrant  from  Yorkshire,  who  has  a  com 
mill  at  New  Norfolk,  and  who  was  here  shearing  his  sheep. 
He  is  a  scrupulously  honest  man,  who  left  England  at  a  time 
when  farmers  were  suffering  adversity,  and  notwithstanding 
many  difficulties  that  he  has  had  to  contend  with,  he  thinks 
his  circumstances  have  been  greatly  improved  by  the  change. 
A  few  miles  beyond  his  cottage  is  the  Woolpack  Inn ;  the 
sitting-room  of  which  would  not  disgrace  a  market  town  in 
England.  We  called  also  at  the  hut  of  a  Scotchman,  to  get 
a  drink  of  water,  no  more  being  to  be  had  for  nine  miles. 
Here  we  met  a  person  of  our  acquaintance,  who,  like  many 
other  young  men,  on  first  arriving  in  the  colony,  was  too 
much  excited  with  the  notion  of  shooting  Kangaroos  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

.  I 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

s'.l    .      -v.      .:,..    a:-.. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN  DIBMENS  LAND.  27 

Parrots,  to  settle  down  at  once  to  some  useful  occupation. 
In  the  course  of  this  excursion  for  amusement,  he  sustained 
an  injury  by  falling  from  a  horse,  that  long  disabled  him 
from  earning  a  livelihood.  Pursuing  our  route  over  low  hills, 
some  clear  of  wood  and  others  covered  with  Black  Wattle, 
Acacia  qffinis,  yielding  a  gmn  like  Gum  Arabic,  we  at  length 
reached  Green  Valley,  where  we  received  a  hearty  greeting 
from  Agnes  Dixon,  a  native  of  Lewis,  one  of  the  Western 
Islands  of  Scotland,  who  soon  prepared  a  refreshing  cup  of 
tea;  after  which,  we  gladly  resigned  our  weary  limbs  and 
blistered  feet  to  rest. 

Geoi^e  Dixon  emigrated  to  this  colony  eleven  years  ago, 
he  was  trained  to  agricultural  pursuits,  and  has  brought  a  por- 
tion of  his  location  of  land  into  cultivation,  both  in  the  growth 
of  wheat  and  other  grain  ;  he  has  also  formed  a  good  garden, 
which  is  weU  stocked  with  fruit  trees  and  has  a  Hawthorn 
hedge.  The  common  fences  of  the  country  are  formed  of  logs, 
branches,  or  posts  and  rails.  His  house  is  built  of  split  wat- 
tles, plastered  and  whitewashed,  the  roof  projecting  in  front 
and  resting  on  wooden  pillars  so  as  to  form  a  verandah,  a  com- 
mon style  of  building  in  this  country.  The  house  consists  of 
two  front  rooms  with  boarded  floors,  and  two  behind, — a 
kitchen  and  store  room, — ^floored  with  stone.  His  land  con- 
sists of  basaltic  hills  with  grassy  forest,  and  he  has  about  a 
mile  of  frontage  on  the  Clyde,  which  at  this  season  of  the 
year  is  little  more  than  a  chain  of  pools — called  here  lagoons 
— of  various  length  and  depth,  and  about  30  ft.  in  width. 
In  winter  this  becomes  a  considerable  river.  Some  parts  of  its 
banks  are  open,  others  bushy,  and  some  rocky.  In  one  place 
a  rock  like  a  steeple  stands  between  a  cliff  and  the  margin  of 
the  river ;  this  is  depicted  in  the  annexed  etching,  which  pre- 
sents also  a  fair  representation  of  the  woody  hills  of  Tasmania, 
and  their  white  barked  Gum-trees.  G.  Dixon^s  shepherd  is  a 
prisoner,  but  a  man  of  religious  sensibility:  he  became  a 
thief  from  the  influence  of  intoxicating  drink,  but  does  not 
shew  any  dishonesty  when  he  abstains :  he  had  a  ticket-of- 
leave,  but  lost  it,  in  consequence  of  being  persuaded  to  drink 
a  glass  of  porter,  which  immediately  revived  his  thieving 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

28  BOTHWELL    AND    HAMILTON.  [3rd  mO. 

We  remained  in  the  district  of  the  Clyde,  which  is  a 
branch  of  the  Derwent,  till  the  19th,  and  in  the  course  of 
this  time  visited  the  recently  iaid-out  towns  of  Bothwell,  on 
the  upper,  and  Hamilton,  on  the  lower  part  of  the  river,  as 
well  as  many  of  the  settlers  in  the  surrounding  country,  and 
on  another  branch  of  the  Derwent,  called  the  Ouse. 

Bothwell  has  already  a  small  Episcopal  place  of  worship, 
built  of  stone,  an  inn  of  two  stories,  of  brick,  about  thirty 
houses,  of  wood,  and  a  small  jail,  of  the  same  material. 
Several  of  the  settlers  in  the  vicinity  are  persons  of  respec- 
tability from  various  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom ;  a  few  of 
them  are  remarkable  for  their  piety :  two  have  water-mills  a 
little  above  the  town.  Hamilton,  at  this  time  consisted  of  a 
water-mill  and  about  ten  houses,  occupied  chiefly  by  artizans 
of  various  kinds,  who  are  a  great  accommodation  to  the 
settlers  of  the  surrounding  district ;  and  such  of  them  as  are 
sober  and  industrious  make  a  respectable  livelihood. 

The  country  about  Bothwell  is  hilly.  Basalt  is  the  pre- 
vailing rock,  but  some  of  the  hills  are  sandstone ;  and  near 
the  river  in  a  place  below  the  town,  the  sandstone  forms 
projections ;  under  which,  prisoners  who  had  escaped  into 
the  woods,  and  who  in  this  country  are  termed  Bush-rangers, 
formerly  found  concealment.  These  people  plundered  the 
settlers  and  committed  other  outrages ;  but  most  of  these 
outlaws  have  been  captured  or  shot.  Many  of  the  hills  about 
Hamilton  are  also  basaltic,  some  of  them  are  remarkably  red, 
and  bare  of  wood  at  the  top,  which  is  often  of  a  vivid  green, 
from  being  covered  with  Chick-weed  of  the  same  species  that 
is  troublesome  in  the  gardens  of  England.  She-oak — Casual 
rina  qiiadrivalviSy  is  the  prevailing  tree  on  these  hills:  it 
seldom  grows  in  contact :  its  trunk  is  about  10  ft.  high,  and 
5  ft.  round;  its  head  spherical,  10  or  15  ft.  in  diameter, 
and  consisting  of  pendulous,  leafless,  green,  jointed  twigs, 
resembling  horse-tail  weed.  From  the  neighbourhood  of 
Hamilton  a  range  of  rocky  mountains  is  visible  to  the  west, 
beyond  which  the  country  is  high  and  little  known,  and 
toward  the  centre  of  the  island,  a  high  craggy  mountain, 
called  the  Peak  of  TeneriflFe,  is  very  conspicuous.*  Among 
the  hills,  and  on  the  tops  of  some  of  them  are  level  tracts. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  29 

which  bear  the  name  of  marshes  or  plains^  but  the  ktter 
term  is  often  used  in  Tasmania  to  signify  lands  clear  of 
trees,  even  where  the  surface  is  far  from  level. 

When  a  place  is  first  occupied  by  a  settler,  a  hut  of  the 
simplest  kind  is  formed,  often  like  a  mere  roof  resting  on  the 
ground ;  and  when  other  needful  things  have  been  effected, 
one  of  upright  logs  is  built,  and  covered  with  shingles.  This 
is  usually  divided  into  two  rooms ;  one  of  which  is  fitted  up 
with  broad  rough  shelves,  for  sleeping  berths;  and  the  other, 
which  has  a  square  recess  for  a  fireplace,  built  of  stones, 
at  the  outer  end,  and  continued  into  a  rude  chimney  a  little 
higher  than  the  roof,  is  used  for  a  cooking  and  sitting  room. 
The  crevices  between  the  logs  either  remain  open,  or  are  filled 
with  wool  or  some  other  material.  A  square  opening,  closing 
with  a  shutter,  admits  light  into  each  room,  and  short  logs  of 
wood  or  rude  benches,  serve  for  seats.  Many  families  that 
have  been  brought  up  in  England  in  respectable  circum- 
stances, live  for  several  years  in  a  hut  of  this  description, 
until  they  can  find  time  and  means  to  build  themselves  a 
better  habitation ;  and  a  hut  of  this  kind  is  generally  to  be 
seen  contiguous  to  a  better  house,  and  is  occupied  by  the 
male  servants,  who  are  mostly  prisoners. 

Perhaps  a  chief  reason  why  some  persons  make  a  better 
livelihood  here  than  in  England,  is,  because  they  submit  to 
live  at  a  much  smaller  expense.  The  original  settlers  having 
had  free  grants  of  land,  subject  only  to  a  quit-rent,  had  also 
no  rent  to  pay ;  but  no  free  grants  of  land  are  now  made. 
The  lowest  sum  for  which  land  is  sold  by  the  Government  is 
£5  per  acre.  Although  convict  servants  are  sentenced  to  work 
without  wages,  they  cost  a  settler  in  one  way  or  another,  from 
£20  to  £25  a  year,  including  maintenance,  clothing,  &c. 

Agricultural  operations  are  carried  on  in  this  country  by 
means  of  oxen,  horses  being  scarce.  Cattle  are  bred  in  the 
bush,  where  they  become  very  wild.  Many  of  the  settlers  are 
expert  in  hunting  them  into  enclosures,  and  subduing  them  to 
the  yoke.  Brush  Kangaroos  are  numerous  here  on  the  more 
woody  hills  3  and  the  Vulpine  Opossum — the  Common 
Opossum  of  this  land — ^abounds.  Both  are  injurious  to  the 
com.    The  Opossums  live  in  holes  in  the  Gum-trees^  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

30  OREBN  VALLEY.  [3rd  mo. 

feed  chiefly  on  their  leaves :  they  are  shot  in  considerable 
numbers  on  moonlight  nights  to  diminish  them^  and  for 
the  sake  of  their  fur,  which  is  very  thick  and  warm. 
When  shot  they  sometimes  hang  by  their  prehensile  tails^ 
by  which  they  can  lay  firm  hold  of  a  branch.  While 
warm^  their  fur  readily  comes  off^  but  it  becomes  fast  when 
they  are  cold.  The  skins  sell  for  about  four  pence 
each^  and  are  blacky  brown^  or  grey.  Birds  of  various 
kinds  also  abound  in  this  country ;  among  them  may  be 
enumerated  Green  Parrots,  that  are  great  pests  in  gardens^ 
Nonpareil  Parrots,  that  are  very  troublesome  in  corn  fields, 
and  pick  about  on  the  roads.  Green  Paroquets,  that  frequent 
farm  yards.  Lemon-crested  Cockatoos,  which  are  likewise  a 
great  annoyance  to  the  farmer,  several  species  of  Crow 
and  Magpie,  also  the  Wattle-bird,  the  Miner,  the  Wedge- 
tailed  Eagle,  &c.  The  Emu  is  now  extinct  in  this  part  of 
the  island. 

In  the  course  of  one  of  our  walks,  we  passed  the  remains 
of  a  hut  that  was  burnt  about  two  years  ago,  by  the 
Aborigines  of  the  Ouse  or  Big  River  district.  An  old  man 
named  Clark  lost  his  life  in  it,  but  a  young  woman  escaped ; 
she  rushed  from  the  fire  and  fell  on  her  knees  before  the 
natives,  one  of  whom  extinguished  the  flames  which  had 
caught  her  clothes,  and  beckoned  to  her  to  go  away. 
They  killed  a  woman  on  the  hill  behind  the  hut.  A  few 
weeks  after,  they  surrounded  the  house  of  G.  Dixon,  who 
received  a  spear  through  his  thigh,  in  running  from  a  bam 
to  his  house.  Previously  to  this  period,  the  natives  had  vi- 
sited this  neighbourhood  peaceably  and  excited  no  alarm. 
They  have  now  been  removed  to  Flinders  Island;  but  a 
detachment  of  soldiers,  such  as  was  placed  in  various  situar> 
tions  to  defend  the  settlers  against  the  Aborigines,  still 
remains  at  Elengowen,  near  the  house  of  a  fine  old  Scotch 
woman,  named  Jacobina  Bums;  who  emigrated  from  her 
own  country  many  years  ago,  and  has  induced  several  of  her 
relatives  to  follow  her.  She  has  improved  her  circumstances, 
and  is  noted  for  hospitality,  which  is  indeed  a  very  general 
virtue  among  the  settlers  in  this  land. 

While  at  Green  Valley,  walking  alone,  and  meditating  on 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN  DIBMENS  LAND.  31 

the  clear  evidence  I  had  had  of  its  being  my  religions  duty  to 
visit  this  part  of  the  worlds  for  many  years  before  the  right 
time  seemed  to  be  come  for  me  to  set  out,  and  querying 
within  myself  as  to  how  we  should  proceed^  so  as  to  be  found 
acting  in  accordance  with  the  divine  will,  the  words  ^^Go 
through  the  breadth  of  the  land/^  were  impressed  on  my  mind 
with  such  authority  as  left  no  doubt  but  this  was  the  counsel 
of  the  Lord,  mercifully  granted  for  our  direction.  For  the 
Lord  still  condescends  to  lead  about  and  instruct  those  who 
put  their  trust  in  him ;  notwithstanding  it  may  seldom  be  by 
impressions  exactly  of  this  kind ;  but  more  frequently  by  a 
constraining  sense  of  his  will  independent  of  any  distinct 
form  of  words,  or  by  the  overruling  of  his  providence. 

3rd  mo.  19th,  we  visited  a  little  agricultural  settlement 
called  the  Hollow  Tree,  and  a  place  named  Cockatoo  Valley, 
celebrated  for  the  fineness  of  its  timber,  which  is  chiefly  of 
the  kinds  called  Stringy-bark  and  Peppermint.  Some  saw- 
yers were  at  work  here.  Their  hut  was  entirely  built  of  large 
slabs  of  bark,  which  are  obtained  from  several  species  of  Eu- 
calyptMSi  and  serve  many  useful  purposes.  At  the  Wool- 
pack  Inn,  in  returning  toward  Hobart  Town,  we  obtained 
beds  made  up  on  wooden  sofas,  for  the  use  of  each  of  which 
two  shillings  a  night  was  charged,  this  also  was  the  price  of 
each  of  our  meals. 

20th.  The  mornings  are  cold  at  this  autumnal  season,  but 
mid-day  is  as  warm  as  an  English  summer.  Numbers  of 
Piping  Crows  called  also  White  Magpies,  were  hopping  about 
near  the  inn,  and  raising  their  whistling  notes  to  each  other 
at  an  early  hour,  and  the  chattering  of  Miners,  Wattle  birds. 
Black  Magpies,  and  Paroquets  was  very  enlivening  to  us  on  our 
journey.  On  the  way  to  New  Norfolk,  which  we  reached  in 
time  for  the  coach  to  Hobart  Town,  we  had  interviews  with 
the  Deep-guUey-road-gang,  in  three  detachments;  whose 
attention  we  called  to  the  end  of  their  being,  the  incapacity 
of  persons  whose  affections  are  estranged  from  Grod,  and  set 
on  carnal  things,  to  enjoy  heaven,  and  the  consequent  ne- 
cessity of  being  bom  again  of  the  Spirit,  by  yielding  to  its 
convictions,  which  produce  repentance  toward  God  and  faith 
toward  Jesus  Christ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hobart  Town. — Pious  FerBons. — Penitentiary. — ^Temperance  Society. — ^Klngs 
Pits. — Shrubs. — Fern  Valley. — School  Meeting. — Voyage  to  Macquarie  Har- 
bour.—Prison  Ship. — Piracy  of  the  Cypress. — Prisoners. — Loss  of  the  Science. 
— Fish.  — Penguin.  —  Storm. — Port  Davey. — Cockatoos. — Land  Lobster. — 
Excursions. — Sharks. — Swearing. — Storm. — Sea  Fowl. — ^Entrance  of  Mac- 
quarie Harbour.  -. 

We  remained  in  Hobart  Town  till  the  7th  of  5  th  month ; 
and  were  much  occupied  in  putting  religious  tracts  and  books 
into  circulation^  visiting  the  prisons^  conversing  with  various 
persons^  on  the  eternal  interests  of  man^  and  holding  or  at- 
tending meetings  for  the  promotion  of  religion  and  morality. 
During  this  period  we  became  acquainted  with  several 
pious  persons;  one  of  whom.  Captain  William  Jacob,  from 
India,  was  temporarily  residing  in  this  island,  on  account  of 
his  health ;  Van  Diemens  Land  being  much  resorted  to  by  in- 
valids from  India,  and  often  with  great  benefit,  from  its  fine, 
dry,  salubrious  climate.  Another,  was  a  drummer^  who  went 
into  the  army  at  fourteen  years  of  age,  and  had  remained  in 
it  fourteen  years.  He  said  he  had  spent  much  of  his  time  in 
sin,  but  had  now  learned  the  value  of  his  Bible,  and  was 
glad  when  opportunity  oflFered,  to  retire  into  the  bush  to 
read  it  alone  :  he  had  found  peace  of  mind  through  faith  in 
Christ,  but  was  in  a  situation  requiring  great  watchfulness,  to 
retain  the  sense  of  the  Divine  presence  being  with  him.  Ano- 
ther, was  a  young  man,  who,  when  in  London,  sometimes 
stepped  into  Friends'  Meeting  House,  in  White  Hart  Court ; 
where  a  solemn  feeling  pervaded  his  mind,  without  his 
knowing  from  whence  it  arose;  but  as  he  supposed  the 
congregation    while   sitting   in    silence,   were   exercised  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBMEN8    LAND.  33 

examining  the  state  of  their  own  hearts  before  the  Lord,  he 
endeavoured  to  be  similarly  occupied. 

We  several  times  visited  the  prisoners  in  the  Penitentiary, 
who  assembled  for  religious  purposes  in  a  mess-room  accom- 
modating about  450  at  a  time:  their  quietness  and  attention 
were  very  striking;  notwithstanding  many  of  them  wore 
chains,  the  least  clink  was  rarely  to  be  heard ;  many  of  them 
appeared  truly  grateful  for  a  little  religious  counsel  extended 
in  Christian  sympathy. 

The  Penitentiary  contains  upwards  of  600  prisoners  : 
it  is  the  great  receptacle  of  convicts  on  their  arrival  in  the 
Colony  :  those  returned  from  assigned  service  for  mis- 
conduct, or  other  causes,  are  also  sent  here  ;  and  those 
•retained  for  some  of  the  public-works  are  likewise  lodged  in 
this  place.  Considering  the  class  of  its  inmates,  they  are 
under  good  discipline.  They  are  sent  out  in  the  morning 
imder  overseers  and  guards,  to  work  on  the  roads,  and  in  the 
various  departments,  as  sawyers,  carpenters,  builders,  &c. 
and  they  are  all  mustered  and  locked  up  at  night.  This 
precaution  renders  property  remarkably  secure  in  Hobart 
Town;  where  formerly  robbery  was  very  common.  The 
Penitentiary  has  a  large  day-room,  and  numerous  sleeping 
wards.  The  men  are  lodged  on  two  tiers  of  barrack-bedsteads. 
These  are  large  platforms  without  any  separation,  which 
is  a  great  evil.  In  every  room  there  is  a  man  in  charge, 
who  is  answerable  for  the  conduct  of  the  rest ;  but  it  is  rare 
for  one  to  dare  to  complain  of  the  misconduct  of  his  fellow. 
Each  individual  has  a  bed,  blanket,  and  coverlet ;  and  the 
place  is  well  ventilated  and  clean.  A  tread-mill  is  attached 
to  this  building,  which  serves  the  purpose  of  special  punish- 
ment, and  grinds  com  for  the  institution. — ^At  a  subsequent 
period,  a  large  addition  was  made  to  this  prison,  including 
a  number  of  solitary  cells,  and  an  Episcopal  chapel,  part 
of  which  is  open  also  to  the  public. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  4th  month,  a  Temperance  Society 
was  first  established  in  Hobart  Town,  but  not  without 
considerable  opposition.  The  Lieut.  Governor  became 
its  Patron;  and  the  senior  Colonial  Chaplain,  stated,  in 
support  of  the  object,  that  he  had  attended  between  three 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

34  KINGS  PITS.  [4tih  mo. 

and  four  hundred  criminals  to  execution,  nineteen  out  of 
twenty  of  whom,  had  been  drawn  into  the  commission  of  the 
crimes  for  which  they  forfeited  their  lives,  either  directly  or 
indirectly  by  intemperance. 

On  the  15th  of  4th  month,  we  held  a  meeting  with  some 
sawyers,  in  their  huts,  at  a  place  called  the  Kings  Pits, 
on  the  ascent  of  Mount  Wellington,  at  an  elevation  of 
about  2,000  feet,  and  about  four  miles  from  the  town. 
These  people  seemed  a  little  interested  in  the  counsel 
given  them,  and  received  a  few  tracts  gratefully.  The 
forest  among  which  they  are  residing  is  very  lofty :  many  of 
the  trees  are  clear  of  branches  for  upwards  of  100  feet.  It 
caught  fire  a  few  months  ago,  and  some  of  the  men  narrowly 
escaped.  The  trees  are  blackened  to  the  top,  but  are* 
beginning  to  shoot  again  from  their  charred  stems.  The 
brushwood  is  very  thick  in  some  of  these  forests.  A 
shower  of  snow  fell  while  we  were  at  the  place.  Acor- 
da  OxycedruSy  10  feet  high,  was  in  flower  on  the  ascent 
of  the  mountain.  This,  along  with  numerous  shrubs  of 
other  kinds,  formed  impervious  thickets  in  some  places; 
while,  in  others,  Epacria  impressa,  displayed  its  brilliant 
blossoms  of  crimson  and  of  rose  colour. 

The  brook  that  supplies  Hobart  Town  with  water, 
flows  from  Mount  Wellington  through  a  valley  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountain.  Here  the  bed  of  the  brook  is 
rocky,  and  so  nearly  flat  as  scarcely  to  deserve  the  name 
of  TTie  Cascades,  by  which  this  place  is  called.  Many 
dead  trees  and  branches  lie  across  the  brook,  by  the  sides 
of  which  grows  DrymophUa  cyanocarpa — ^a  plant,  allied 
to  Solomon^s  Seal,  producing  sky-blue  berries  on  an 
elegantly  three-branched,  nodding  top.  Dianella  carulea — a 
sedgy  plant — flourishes  on  the  drier  slopes :  this,  as  well  as 
Billardiera  longiftora — a  climbing  shrub,  that  entwines  itself 
among  the  bushes — ^was  now  exhibiting  its  violet-coloured 
fruit.  In  damp  places,  by  the  side  of  the  brook,  a  princely 
tree-fern,  Cybotium  BUhrdieri,  emerged  through  the  sur- 
rounding foliage.  A  multitude  of  other  ferns,  of  large  and 
small  size,  enriched  the  rocky  margins  of  the  stream,  which 
I  crossed  upon  the  trunk  of  one  of  the  prostrate  giants  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

J/ •'5        * 

:;  '  .'  ■■■.-1     • 

.       •    ^^      s- 

.   r 

i    ^^H' 

rfijr^.i'ji     '|f' 

i        i 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


*  "•*^.. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    PIEMENS    LAND.  35 

the  forest,  a  Gum-tree  of  large  dimensions,  which  had  been 
uprooted  by  some  blast  from  the  mountain ;  and  in  its  fall, 
had  subdued  many  of  the  neighbouring  bushes,  and  made  a 
way  where  otherwise  the  forest  would  have  been  inaccessible. 
On  descending  from  this  natural  bridge,  to  examine  a  tree- 
fern,  I  found  myself  at  the  foot  of  one  of  their  trunks,  which 
was  about  5  feet  in  circumference  and  10  in  height.  The 
lower  part  was  a  mass  of  protruding  roots,  and  the  upper 
part  clothed  with  short  remains  of  leaf-stalks,  looking  rough 
and  blackened :  this  was  surmounted  by  dead  leaves  hanging 
down,  and  nearly  obscuring  the  trunk  from  distant  view : 
above  was  the  noble  crest  of  fronds,  or  leaves,  resembling 
those  of  Asplenrum  Filia^-fcemina  in  form,  but  exceeding  11 
feet  in  length,  in  various  degrees  of  inclination  between  erect 
and  horizontal,  and  of  the  tenderest  green,  rendered  more 
delicate  by  the  contrast  with  the  dark  verdure  of  the  sur- 
rounding foliage.  At  my  feet  were  several  other  ferns  of 
large  size,  covering  the  ground,  and  which,  through  age 
and  their  favourable  situation,  had  attained  root-stocks  a 
foot  in  height,  crowned  by  circles  of  leaves  three  times 
that  length.  Other  plants  of  tree-fern,  at  short  distances, 
concealed  from  my  view,  by  their  spreading  fronds,  the 
foliage  of  the  lofty  evergreens  that  towered  a  hundred 
feet  above  them.  The  trunk  of  one  of  the  tree-ferns  was 
clothed  with  a  Trichomanes  and  several  species  of  Hy- 
menophyllum — small  membranaceous  ferns  of  great  delicacy 
and  beauty.  On  a  •  rocky  bank  adjoining,  there  were 
other  ferns,  with  creeping  roots,  that  threw  up  their 
bright  green  fronds  at  short  distances  from  each  other, 
decorating  the  ledges  on  which  they  grew.  In  the  deepest 
recesses  of  this  shade  I  could  enjoy  the  novel  scene — ^fems 
above,  below,  around — ^without  fear  of  molestation  ;  no 
dangerous  beasts  of  prey  inhabiting  this  interesting  island. 
The  annexed  etching  wiU  give  the  reader  some  idea  of  a 
tree-fern,  many  species  of  which  exceed  in  beauty  the  stately 
palms  of  warmer  climates. 

5th  mo.  7th,  1832.  Having  obtained  a  letter  of  introduc- 
tion from  the  Lieut.  Governor  to  Major  Baylee,  the  com- 
mandant of  the  Penal  Settlement,  at  Macquarie  Harbour; 

D  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

36  iiOBART  TOWN.  [5th  mo. 

and  other  necessary  arrangements  having  been  made  for  our 
passage  on  board  the  Government  brig  Tamar^  wfe  embarked^ 
after  dining  with  the  senior  colonial  chaplain^  William 
Bedford^  and  his  family^  from  whom  we  received  much  kind 
attention  during  our  sojourn  in  V.  D.  Land.  The  vessel 
not  sailing  till  the  1 0th,  we  spent  the  evening  at  the 
house  of  Nathaniel  Turner,  the  Wesleyan  Minister  sta- 
tioned at  Hobart  Town,  in  company  with  John  Allen 
Manton,  a  Wesleyan  Missionary,  also  proceeding  to 
Macquarie  Harbour.  At  N.  Turner's  we  also  met  the 
teachers  of  four  sabbath  schools,  containing  together 
about  200  children.  Two  of  these  schools  are  in  Hobart 
Town,  and  the  others  at  Sandy  Bay  and  O'Briens  Bridge. 
After  the  teachers  had  transacted  the  business  of  their 
monthly  meeting,  we  had  a  solemn  and  highly  ftivoured 
religious  opportunity  ;  in  which,  in  the  fresh  feeling  of 
heavenly  love,  I  endeavoured  to  encourage  them  to  live 
under  a  sense  of  the  divine  presence,  and  to  seek  to  the 
Lord  for  counsel  and  direction,  in  order  that  their  well- 
intended  labours  might  be  blessed. 

There  were  in  the  cabin  of  the  Tamar,  John  Burn,  the 
captain  for  the  voyage,  Henry  Herberg,  the  mate,  David  Hoy, 
a  ship^s  carpenter,  Jno.  A.  Manton,  George  W.  Walker,  and 
myself.  Ten  private  soldiers  and  a  sergeant,  as  guard,  occupied 
a  portion  of  the  hold,  in  which  there  were  also  provisions  for 
the  Penal  Settlement,  and  a  flock  of  sheep.  Two  soldiers* 
wives  and  five  children  were  in  the  inidships.  Twelve 
seamen,  several  of  whom  were  convicts,  formed  the  crew ; 
and  18  prisoners  imder  sentence  to  the  Penal  Settlement 
completed  the  ship's  company.  The  last  occupied  a  jail, 
separated  from  the  hold  by  wooden  bars,  filled  with  nails, 
and  accessible  only  from  the  deck  by  a  small  hatchway. 
One  of  the  soldiers  on  guard  stood  constantly  by  this  hatch- 
way, which  was  secured  by  three  bolts  across  the  open- 
ing, two  walked  the  deck,  the  one  on  one  side  returning 
with  his  face  toward  the  prison,  at  the  time  the  other  was 
going  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  two  were  in  the  hold, 
seated  in  view  of  the  jail.  The  prisoners  wore  chains,  and 
only  two  of  them  were  allowed  to  come  on  deck  at  a  time 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  3/ 

for  air ;  these  were  kept  before  the  windlas  and  not 
allowed  to  converse  with  the  seamen.  This  was  rigidly 
observed,  in  consequence  of  two  of  these  men  having,  at  a 
former  period,  been  parties  in  the  seizure  of  a  vessel  named 
the  Cypress,  making  the  same  voyage;  which  was  carried 
off  to  the  coast  of  China  or  Japan.  They  put  the  persons, 
now  our  captain  and  mate,  on  shore,  along  with  several 
others,  in  Recherche  Bay,  at  the  mouth  of  IKEntrecasteaux 
Channel ;  from  whence  they  reached  Hobart  Town  with 
great  difficulty.  The  jail  occupied  by  these  men  was  not 
high  enough  for  them  to  stand  erect  in,  but  they  could 
stretch  themselves  on  the  floor,  on  which  they  slept,  being 
each  furnished  with  a  blanket. 

On  the  8th,  I  paid  my  first  visit  to  the  prisoners,  just  after 
they  had  been  searched,  lest  they  should  have  concealed  any 
implements  for  effecting  their  escape.  After  enquiring  respect- 
ing their  health,  I  told  them  that  if  they  had  no  objection,  I 
would  read  them  a  chapter  in  the  Bible,  and  desired  to 
know  if  there  was  any  one  in  particular  they  would  prefer. 
One  of  them  replied,  there  was  some  very  good  reading  in 
Isaiah.  I  opened  the  book,  and  read  the  42nd  chapter,  and 
at  the  conclusion  commented  upon  it,  pointing  out  the  effect 
of  sin,  the  object  of  the  coming  of  the  Saviour,  and  his 
power,  not  only  to  deliver  out  of  darkness  and  the  prison- 
house,  in  a  spiritual  sense,  but  also  in  an  outward  one; 
expressing  my  conviction,  that  if  they  would  attend  to  that 
grace  which  reproved  them  for  evil,  they  would  be  led  to 
repentance,  and  into  that  faith  in  Christ,  through  which  they 
would  obtain  forgiveness  of  sin,  and  a  capacity  to  love  and 
serve  God;  that  this  would  produce  such  an  effect  upon 
their  conduct,  as  to  restrain  them  from  evil,  and  enable  them 
to  work  righteousness,  procure  them  a  remission  of  their 
sentence,  and  introduce  them  to  peace  and  joy,  beyond  any 
thing  of  which  they  could  form  an  idea  while  in  the  service  of 
Satan,  whom,  I  did  not  doubt,  they  had  found  in  their  own 
experience  to  be  a  liar,  as  they  had  been  tempted  by  him  to 
expect  pleasure  from  sin,  but  had  found  in  its  stead 
trouble  and  loss.  Several  of  them  were  attentive  and 
appeared  thoughtful,  and  on  taking  leave,  one  of  them  placed 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

^'.•;    t.   1- 

^     }. 

I      ♦  :  .• 

•       .  .          '        V  "  '.    •  .           J      « 

11'.  .5  -V      i      I: 

•     i',  ;t  "i  I    ••  ■.  ;  s 

I.  •  ^  -.  .'       .:, 

.       '  •    ,.     .!    1  ••  p     ^••,..       .  .J    ...1.1    ."   .     '. 

'       •  ^  .    .   -  v.    ^  '^  •■  r..'    .!v    ...('.      \^.'  ^...    .   : 

»  .    ■    •  ' ..'  I      :     If  ■  -  :  '  .■'.  :•■.  i   ;it    pi   i  t   ',.c  '^.-i    ^' .  - 

^v         ,«        '       .       :  «  J       ;  .IT'S.         *v.*    .  ' .  ;     \     V  ■■ 

■'i'.    ■":    '  c  /">  ./   :i   ^      '•'    y  >    ••     'i'l^.  »:!   :m   : '-1     \.   ;     '.. 

1"   '  .      .\'r    ■;:     :^     .        *   \  .         :.       •     "     Mi     i  :■•  s     :':        vli    • 
'  !  :.  '       '      .  A.\'  .      \t     :  '  r   P    ■),    .'a      ■  •!    :!     l  -i'  !    '       ^* 

.'     '■'<'..    ''.  .     iiLf.      '  \d      i..      .         V,  v-    M    'i    ]V^''     :    !''    ''  .  '• 
.     ■    ■•       ■     '••  ".■   :i    .(     tp    (        T    t.i.,     ;      .]-'\-    I  ,.",...    .•  '•'    t      , 
•I       .  I  ,'•   ■    •  p     «■       >  '•.    .     ^.     ['.'Ii    1^     I  »     '\»        ••■,!' 
■ -^J    ^-   tj    .1*    r     'n    '!.    It  '•    ;»  ;    5-  .    /    '  :  p'    'i 
'/.  "      .  ..   ti    t,  .p.  i    '\'?  -Cm  .'  .  ."  <.•••    ..^ 
.;•   !'»'...    .■>  .;'  ,  ^      *>  1'    -     -.1.  "yj    pi  i. • 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

38  PORT  DAVEY.  [5th  mo 

his  hand  to  my  foot  and  helped  me  to  ascend  from  the 

The  day  the  Taraar  sailed  was  very  fine.  The  Science, 
by  which  we  came  to  V.  D.  Land,  was  passing  down  the 
Derwent  at  the  same  time,  on  her  voyage  for  England ;  we 
parted  from  her  on  entering  lyEntrecasteaux  Channel,  lit- 
tle anticipating  the  disaster  by  which  she  was  lost  off  Cape 
Horn;  where  she  was  struck  by  a  heavy  sea,  that  swept 
away  four  of  her  men,  and  left  the  remainder,  who  w^ere 
ultimately  rescued  by  another  ship,  in  a  forlorn  and  peri- 
lous situation. — ^The  various  bays  and  islands  of  D'Entre- 
casteaux  Channel,  with  their  wood-covered  hills  looked 
beautiful.  We  came  to  anchor  in  the  evening  off  Mount 
Royal.  Numbers  of  fish  called  Flat-head  and  Rock  Cod 
were  taken.  The  former  is  firm,  and  resembles  in  figure 
the  Bull-head  of  English  rivers,  but  weighs  about  Ijlb. 
The  other  is  softer  than  the  English  cod,  and  weighs  from 
3  to  71bs.  When  stewed  with  but  little  water  it  nearly 
dissolves,  and  makes  very  palatable  soup; — at  least  so  we 
sometimes  found  it  when  at  sea,  and  having  little  but  salt 

11th.  Anchor  was  weighed  early,  and  passing  between 
the  Acteon  Islands  and  Recherche  Bay — ^a  navigation  requir- 
ing great  care — we  rounded  the  Whales-head,  and  came  into 
the  open  sea.  The  evening  was  beautifully  fine.  We  passed 
close  by  the  Mew  Stone  by  moonlight.  Jelly-fish,  such  as 
are  said  to  be  food  of  the  whale,  and  resembling  glass-beads, 
were  in  myriads  in  the  day  time,  and  at  night  the  sea  was 
illuminated  by  phosphorescent  species.  Sometimes  we 
heard  the  cry  of  a  small  Penguin  common  in  this  vicinity, 
known  by  the  name  of  the  Jackass  Penguin. 

12th.  About  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  wind 
changed  to  N.W.  At  four  it  blew  a  violent  gale,  attended 
by  lightning,  thunder,  and  rain.  We  had  just  advanced 
far  enough  to  be  able  to  enter  the  middle  harbour  of  Port 
Davey,  by  its  northern  opening,  which  is  to  the  south 
of  the  northermost  conical  rock  in  the  annexed  sketch* 
The  rocky  island  between  that,  and  the  southermost  of  the 
three  conical  rocks  to  the  south,  shuts  this  harbour  in  from 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

•«•  •  • •• 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    SIEMENS    LAND  39 

the  open  sea.  We  came  to  anchor  in  the  middle  of  a  bason  a 
mile  and  a  half  across,  surrounded  by  hiils,  with  little  wood. 
One  on  the  north,  which  may  be  800  feet  high,  called  Spring 
Hill,  exhibits  little  but  white  quartz  rock;  which  is  abundant 
every  where  around.  There  were  trees,  many  of  which 
appeared  to  be  dead,  on  the  distant  mountains.  This  was  the 
first  time  we  had  taken  refuge  in  a  harbour  in  an  uninhabited 
country;  but  solitary  as  it  was,  we  were  thankful  for  the 
refuge  from  the  storm. 

We  remained  in  Port  Davey  seventeen  days.  During  this 
time  the  wind  was  contrary,  and  often  blew  with  great 
violence ;  sometimes  threatening  to  drive  the  vessel  on  shore, 
notwithstanding  it  was  moored  with  two  heavy  chain  cables. 

During  our  stay  the  sheep  were  placed  on  a  small  island, 
on  which  were  a  few  bushes  and  some  coarse  rushy  herbage, 
such  as  was  also  the  covering  of  much  of  the  adjacent 

There  were  low  Gum-trees  on  some  of  the  hills,  and  the 
brushwood  in  some  of  the  gullies  was  very  thick,  as  it  was  also 
toward  the  sea  beach ;  on  which,  here  and  there,  logs  of  the 
Huon  Pine,  a  fine  species  of  timber,  were  washed  up. 
Several  low  shrubs  of  the  Epacris  tribe  were  growing  in  the 
clefts  of  Spring  Hill :  among  them  a  species  of  Richea  with  a 
single  head,  resembling  a  pine-apple  plant,  mounted  on  a 
stick  6  feet  high;  two  species  of  Decaspora — thyme-like 
bushes,  with  flattened  purple  berries,  and  Prinotes  cerinth- 
aides — a  straggling  little  shrub,  with  cylindrical,  inflated, 
pendulous  blossoms,  an  inch  long,  of  a  deep  rose  colour. 

I  once  ascended  Spring  Hill  alone,  taking  the  rocky  part  of  it, 
which  is  composed  of  projections  of  white  quartz,  sometimes 
tinged  with  pink  or  blue,  amongst  which  I  could  climb  as  on 
a  rude  stair-case.  Being  sheltered  from  observation  by  the 
rocky  spires,  I  came  among  a  flock  of  White  Cockatoos, 
which  are  too  shy  knowingly  to  admit  the  presence  of  a 
stranger  :  they  chattered  to  each  other,  and  shook  their 
beautiful  lemon-coloured  crests  with  an  amusing  degree 
of  consequence,  until  at  length  I  threw  a  stick  among  them, 
which  dispersed  the  assembly.     Much  of  the  ground  running 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

40  PORT  daveYp  [5th  mo. 

back  from  the  top  of  this  hill^  was  perforated  by  a  land- 
lobster^  the  size  of  a  prawn;  its  holes  were  carried  up 
with  conical  towers  of  earth  about  a  foot  high.  Thb 
animal  seems  common  in  this  wet  part  of  Van  Diemens  Land. 

One  of  my  objects  in  this  excursion  was  to  endeavour  to 
ascertain^  if  there  existed  beyond  Bathurst  Harbour — the 
sheet  of  water  east  of  where  the  Tamar  was  lying — a 
lake  doubtfully  laid  down  on  some  maps;  but  this  object 
was  frustrated^  by  the  coming  on  of  a  fog  and  heavy  raiu^ 
just  as  I  had  reached  a  remote  peak^  from  which  I  had  hoped 
to  see  the  desired  spot.  Previously,  however,  I  had  noticed 
the  sea  breaking  on  the  south  coast,  at  a  much  shorter  dis- 
tance, than  I  had  expected  from  the  map. — ^The  top  of  the 
peak  was  composed  of  large  blocks  of  white  quartz,  with 
thick  scrub  between  them.  From  one  to  another  of  these  I 
skipped  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  peak ;  and  from  thence 
descending,  passed  through  a  thick  scrub  as  high  as  my. 
shoulders,  hoping  to  reach  the  vessel  by  a  nearer  cut ;  but  I 
had  not  proceeded  far,  before  a  deep  woody  ravine  obstructed 
my  course:  and  now  was  put  to  proof,  the  advantage  of 
having  my  mind  stayed  on  the  Lord ;  the  feeling  of  whose 
good  presence  had  been  with  me  in  my  solitary  wandering,  and 
in  my  musing  upon  the  novel  scenes  presented  by  his  creation 
in  this  part  of  the  world ;  for  had  I  become  agitated  I  should 
probably  have  been  lost.  Evening  was  drawing  on,  I  was 
alone  and  several  miles  from  my  companions ;  the  scrub 
through  which  I  had  come  had  closed  as  I  had  left  it,  and  it 
was  necessary  to  retrace  my  steps.  Fixing  my  heart  more 
steadfastly  on  the  Lord,  in  prayer,  and  taking  the  bearing  of 
a  prominent  rock  by  a  compass,  which  in  all  my  wanderings 
I  carried  in  a  pocket  opposite  to  that  occupied  by  my  watch, 
I  patiently  parted  the  opposing  scrub  with  my  hands,  now 
somewhat  weakened  by  fatigue ;  and  after  some  time,  again 
reached  the  rocky  peak,  which  I  mounted  under  such  a  sense 
of  my  Heavenly  Father's  love,  as  I  hope  not  soon  to  forget, 
and  which  comforted  and  invigorated  me,  and  constrained  me, 
on  bended  knees,  to  give  him  thanks. 

The  fog  parted  a  few  times,  and  opened  a  fine  view  of  the 
northern  harbour  of  Port  Davey,  the  Davey  River,  Mount  de 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  41 

Wit,  and  other  mountains  in  that  direction.  Losing  little 
time  in  observations,  and  being  favoured  to  find  my  way 
across  the  rocks  in  safety,  I  took  to  my  heels  upon  the  more 
open  ground,  and  came  in  sight  of  the  Tamar  before  the  sun 
had  set.  I  was  much  surprised  not  to  see  the  boat  off,  as  I 
had  requested  the  men  who  came  on  shore  for  water  in  the 
mornings  to  come  for  me  in  the  evening,  saying,  they  might 
then  expect  to  see  me  somewhere  on  the  face  of  Spring  HiU, 
Like  men  of  their  class,  they  had  so  little  regarded  the  in- 
structions, that  when  inquired  of,  a  few  hours  after,  they 
could  give  no  account  of  me.  My  companion  had  become 
uneasy  at  my  absence ;  and,  at  length,  I  saw  him  with  some 
seamen  leave  the  vessel  in  a  boat  and  come  toward  the  shore, 
and  heard  the  V.  D.  Land  cry  of  Cooey,  borrowed  from  the 
Aborigines,  to  which  I  answered ;  but  to  my  dismay,  saw  the 
boat  again  pushed  firom  the  land.  Not  having  taken  into 
account  that  sound  does  not  readily  descend,  they  had  con- 
cluded, as  they  did  not  hear  me,  that  I  was  not  there.  No 
time  was  to  be  lost.  I  left  the  rocky  part  of  the  mountain  for 
a  slope  on  which  I  hoped  to  run ;  but  on  reaching  it,  my 
feet  slipped  among  a  fmigus  resembling  moistened  glue — ^a 
species  of  TremeUaF — ^with  which  the  groimd  had  become 
covered  during  the  rain.  I  arose  and  fell  until  my  legs  shook 
under  me  ;  and  giving  up  the  hope  of  standing,  I  launched  off 
in  a  sitting  posture ;  and  besmeared  with  this  sUmy  vegetable, 
passed  rapidly  to  the  bottom  of  the  hill.  Here  again  I  ran 
and  shouted :  my  voice  reached  far  over  the  still  water,  and 
the  boat,  to  my  great  comfort,  returned.  I  met  it  in  the  sea, 
for  the  purpose  of  washing  my  clothes,  that  previously, 
for  several  hours,  had  been  soaked  with  rain,  which  fell  at 
times  so  heavily  that  I  had  had  no  occasion  to  stoop  to  drink 
during  the  whole  day. 

While  detained  in  Port  Davey,  we  made  an  excursion,  in 
the  ship^s  boat,  with  the  carpenter,  to  examine  the  northern 
entrance  into  the  bason  in  which  the  Tamar  lay.  It  proved 
sufficientiy  deep  for  ships  of  moderate  size ;  but  there  is  a 
sunken  rock  half  a  mile  N.  and  by  West  of  the  largest 
pyramidal  rock,  which  is  called  by  the  seamen  Big  Caroline. 
We  also  went  into  the  southern  opening,  called  Kelleys  River, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

42  PORT  DAVBY.  [5th  mo. 

which  is  an  estuary  5  or  6  miles  long,  1  broad,  and  from  2  to 
3  fiathoms  deep,  and  consequently  only  fit  for  boats.  There 
were  several  Black  Swans  upon  it  These  birds  are  abundant 
in  this  neighbourhood  in  the  breeding  season.  Among  the 
scrub  on  the  shore  there  was  a  flock  of  Black  Cockatoos. 
The  Wombat — ^a  burrowing,  herbivorous  animal,  in  figure 
somewhat  like  a  small  bear, — abounds  in  this  neighbouriiood : 
its  flesh,  when  young,  resembles  that  of  the  hare. 

We  likewise  visited  the  Davey  River,  or  northern  harbour; 
in  which,  imder  a  point  from  the  west,  in  the  turn  toward 
Cockbum  Cove,  vessels  sometimes  take  shelter  from  a 
southerly  gale.  Oysters  are  obtained  at  low  tides  in  this 
cove,  on  the  smooth  waters  of  which.  Pelicans,  Red-bills, 
and  Gulls  were  swimming.  On  the  north  of  it  there  is  mica 
rock  containing  Garnets.  Here  we  spent  a  night  by  a  large 
fire,  sheltered  by  a  few  bushes,  near  to  heaps  of  oyster  shells, 
accumulated  from  time  immemorial  by  the  Aborigines,  who 
occasionally  resort  hither.  The  middle  of  the  night  was 
stormy  and  wet.  The  distant  mountains  were  covered  with 
snow  in  the  morning. 

Fishing  formed  a  frequent  occupation  on  board  the  Tamar. 
Rock-cod  and  occasionally  eels  about  5  feet  long  and  14  inches 
round,  were  caught.  Sometimes  a  small  shark  would  take 
the  bait ;  and  we  had  to  expostulate  with  the  soldiers  against 
a  cruel  practice  they  adopted,  of  running  a  stick  through  the 
breathing  apparatus  of  these  animals,  and  in  this  state  throw- 
ing them  overboard  to  perish.  This  was  done  in  the  spirit  of 
revenge,  because  of  the  annoyance,  as  they  not  only  spoiled 
the  baits,  but  drove  away  the  fish.  We  succeeded  in  con- 
vincing the  men  that  they  were  wrong  in  giving  way  to  this 
spirit,  and  that  it  was  their  duty  either  to  kill  die  sharks  by 
the  most  speedy  means  or  to  liberate  them,  as  they  had  as 
much  right  to  take  the  baits,  as  the  soldiers  had  to  take 
the  fish;  seeing  that  in  so  doing,  they  only  followed  an 
instinct  given  by  their  Creator.  One  of  the  species  is  spotted, 
and  is  called  in  this  country,  the  Nurse. 

Reading  in  the  cabin,  and  the  religious  instruction  of  the 
respective  groups  of  the  prisoners,  sailors,  soldiers,  and  soldiers* 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  45 

wives  and  children^  also  occupied  portions  of  the  time  we  were 
delayed  here,  which  without  employment,  would  have  been 
tedious.  In  pleading  with  some  of  these  people  on  the 
importance  of  a  practical  application  of  the  doctrines  of  the 
Gospel,  by  those  who  profess  to  be  christians,  we  desired  them 
to  judge  of  the  corrupt  state  of  their  own  hearts,  at  least,  by 
that  token  which  was  obvious  to  others  ;  viz.,  the  practice  of 
cursing  and  swearing.  They  took  our  counsel  in  good  part ; 
and  whether  changed  from  principle  or  not,  became  more 

There  was  something  peculiarly  interesting  and  affecting  to 
my  mind,  in  bringing  the  sound  of  the  Gospel  into  this 
desolate  part  of  the  earth ;  where  perhaps,  since  the  days  in 
which  the  world  itself  was  called  into  existence,  it  was  never 
before  heard ;  and  in  proclaiming  it  as  the  message  of  mercy, 
to  the  people  we  brought  with  us — the  only  human  beings  in 
the  place — ^whose  hearts  appeared  to  be  as  desolate  as  the 
hills  by  which  we  were  surrounded. 

5th  mo.  29th.  The  wind  having  become  more  favourable, 
the  sheep  were  brought  on  board,  and  while  preparation  was 
making  for  sailing,  G.  W.  Walker  and  the  carpenter  landed 
me  on  one  of  the  islets  at  the  mouth  of  the  harbour,  to  cut 
Native  Parsley  and  a  variety  of  shrubs  for  provender.  This 
islet  is  composed  of  a  substance  resembling  Asbestos,  and  is 
fronted  on  the  inside  by  vertical  veins  of  quartz.  In  the 
middle  is  a  deep  cove  with  a  hole  through  to  the  outside, 
the  surf  beating  against  which  forms  a  jet  of  spray  within 
many  feet  high,  resembling  the  blowing  of  a  whale.  We 
boarded  the  Tamar  on  her  passage  out,  and  were  soon  again 
at  sea,  where  the  fair  wind  failed,  and  we  stood  off  the  land 
for  the  night. 

On  the  morning  of  the  30th,  we  had  a  view  of  Point  Hibbs, 
and  of  a  high,  domed  rock  named  the  Pyramid.  A  series  of 
heavy  gales  in  the  course  of  the  four  succeeding  days,  drove 
us  far  northward  of  our  port.  When  we  were  laid  to,  the 
wind  blew  the  topsail  out  of  the  bolt-rope,  and  while  it  was 
undergoing  repair,  we  beat  down  the  rocky  coast  with  sails 
only  just  sufficient  to  enable  us  to  keep  off  the  shore. 
Scarcely  anything  was  cooked  during  this  period,  and  few 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

44  ENTRANCE    OF   MACQUARIE    HARBOUR.        [6th  mO. 

persons  on  board  were  disposed  to  eat.  Most  of  the  time  we 
kept  in  our  berths,  which  were  warm  and  dry.  The  motion 
of  the  vessel  was  too  great  to  allow  a  person  to  walk,  or  even 
to  stand  without  hold,  and  we  were  unable  from  this  cause 
combined  with  sickness,  to  wash  or  shave. 

Some  Black  and  Wandering  Albatrosses  were  continually 
soaring  around  us;  and  a  flock  of  the  beautiful  Petrels,  called 
Cape  Pigeons,  kept  close  to  our  stem,  generally  on  the  wing, 
but  often  swimming,  or  running  on  the  water  after  anything 
cast  from  the  ship.  The  wind  howls,  and  the  sea  r^es  in 
vain  to  these  birds.  They  keep  on  the  wing  in  the  fiercest 
tempests,  and  swim  with  ease  on  the  most  boisterous  waves. 
It  was  a  trying  time  for  aU  on  board,  especially  for  the  poor 
women  and  children ;  into  whose  quarters  the  water  several 
times  found  its  way  in  torrents.  The  perplexities  that  some- 
times arose,  occasioned  some  of  the  soldiers  to  quarrel  and 
swear,  even  when  the  vessel  seemed  ready  to  be  overwhelmed ; 
so  inveterate  was  this  evil  habit !  It  was  a  season  of  trial 
both  of  our  faith  and  patience ;  but  the  belief  that  we  were 
in  our  right  places  was  sustaining. 

On  the  morning  of  the  4th  of  6th  month,  land  was  descried 
through  the  hazy  atmosphere,  and  all  sail  was  made  with  a 
varying  but  generally  favourable  wind,  till  we  came  distinctly 
in  view  of  Cape  Sorell,  at  the  entrance  of  Macquarie  Harbour. 
On  approaching  nearer,  we  were  thrown  into  much  perplexity, 
no  signal  being  made  from  the  pilot's  station  for  an  hour  and 
a  half,  either  to  approach  nearer  or  to  stand  oflF.  During  this 
time  we  stood  backward  and  forward  outside  the  dangerous 
bar,  which  is  of  wide  extent,  while  the  sea  was  again  getting 
up.  At  length,  when  about  to  run  back  for  shelter  to  Port 
Davey,  we  were  descried,  and  a  signal  to  enter  was  hoisted. 
We  immediately  stood  in,  and  in  a  few  minutes  the  oppor- 
tunity to  return  was  past.  The  pilot  put  off,  knowing  better 
than  ourselves,  our  danger :  his  boat  coidd  only  be  seen  now 
and  then  above  the  billows ;  but  he  was  soon  alongside,  and 
ordered  all  the  sails  to  be  squared,  that  we  might  go  right 
before  the  wind.  On  coming  on  board,  he  commanded  the 
women  and  children  below,  and  then  came  to  me,  and  advised 
me  to  go  below  also.     I  replied,  that  if  we  were  lost  I  should 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN   DEIMENS    LAND.  45 

like  to  see  the  last  of  it,  for  the  sight  was  awfully  grand. 
Laying  hold  of  a  rope  at  the  stem,  he  said,  *^  Then  put  your 
arm  round  this  rope  and  don^t  speak  a  word/'  To  my  com- 
panion he  gave  similar  instructions,  placing  him  at  the  opposite 
quarter.  A  man  was  sent  into  the  chains  on  each  side,  with 
the  sounding  lead.  The  pilot  went  to  the  bows,  and  nothing 
was  now  to  be  heard  through  the  roar  of  the  wind  and  waves, 
but  his  voice  calling  to  the  helmsman,  the  helmsman's  answer, 
and  the  voices  of  the  men  in  the  chains,  counting  off  the 
fathoms  as  the  water  became  shallower.  The  vessel  was  cast 
alternately  from  one  side  to  the  other,  to  prevent  her  sticking 
on  the  sand,  in  which  case  the  biUows  would  have  run  over 
her,  and  have  driven  her  upon  a  sand-bank  a  mile  from  the 
shore,  on  which  they  were  breaking  with  fury.  The  fathoms 
decreased,  and  the  men  counted  off  the  feet,  of  which  we  drew 
7i,  and  there  were  but  seven  in  the  hollow  of  the  sea,  until 
they  called  out  eleven  feet.  At  this  moment  a  huge  billow 
carried  us  forward  on  its  raging  head  into  deep  water.  The 
pilot's  countenance  relaxed :  he  looked  like  a  man  reprieved 
from  under  the  gallows,  and  coming  aft,  shook  hands  with 
each  individual,  congratulating  them  on  a  safe  arrival  in 
Macquarie  Harbour. 

We  now  soon  entered  into  the  inlet,  which  is  about  twenty- 
five  miles  long,  and  from  three  to  seven  miles  broad,  by  a 
narrow  passage  between  two  rocks,  called  "  The  Gates,"  or 
from  the  nature  of  the  settlement,  ^^  Hells  Gates ;"  many  of 
the  prisoners  recklessly  asserting  that  all  who  entered  in 
hither,  were  doomed  to  eternal  perdition.  We  had  a  fine  sail 
up  the  Harbour ;  and  on  arriving  off  Sarahs  Island,  about 
twenty  miles  from  the  entrance,  were  boarded  by  the  com- 
missariat ofiicer,  siu^eon,  &c. — all  anxious  to  hear  what  was 
going  on  in  the  world,  they  having  had  no  tidings  for  more 
than  three  months.  They  gave  us  a  hearty  welcome,  and 
conveyed  us  to  the  Settlement,  where  I  became  the  guest  of 
Major  Baylee,  and  G.  W.  Walker  took  up  his  quarters  with 
our  feDow-voyager,  J.  A.  Manton ;  for  whom,  as  missionary, 
a  house  was  in  readiness. 

After  a  short  time  spent  in  conversation,  each  of  us  retired 
to  rest,  thankful  to  the  Lord,  who  had  answered  the  prayers 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

46  MACQUARZE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mO. 

put  up  to  him  on  the  raging  seas,  for  deliverance  from  the 
stormy  tempest ;  when  the  billows,  spiritually  as  well  as  out- 
wardly, at  times  went  over  our  heads.  We  cried  unto  God, 
who  commands  the  winds  and  the  seas  and  they  obey  him. 
We  called  to  mind  the  situation  of  the  disciples  of  his  Son, 
when  he  was  asleep  in  a  tempest  and  they  were  afraid,  and 
remembered,  that  when  he  arose  and  rebuked  the  wind,  there 
was  a  great  calm.  We  put  our  trust  in  his  name,  and  re- 
newed our  confidence  in  the  Father  of  mercies  through  him. 
Our  minds  became  comforted  by  his  Holy  Spirit :  we  laid  us 
down  and  slept,  being  sensible  that  he  sustained  us.  And 
now  that  he  had  permitted  us  again  to  land  in  safety,  we 
could  adopt  the  language  of  the  Psalmist.  ^^  Bless  the  Lord, 
O  my  soul,  and  all  that  is  within  me,  bless  his  holy  name. 
Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul,  and  forget  not  all  his  benefits : 
who  forgiveth  all  thine  iniquities;  who  healeth  all  thy 
diseases;  who  redeemeth  thy  life  from  destruction;  who 
crowneth  thee  with  loving  kindness  and  tender  mercies.^^ 

We  remained  17  days  at  the  settlement  on  Sarahs  Island, 
making  occasional  excursions  to  the  out-posts ;  and,  notwith- 
standing, the  place  has  since  been  abandoned,  on  account  of 
its  distance  from  Hobart  Town,  and  the  difficulty  of  access  to 
it,  and  the  prisoners  have  been  transferred  to  Port  Arthur,  on 
Tasmans  Peninsula,  I  propose  in  the  ensuing  chapter  to 
introduce  some  notice  of  it,  and  of  the  discipline  of  the 
prisoners,  as  being  an  interesting  portion  of  the  nearly  im- 
inhabited,  western  side  of  V.  D.  Land,  and  exhibiting  a 
specimen  of  the  discipline  of  one  of  the  older  Penal  Settle- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hacquarie  Harbour. — Mountains. — ^Trees. — ^Rivera. — Sarahs  Island. — Timber.— 
State  of  Prisoners. — Mortality. — Murders. — PriTations. — Escapes. — Cannibal- 
ism.— Example.  — Punishment  — Reformation.  —  Pious  Prisoner. — Depravity. 
— Employment. — Provisions. — Pine-roads. — Philips  Island. — Ferns. — Health. 
— Climate. — Spirits. — Bermuda  Prisoners — Wellington  Head. — jTail  Meetings. 
—Prisoner  Steward. — Spaniel  and  Blackfish. — Aborigines. — Kelp. — Lichen. — 

Macquarie  Harbour  did  not  present  the  desolate  appearance 
which  we  had  been  given  to  expect.  The  mountains  along  the 
east  side  are  not  nearly  so  bare  as  those  of  Port  Davey,  the 
rock  only  projecting  above  the  soil  on  the  tops  of  the  highest. 
The  most  striking  mountains  are  Mount  Discovery,  to  the 
south.  Mount  Sorell,  to  the  east,  and  Mount  Zeehaan  and 
Heemskerk,  to  the  north.  The  herbage  on  their  sides  is 
coarse  and  deep ;  it  looks  grassy  from  a  distance,  but  pro- 
bably may  not  be  so  in  reaUty,  The  scrub  of  the  guUies  runs 
into  deep  wood  on  the  lower  grounds.  Deep  wood  also 
clothes  many  of  the  hills.  The  prevalence  of  Myrtle — Fagws 
Cunmnghamii — ^and  other  trees  of  dark  foliage,  gives  a  very 
sombre  appearance  to  the  forests.  These  extend  also  over 
the  low  hills  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  and  up  the  west 
side  of  the  harbour,  about  ten  miles,  toward  Cape  Sorell. 
Behind  the  mountains  on  the  east  of  Macquarie  Harbour,  rises 
a  magnificent,  snow  covered  range ;  the  most  striking  point 
of  which  is  the  Frenchmans  Cap,  having  the  form  of  a 
quarter  of  a  sphere,  perpendicular  on  the  south,  and  towering 
to  5,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  This  is  probably 
the  highest  point  of  V.  D.  Land.  The  south  end  of  the 
harbour  is  more  level  and  less  woody.  A  wide  inlet  called 
Birches  River  opens  into  it,  and  a  little  to  the  east,  the 
Gordon  River,  which  is  navigable  for  30  or  40  miles,  but 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

48  MACQUARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  RIO. 

closely  hemmed  in  by  scrub  and  mountains  to  a  great  dis- 
tance. Lime,  which  is  rare  in  Tasmania,  is  obtained  from 
the  upper  part  of  this  river.  On  the  east  side  is  an  inlet 
called  Kelleys  Bason,  and  near  the  northern  extremity,  is 
Kings  River.  The  scrub  in  the?  'gullies  and  many  parts  of 
the  forest  is  extremely  thick,  and  very  deep :  it  comes  so 
close  to  the  water's  edge,  as  generally  to  render  the  shores  of 
the  harbour  and  tributary  rivers  inaccessible. 

Sarahs  Island  has  a  strikingly  verdant  appearance.  The 
little  paddocks,  interspersed  among  the  buildings  and  lofty 
paled  fences,  that  give  the  whole  island  the  look  of  a  fortified 
place,  vie  in  verdure  with  English  meadows. — ^The  capacity 
of  the  country  about  Macquarie  Harbour,  for  cultivation, 
does  not  however  appear  to  be  great.  Such  lands  as  are 
sufficiently  clear  to  admit  of  being  ploughed,  are  peaty  and 
wet ;  but  probably  they  might  be  made  to  produce  grass  and 
vegetables.  No  attempts  have  been  made  to  raise  any  kind 
of  grain ;  and  the  humidity  of  the  climate  of  the  western  part 
of  V.  D.  Land,  does  not  promise  success  to  this  branch  of 
agriculture.  Sheep  do  not  thrive  here;  and  at  one  time 
nearly  half  of  the  goats  kept  at  the  settlement  died. 

The  timber  about  Macquarie  Harbour  is  very  fine.  Huon 
Pine,  supposed  to  be  a  species  of  Dacrydium^  which  is  much 
valued  for  ship-building  and  general  purposes,  abounds  on 
the  eastern  side  :  the  wood  is  closer  grained  and  more  durable 
than  White  American  Pine,  and  has  an  aromatic  smell.  This 
tree  attains  to  about  100  feet  in  height,  and  25  in  circumference, 
and  is  of  a  pyramidal  form :  the  branches  from  the  trunk  are 
a  little  below  horizontal,  and  are  clothed  with  numerous, 
slender,  pendant,  scaly  branchlets,  of  lively  green,  serving  the 
purpose  of  leaves,  as  in  the  Cypress  and  Arbor-vitee.  Celery- 
topped  Pine — Thalamia  asplenifolia — so  called  from  the  re- 
semblance of  a  branch  clothed  with  its  dilated  leaves,  to  the 
leaf  of  Celery,  is  well  calculated  for  masts.  Myrtle,  allied  to 
Beech,  but  with  leaves  more  like  Dwarf  Birch,  is  suited  for 
keels.  Light-wood — Acacia  Melanoxylon — clothed  with  leaf- 
like spurious  foliage,  resembling  the  leaves  of  a  Willow,  is  also 
fine  timber,  and  its  roots  make  beautiful  veneering.  It  derives 
this  name  from  swimming  in  water,  while  the  other  woods 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  49 

of  V.  D.  Land^  except  the  pines^  generally  sink;  in 
some  parts  of  the  Colony  it  is  called  Black-wood,  on  account 
of  its  dark  colour.  Other  timber  trees  are  known  here  by 
the  names  of  Pink-wood,  CarpodorUos  lucida.  Hard-wood, 
a  species  of  Olea,,  Athosperma  moschata,  Stink- 
wood,  Zieria  arborescena,  &c.  Forest  Tea  Tree,  a  species  of 
Lepiospermum,  is  valued  for  fuel ;  some  crooked  portions  of 
its  trunk  are  finely  veined,  and  well  adapted  for  fancy-work. 
The  black  substance  forming  part  of  the  stems  of  tree  ferns,  is 
used  for  reeding,  in  inlaying,  for  which  purpose  it  is  superior 
to  Ebony.  Respectable  hats  have  been  manufactured  from 
the  shavings  of  some  species  of  Acacia,  as  well  as  from  broad 
leaved  sedges,  Lepidosperma  gladiata ;  the  leaves  being  first 
boiled  and  bleached. 

Notwithstanding  the  fine  scenery  of  Macquarie  Harbour,  it 
was  a  gloomy  place  in  the  eyes  of  a  prisoner,  from  the  priva- 
tions he  suffered  there,  in  being  shut  out  from  the  rest  of  the 
world,  and  restricted  to  a  limited  quantity  of  food,  which  did 
not  include  fresh  meat;  from  being  kept  under  a  military 
guard ;  from  the  hardship  he  endured,  in  toiling  almost  con- 
stantly in  the  wet,  at  felling  timber  and  rolling  it  to  the 
water,  and  from  other  severe  labour,  without  wages,  as  well 
as  from  the  liability  to  be  flogged  or  subjected  to  solitary 
confinement,  for  small  offences. 

Out  of  85  deaths  that  occurred  here  in  eleven  years, 
commencing  with  1822,  only  35  were  from  natural  causes ;  of 
the  remainder,  27  were  drowned,  8  killed  accidentally,  chiefly 
by  the  falling  of  trees,  3  were  shot  by  the  military,  and  12 
murdered  by  their  comrades.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that 
some  of  these  murders  were  committed  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  for  the  murderers,  and  those  who  might  be  called 
upon  as  witnesses  on  their  trials,  a  removal  from  this  place, 
though  at  the  ultimate  cost  of  the  life  of  the  murderers,  and 
without  a  prospect  of  liberation  on  the  part  of  the  others ! 
Some  of  the  prisoners  who  returned  hither  with  us  in  the 
Tamar,  had  been  witnesses  in  such  a  case ;  but  they  had  had 
the  privil^e  of  the  change,  for  a  time,  to  the  penitentiary  at 
Hobart  Town!  These  circumstances,  with  the  fact,  that 
within   the   eleven   years,   112   prisoners   had  eloped  from 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

50  MACaUARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mo. 

this  settlement^  proved  also  that  its  privations  were  felt  to 
be  very  great. 

Escape  from  Macquarie  Harbour  was  well  known  to 
be  a  difficult  and  very  hazardous  undertakings  and  very 
few  who  attempted  it,  reached  the  settled  parts  of  the 
Colony.  Out  of  the  112  who  eloped,  62  were  supposed 
to  have  perished  in  the  bush,  and  9  were  murdered  by 
their  comrades  on  the  journey,  for  a  supply  of  food.  For 
this  purpose,  the  party  proposing  to  attempt  traversing  the 
formidable  forest,  selected  a  weak  minded  man,  and  per- 
suaded him  to  accompany  them ;  and  when  the  slender  stock 
of  provisions  which  they  had  contrived  to  save  from  their 
scanty  rations,  was  exhausted,  they  laid  violent  hands  on  their 
victim.  One  party  when  lately  apprehended  near  the  settled 
districts,  had  in  their  possession,  along  with  the  flesh  of  a 
Kangaroo,  a  portion  of  that  of  one  of  their  comrades !  An 
appalling  evidence  of  how  easily  man,  in  a  depraved  state^ 
may  descend  even  to  cannibalism. 

Of  the  small  number  who  reached  the  settied  part  of  the 
country,  some  were  immediately  apprehended ;  a  few  became 
formidable  marauders,  and  were  ultimately  shot  or  executed ; 
others  escaped  to  New  South  Wales,  but  continuing  their  evil 
practices,  were  transported  to  Norfolk  Island;  and  of  the 
remainder,  who  were  an  inconsiderable  nimiber,  the  circum- 
stances remain  doubtfcd. 

In  the  earlier  days  of  this  settlement  flagellation  was  the 
chief  punishment,  and  the  reformation  of  the  prisoners 
seemed  hopeless.  There  is  ground  to  believe  the  example 
of  some  of  those  under  whose  charge  they  were  placed  was 
at  that  period  also  of  a  deteriorating  character.  The  first 
missionary  sent  here  found  a  chief  officer  living  in  open 
profligacy,  and  saw  so  littie  prospect,  under  such  circum- 
stances, of  being  able  to  do  any  good  among  the  prisoners, 
that  he  returned  by  the  same  vessel  to  Hobart  Town. 

Of  latter  time  the  administration  of  corporal  punishment 
was  much  diminished,  and  that  of  solitary  confinement 
increased,  witii  evident  advantage.  Major  Baylee  also  ex- 
postulated with  the  parties,  and  convinced  them  that  he 
would  not  administer  punishment  without  cause :  this  greatly 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 




increased  his  influence,  and  obtained  for  him  such  respect 
and  esteem,  that  he  could  go  about  the  settlement,  unattended, 
with  perfect  confidence. 

The  following  abstract  exhibits  the  average  of  the  returns 
of  punishment  for  1826,  7  and  8,  and  for  1829,  SO,  and  31. 


No.  of  Prisoners 
in  the  SetUement 

No.  of  Priaonen 

No.  ofLashee 

No.  of  days  of  soli- 
tary  confinement. 











The  removal  of  a  few  prisoners  from  Macquarie  Harbour, 
on  account  of  good  conduct,  before  the  expiration  of  their 
sentence,  had  a  decidedly  good  eflFect  upon  the  others ;  and 
the  labours  of  William  Schofield,  the  first  missionary  who 
became  resident  there,  were,  through  the  divine  blessings 
crowned  with  encouraging  success.  He  found  a  dij£culty  in 
prevailing  upon  the  men  to  cherish  hope ;  but  when  this  was 
once  effected,  they  began  to  lay  hold  of  the  offers  of  mercy 
through  a  crucified  Redeemer,  and  some  remarkable  instances 
of  change  of  character  ensued.  On  conversing  with  some 
of  the  reformed  prisoners,  they  said,  that  the  change  of 
heart  they  had  tmdergone  had  altered  the  face  of  the  settle- 
ment in  their  eyes:  it  had  ceased  to  wear  the  gloom  by 
which  it  was  formerly  overcast.  Two,  to  whom  it  had  been 
so  irksome  as  to  tempt  them  to  run  away,  said,  they  were 
now  well  satisfied,  and  thankful  they  had  been  sent  there. 
Others  who  had  been  placed  in  the  less  laborious  part  of 
the  establishment,  because  of  good  conduct,  were,  at  their 
own  request,  allowed  to  return  to  their  old  employments, 
which  they  preferred  on  account  of  being  less  exposed  to 
temptation;  saying,  they  were  less  afraid  of  labour  than 
of  sin. 

A  man  who  lost  his  arm  some  time  ago,  was  awakened 
to  a  sense  of  his  sinful  condition,  whilst  in  imminent  danger 
from  this  accident.  He  said  the  the  Lord  found  him  when  he 
sought  Him  not,  yet  so  strongly  did  he  feel  his  own  desperate 
wickedness,  that  he  could  entertain  no  hope,  until  he  was 

E  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

52  MACQT7ARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mO. 

reminded  of  the  mercy  extended  to  Manasseh,  Mary  Mag- 
dalene^ and  others  of  similar  character.  He  told  me  he 
had  been  guilty  of  housebreakings  and  many  other  crimes, 
for  which  he  said  he  had  been  three  times  sentenced  to  this 
settlement;  he  said  also  that  the  gallows  was  no  terror  to  him^ 
and  that  he  was  so  hardened,  that  he  did  whatsoever  he 
wished,  in  defiance  of  the  laws  of  God  and  man,  till  the  Lord 
visited  him,  and  brought  him  low.  He  afterwards  ranked 
amongst  those,  who  having  been  forgiven  much,  love  much. 
The  alteration  in  his  conduct  was  noticed  by  all  around  him : 
the  Commandant  said  his  very  voice  was  changed ;  formerly  it 
was  ferocious,  now  it  was  mild ;  formerly  he  was  contentious 
and  addicted  to  fighting,  now  he  was  gentle  and  peaceable ; 
formerly  he  was  so  given  to  swearing,  and  the  habit  of  it  had 
such  power  over  him,  that,  after  he  had  turned  to  the  Lord, 
if  any  thing  irritated  him,  he  had  to  lay  his  hand  upon  his 
mouth  that  he  might  not  swear;  now  he  was  to  be  found 
warning  others  against  this  sin. 

The  men  who  had  turned  from  their  evil  ways,  were  allowed 
to  sit  in  a  room  used  for  an  adult^school,  in  order  that  they 
might  not  be  disturbed  in  reading  and  meditation,  by  those 
who  still  remained  in  folly,  and  would  be  disposed  to  deride 
them ;  and  this  man,  on  account  of  his  infirmity,  was  al- 
lowed likewise  to  retire  alone  to  one  of  the  caves  in 
the  base  of  the  island,  to  meditate  and  pray.  Though  he 
had  lost  an  arm,  he  was  not  idle,  but  employed  himself  in 
carrying  wood  for  fuel,  after  it  was  landed  from  the  boat.  I 
invited  him  to  show  me  his  cave;  he  readily  consented, 
and  led  me  down  a  steep  and  slippery  path  at  the  back 
of  the  island.  The  cave  was  damp  on  one  side,  and 
had  a  honeycomb-like  incrustation  upon  it :  its  sloping  roof 
was  dry,  a  few  old  palings  formed  its  loose  floor,  and  a  cold 
wind  blew  through  it  from  a  small  opening  at  its  farther 
extremity.  I  could  not  stand  upright  in  it,  but  entered  by 
stooping ;  he  followed,  and  we  sat  down  upon  its  floor,  and 
conversed  for  a  while  on  the  mercy  of  God  to  sinners,  in 
3ending  his  Son  into  the  world  to  save  them,  and  in  calling 
them  by  his  Spirit  to  come  imto  Him. 

This   cold  and  forlorn  place  was  much    prized    by   its 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBMENS    LAND.  53 

occupant,  in  it,  (to  use  his  own  words,)  he  contrasted  his 
privilege,  in  being  allowed  to  meditate  in  quiet,  and  to  wait 
for  the  Spirit's  influence,  with  the  privations  of  those  who 
in  former  ages  wandered  in  sheepskins  and  goatskins,  in 
deserts  and  mountains,  and  in  dens  and  caves  of  the  earthy 
being  destitute,  afflicted,  tormented.  Before  quitting  the 
place  we  kneeled  before  the  Lord,  and  I  prayed  for 
this  "brand  plucked  out  of  the  burning,*'  as  well  as  for 
myself.  When  I  ceased,  he  prolonged  the  voice  of  suppli- 
cation, ascribing  glory,  honour,  and  praise  to  Him  that  liveth 
for  ever  and  ever,  who  in  the  riches  of  his  mercy  had  called 
him  out  of  darkness  into  his  marvellous  light,  and  translated 
him  from  the  kingdom  of  Satan,  into  the  kingdom  of  his 
own  dear  Son.  In  the  course  of  conversation,  this  monu- 
ment of  divine  goodness,  desired  that  I  would  tell  audacious 
sinners  of  the  mercy  that  God  had  shown  to  him;  and 
assure  them  that  he  found  such  comfort  and  pleasure  in 
righteousness,  as  he  never  could  have  thought  of  whilst  he 
remained  in  sin.  When  he  became  awakened  he  found 
himself  in  ignorance  also,  and  since  that  time  he  had  learned 
to  read. 

But  though  a  few  were  to  be  found  at  this  settlement  who 
had  turned  to  the  Lord,  and  were  bringing  forth  fruits  meet 
for  repentance,  and  most  conducted  themselves  pretty  well 
under  the  discipline  exercised  over  them,  there  was  still  great 
depravity  existing :  many  were  so  far  under  the  dominion  of 
the  devil,  as  to  be  led  captive  by  him  at  his  wiD.  The  effect 
of  the  corruption  of  human  nature,  increased  by  indulgence 
in  sin^  produced  a  description  of  character  liable  to  fall  into 
temptation  whenever  it  came  in  the  way,  and  far  from  being 
always  restrained  by  the  fear  of  pimishment. 

The  number  of  prisoners  at  the  settlement  at  the  time  of 
our  visit,  including  the  oufc-gangs,  was  177 ;  formerly  it  was 
about  300.  Many  of  them  were  employed  on  Sarahs 
Island^  in  ship-building,  and  others  at  out-stations,  chiefly 
as  a  wood-cutting  gang  at  Philips  Creek,  where  they  were 
superintended  by  a  constable,  and  lodged  in  huts  of  the 
humblest  construction ;  but  these,  being  furnished  with  good 
fires^   were  not  very  uncomfortable,  particularly  when  the 

E  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

54  MACQUARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mo. 

inmates  whitewashed  them,  and  kept  them  clean.  On  con- 
versing with  the  men  of  this  gang  respecting  the  hope  of 
remission  of  sentence  on  good  conduct,  one  man,  with  tears 
in  his  eyes,  said,  he  had  been  there  10  years :  he  seemed 
cast  down  almost  below  hope.  We  assiured  them  of  the 
pleasure  it  gave  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  to  remit  their 
sentence,  when  they  gained  a  character  to  warrant  his  doing 
so,  and  encouraged  them  to  seek  for  a  change  of  heart,  by 
repentance  toward  God,  and  faith  toward  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  as  a  foundation  for  such  a  character.  On  being 
asked,  one  man  said,  that  their  ration  of  provision  was  not 
sufficient  for  them  at  such  hard  work;  and  though  their 
general  appearance  was  healthy,  yet  when  they  were  engaged 
in  heaving  timber,  and  rolling  it  down  to  the  water,  and 
other  fetiguing  labour,  it  might  often  fail  in  appeasing  the 
cravings  of  exhausted  nature. 

The  timber  they  cut  was  chiefly  Huon  Pine.  No  beasts 
of  burden  were  allowed  at  Macquarie  Harbour.  In  order 
to  get  the  felled  timber  to  the  water,  a  way  had  to  be  cleared, 
and  to  be  formed  with  logs  and  branches ;  over  this,  straight 
trunks  of  trees  were  laid  in  the  manner  of  the  slips  or  skids, 
used  in  laimching  ships.  Upon  these  the  timber  was  rolled 
by  the  prisoners,  sometimes  to  a  great  distance.  These  roads 
were  termed  Pine-roads. — If  any  of  the  men  proved  unruly 
at  the  out-stations,  the  constable  lit  a  fire,  the  smoke  of 
which  was  observed  by  the  sentinel  at  the  settlanent,  from 
whence  assistance  was  promptly  sent.  Except  sometimes  as  a 
punishment,  the  men  were  not  in  irons,  for  if  they  had  been, 
they  could  not  have  performed  their  work.  The  boat  which  put 
us  ashore  at  Philips  Creek,  was  ordered  to  push  off  as  soon  as 
it  had  landed  us,  and  to  remain  off  until  we  were  ready  to 
return,  lest  any  of  the  prisoners  should  seize  it,  and  attempt 
their  escape;  circumstances  of  this  sort  having  occurred. 
At  a  short  distance  from  Philips  Creek,  is  Philips  Island, 
the  soil  of  which  is  peaty  loam :  it  had  for  some  years  been 
cultivated  with  potatoes.  Here  seven  men  were  employed 
under  a  constable.  The  constable  being  a  prisoner,  who 
had  conducted  himself  so  as  to  gain  confidence.  A  steep 
path  led  from   the   shore,  and  passing  the  huts,   extended 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBMENS    LAND.  55 

across  the  island:  it  was  planted  on  each  side  with  native 
shrubs^  and  rendered  firm  by  pieces  of  the  trunks  of  tree- 
ferns^  cut  in  lengths^  and  laid  at  short  distances  one  firom 
another;  of  these^  some  of  the  steps  were  also  formed  on  the 
steepest  part  of  the  ascent.  The  huts  were  almost  overgrown 
with  the  Macquarie  Harbour  Yine^  a  luxuriant  climber^  bear- 
ing small  acid  firuit.  We  walked  over  the  island^  and 
down  one  of  its  sides^  which  was  woody^  and  which  ex- 
hibited the  finest  tree-ferns  we  had  seen,  and  in  great 
profusion.  They  were  of  two  kinds,  one  of  which  we 
did  not  meet  with  elsewhere  Some  of  their  larger  fronds 
or  leaves  were  thirteen  feet  long,  making  the  diameter 
of  the  crest  twenty-six  feet.  The  stems  were  of  all  degrees 
of  elevation,  up  to  twenty-five  or  thirty  feet ;  some  of  them^ 
at  the  lower  part,  were  as  stout  as  a  man^s  body :  those  of 
Cyboiium  BiUardieri  were  covered  with  roots  to  the  outside : 
the  whole  length  of  those  of  the  other  species — Alscphila  aus- 
trali» — ^^.^as  clothed  with  the  bases  of  old  leaves^  which  were 
rough,  like  the  stems  of  raspberries,  closely  tiled  over  each 
other,  and  pointing  upwards.  There  was  also  a  number  of 
other  ferns  of  humble  growth :  two  species  of  the  beautiful 
genus  GUchenia  had  tough,  wiry  stems,  which  were  used  in 
the  settlement,  for  making  bird-cages. 

The  general  health  of  the  prisoners  at  Macquarie  Harbour 
was  good.  Seldom  more  than  three  of  them  were  in  the 
hospital  at  a  time.  The  average  of  deaths  did  not  amoimt 
to  more  than  one  in  35  per  annum,  including  those  by 
violence  and  accident.  These  circumstances,  the  more  re- 
markable in  men  whose  habits  had  been  dissipated,  might 
reasonably  be  attributed  to  spare  diet  and  hard  labour,  in  a 
mild  though  humid  climate,  and  seclusion  from  strong  drink. 
But  whether  from  the  limited  supply  of  food,  or  from 
being  restricted  to  the  use  of  salt  meat,  or  from  some  other 
cause^  the  surgeon  remarked,  that  when  the  men  became 
ill^  the  tone  of  their  constitution  was  so  low  that  they  were 
difficult  to  recover.  Some  of  them  were  affected  with 
scurvy  for  long  after  leaving  the  settlement. 

The  common  temperature  of  the  winter  at  Macquarie 
Harbour,  was  43°  in  clear  weather,  when  the  wind  was  from 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

56  MACaUARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mO. 

the  souths  and  52°  when  cloudy  with  the  wind  from  the 
north.  Frost  and  great  heat  were  of  rare  occurrence.  Rain 
was  said  to  have  fallen  on  five  days  out  of  seven,  during  ten 
months  in  the  year,  from  the  formation  of  the  settlement 
in  1822. 

The  prisoners  had  no  allowance  of  spirits  at  this  station ; 
but  rewards  for  little  extra  services  were  sometimes  given 
them  by  the  officers,  in  this  pernicious  article ;  the 
allowance  of  which  to  the  latter  and  to  the  military 
generally,  was  a  great  evil,  and  the  soiurce  of  much 

Several  of  the  prisoners  who  returned  to  Hobart  Town  in 
the  Tamar,  had  been  first  transported  to  Bermuda ;  but  in 
consequence  of  a  mutiny  in  which  they  were  implicated,  they 
were  subsequently  sent  to  V.  D.  Land.  They  preferred 
Bermuda,  because  they  had  there  an  allowance  of  fresh 
meat  and  rum,  and  some  money  for  present  use,  as  well  as  a 
sum  reserved  till  the  expiration  of  their  sentence. 

During  our  stay  at  Macquarie  Harbour,  we  received  great 
kindness  and  attention  from  the  Commandant,  who  afforded 
us  all  the  information  we  desired  respecting  the  discipline  of 
the  Settlement,  and  gave  us  free  access  to  the  prisoners,  both 
for  ascertaining  their  feelings,  and  for  the  purpose  of  impart- 
ing religious  instruction.  The  other  officers  also  were  kindly 
attentive.  On  the  21st  of  the  6th  month,  we  left  them 
with  feelings  of  gratitude,  not  soon  to  be  efiaced,  and  sailed  to 
Wellington  Head,  near  the  entrance  of  the  harbour ;  having 
in  the  jaU  several  prisoners  returning  from  the  settlement ; 
they  were  not  under  strict  guard,  as  the  vessel  was  pro- 
ceeding in  t^e  direction  in  which  they  desired  to  go,  and 
had  no  stock  of  provisions  on  board  to  tempt  them  to  try  to 
carry  her  off. 

The  wind  proving  unfavourable,  we  were  detained  eighteen 
days  at  Wellington  Head ;  in  the  course  of  which  we  visited 
the  Pilot  Station,  and  adjacent  parts  of  the  coast;  and 
daily  had  religious  opportunities  in  the  jail,  with  the  crew  of 
the  vessel,  the  military,  and  the  prisoners.  The  jail  was  now 
so  much  occupied  with  timber  as  to  render  it  difficult  to 
crowd  into  it,  and  it  was  also  dirty  and  dark ;  and  the  only 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN   DIEMENS    LAND*  57 

lamp  we  had^  gave  barely  sufficient  light  to  read  by; 
but  the  comforting  sense  of  our  Heavenly  Father's  love, 
which  often  attended  our  minds,  made  up  for  all  privations. 
One  of  the  prisoners,  who,  for  some  time  past  had  exhibited 
much  religious  thoughtfulness,  a  few  times  joined  his  ex- 
hortations to  ours,  and  pleaded  with  his  fellows,  on  the 
necessity  of  preparing  for  the  awful  day  of  the  Lord,  He 
began  by  telling  them,  that  they  had  known  him  when  he 
indulged  in  sin  as  much  as  any  of  them ;  but  that  they  must 
have  marked  the  change  which  had  taken  place  in  his 
conduct  and  character ;  and  he  could  assure  them,  that  he 
was  much  happier  in  walking  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord  than 
ever  he  had  been  in  sin;  he  therefore  entreated  them  to 
turn  to  the  Lord  and  seek  mercy  through  that  Saviour,  in 
whom  he  had  found  mercy. 

The  person  acting  as  steward  on  board  the  Tamar  was 
transported  when  14, years  old.  He  attributed  his  early 
turpitude,  to  the  influence  of  bad  company,  which  led  him 
to  use  strong  drink  and  disobey  his  fether,  and  to  practice 
many  other  evils.  When  gambling  with  his  associates  on 
a  First-day,  at  the  suggestion  of  one  of  the  party,  they 
robbed  a  young  man  who  happened  to  pass.  For  this  offence 
several  of  them  were  transported.  Though  he  had  forsaken 
his  evil  ways  and  was  now  filling  an  honourable  post,  he  still 
felt  keenly  the  bitter  consequences  of  his  former  vices,  for 
which  he  was  still  in  bondage. 

6th  mo.  22nd.  We  had  the  crew  of  the  pilot-boat  assem- 
bled, along  with  the  persons  on  board  the  Tamar,  and,  after 
reading  a  portion  of  Scripture  to  them,  spoke  on  the  impor- 
tance of  avoiding  to  ridicule  religion  in  their  companions  or 
others,  who  might  be  disposed  to  attend  to  its  duties ;  we  also 
exhorted  them  to  consider  what  would  be  the  feeling  respect- 
ing having  given  way  to  such  ridicule,  when  reflecting  upon 
it,  on  a  death  bed. 

The  pilot  put  us  on  shore  on  the  north  beach,  upon  the 
sand  of  which  we  walked  a  few  miles,  in  company  with  the 
mate,  and  picked  up  some  small  Helmet-shells,  and  specimens 
of  a  large  digitated  sponge.  Several  Black-fish — a  small 
species  of  whale — ^were  driven  upon  this  beach  in  the  late 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

58  MACQUARIE    HARBOUR.  [6th  mO. 

storm.  A  spaniel  dog  that  accompanied  us^  rolled  itself  on 
the  partially  decomposed  carcase  of  each  of  these  as  he  came 
at  it ;  I  could  not  discover  for  what  object. 

Parties  of  Aborigines  resort  hither  at  certain  seasons. 
They  cross  the  mouth  of  the  harbour  on  floats^  in  the  form 
of  a  boat,  made  of  bundles  of  the  paper-like  bark  of  the 
Swamp  Tea-tree,  lashed  side  by  side,  by  means  of  tough 
grass.  On  these,  three  or  four  persons  are  placed,  and  one 
swims  on  each  side,  holding  it  with  one  hand.  These 
Aborigines  are  said  to  be  shy,  but  not  to  have  committed 
any  outrage.  One  of  them  exchanged  a  girl  of  about 
fourteen  years  of  age,  for  a  dog,  with,  the  people  at  the  Pilot 
Station;  but  the  girl  not  liking  her  situation  was  taken 
back,  and  the  dog  returned. 

23rd.  We  went  on  shore  close  by  the  vessel,  and  on  the 
way  to  the  Pilot  Station  passed  some  large  patches  of  a 
species  of  Blan^ordia — a  lily-like  plant,  with  a  crest  of 
scarlet  tubular  flowers — ^which  abounds  also  at  Port  Davey. 

We  afterwards  traversed  a  portion  of  the  beach,  open  to 
the  sea  on  the  south,  near  Cape  SoreU.  It  consisted  of 
numerous  little  bays;  some  sandy,  others  shingly,  some 
rocky,  and  others  covered  thickly  with  decomposing  kelp  of 
enormous  size,  the  smell  of  which  was  very  disagreeable. 
Multitudes  of  maggots  are  produced  in  it,  on  which  flocks  of 
White  Cockatoos  feed,  that  roost  among  the  large  bushes 
on  the  shore.  Ducks  and  other  sea-fowl  also  find  a  plentiful 
supply  of  food  in  the  maggots,  which  are  floated  off  in  abun- 
dance by  the  rising  tide.  The  rotten  kelp  affords  a  manure 
to  the  peaty  garden  of  the  pilot,  so  congenial  to  the  growth 
of  potatoes,  that  those  grown  there  exceed  the  best  I  ever 
saw  in  England. — ^There  was  a  lichen  on  the  neighbouring 
hills,  of  the  same  race  as  the  Reindeer-moss,  but  of  a  texture 
resembling  delicate  net-work.  In  the  abundant  rain,  it  was 
distended  into  masses  resembling  cauliflowers.  Like  some 
of  its  congeners,  it  seemed  as  if  it  might  be  used  for  food : 
its  taste  was  insipid,  and  I  found  no  inconvenience  from 
eating  it. 

We  remained  all  night  at  the  pilot's  house,  and  in  the 
morning  had  a  meeting  with  the  men,  in  which  we  were 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  59 

made  deeply  sensible  of  the  goodness  and  mercy  of  the 
Lord ;  before  whom  we  also  spent  some  time  in  silent  wait- 
ing, greatly  to  our  comfort. 

27th.  In  a  walk,  I  found  the  scrub  so  thick  and  en- 
tangled, that  I  was  under  the  necessity  of  cutting  my 
way  through  it  with  the  back  of  a  saw ;  but  when  weary 
of  doing  this,  I  waded  past  it  in  the  salt-water. — In  some 
places,  in  this  wet  country,  cyperaceous  plants,  which  some- 
what resemble  rushes,  entwine  themselves  among  the  larger 
shrubs,  and  ascend  to  their  tops,  and  lichens  hang  to  a  great 
length  from  the  boughs  of  some  of  the  trees.  The  sand- 
banks at  the  mouth  of  Macquarie  Harbour  are  covered  with 
Boobialla,  a  species  of  AcaciUy  the  roots  of  which  run  far  in 
the  sand.  Black  Cockatoos  and  some  other  birds  enlivened 
the  bush.  Sometimes  large  White  Eagles  were  seen  sitting 
on  boughs  overhanging  the  water,  watching  for  fish. 

On  the  9th  of  7th  mo.  the  Commandant  and  the  Surgeon 
paid  us  a  visit ;  they  had  previously  sent  us  a  fresh  stock 
of  provisions  from  the  Settlement,  those  with  which  we 
originally  set  out  being  nearly  consumed;  and  now,  after 
waiting  eighteen  days  for  a  feir  wind,  we  crossed  the  bar 
without  touching ;  and  soon  passed  the  northernmost  rocks 
of  Cape  Sorell.  The  following  evening  we  were  in  sight 
of  South  West  Cape.  We  laid-to  till  daylight  on  the 
11th,  and  then  entered  D^Entrecasteaux  Channel;  where, 
on  passing  some  whalers,  they  informed  us  that  we  were 
reported  in  Hobart  Town  to  be  lost.  In  consequence  of 
adverse  winds  we  were  unable  to  relieve  our  friends  from 
anxiety  on  this  point  till  the  13th,  when  we  were  favoured 
again  to  land  in  safety  and  received  many  greetings. 

Our  old  lodging  being  engaged,  arrangements  were  made 
for  a  temporary  residence  with  Thomas  J.  and  Sarah  Crouch, 
a  pious  young  couple,  who  received  us  into  their  femily  in 
Christian  good-will,  and  to  whose  house  we  continued  to 
resort,  as  lodgers,  for  several  years. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Report  to  the  lieat.  Gk)Temor. — ^Thanksgiving. — ^Death  of  a  Pensioner. — ^War. 
— Clarence  Plains. — Hospitality. — OoTernment  Schools. — Chain-gang. — Scor- 
pions. — Centipedes.  —  Muddy  Plains .  —  Settlers. — South  Arm. — Liberty. — 
Kangaroo. — Box  and  Cow  Fishes. — ^Illicit  Spirit  Dealer. — Princess  Boyal 
stranded. — Snow  Storm. — Richmond. — ^Trees. — ^Imported  Fruit-trees. — ^New 
Houses. — Bush-rangers. — Security. — Meeting.  — Coal  Birer. — Settlers. — Oven 
Hills. — ^Orielton. — ^Wages  paid  at  Public  Houses. — Sorell  Town. — ^Windmill. — 
Rich  Land. — Temperance  Meeting — Lower  Settlement. — Sober  Anglo-Tas- 
manians. — View. — Spring. — Birds,  &c. — ^Anniversary  of  Departure  from 

We  remained  in  Hobart  Town  a  month ;  in  the  course  of  which, 
in  compliance  with  a  request  from  the  Lieutenant  Governor, 
we  presented  him  with  a  report  on  the  state  of  the  Penal 
Settlement  at  Macquarie  Harbour ;  the  substance  of  which  is 
contained  in  the  preceding  remarks. 

Our  meetings  for  worship,  during  this  period,  were  often 
attended  by  pious  persons  in  an  inquiring  state  of  mind, 
to  whom  we  were  enabled  to  impart  religious  counsel. 
We  had  also  discussions  with  some  of  them  on  the  principles 
of  the  Society  of  Friends,  which  we  endeavoured  to  show 
were  those  of  the  Gospel  practically  carried  out. 

When  taking  a  meal  with  pious  persons,  I  was  frequently 
requested  to  give  thanks.  This  being  intended  as  a  mark  of 
Christian  courtesy  to  a  stranger  minister,  I  received  it  as 
such ;  but  we  found  it  necessary  to  explain,  that  it  was  our 
practice  on  such  occasions,  to  endeavour  to  feel  thankful,  but 
not  to  give  expression  to  their  feeling  on  behalf  of  ourselves 
and  others,  unless  under  such  a  sense  of  divine  influence  as 
warranted  the  belief  that  it  was  done  in  spirit  and  in  truth. 

Digitized  by 


1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  61 

Though,  in  the  course  of  our  travels,  we  were  sometimes 
present  when  thanksgiving  was  uttered  in  a  formal  way, 
which  left  upon  the  mind,  the  impression,  that  God  was 
drawn  nigh  unto  with  the  lip,  while  the  heart  was  far  from 
him ;  yet  we  were  often  sensible  of  a  measure  of  the 
influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  when  thanksgiving  was  de- 
voutly uttered  by  those  who  were  in  the  constant  practice 
of  using  expression  on  such  occasions.  Nevertheless,  when 
we  were  present,  where  the  attention  of  the  company  was 
individually  turned  to  the  Lord,  in  a  short  period  of  silence, 
in  order  to  feel  thankful,  and  to  acknowledge  this  feeling 
in  the  secret  of  the  heart,  we  were  sensible  of  a  greater 
measure  of  divine  influence,  which  comforted  our  minds, 
under  the  belief  that  the  Father  of  mercies  condescended 
more  decidedly,  to  mark  this  homage  with  approbation. 

One  of  the  pensioners  who  came  to  this  land  by  the 
Science,  died  in  the  Hospital  about  this  time.  He  came  under 
powerful  convictions  for  sin,  on  the  passage  hither,  and  ap- 
peared to  find  a  measure  of  peace  through  faith  in  Christ,  and 
to  be  seeking  help  from  God,  in  a  humble  frame  of  mind.  At 
that  time  he  abstained  from  drunkenness,  but  he  could  not  be 
persuaded  to  give  up  taking  his  ration  of  spirits,  alleging  that 
the  water  was  bad,  and  required  qualifying.  He  had  formerly 
been  affected  with  dropsy,  and  having  kept  alive  an  appetite 
for  intoxicating  drink,  his  old  shipmates  succeeded,  after  he 
landed,  in  prevailing  upon  him  to  drink  largely.  This  soon 
produced  a  recurrence  of  the  disease,  and  again  brought  dark- 
ness over  his  mind,  and  in  his  last  days,  nothing  could  be 
learned  to  afford  any  ground  of  hope  in  his  death. 

Meeting  with  a  young  man  who  had  thoughts  of  entering 
the  artillery,  I  endeavoured  to  dissuade  him.  Nothing  seems 
to  me  more  clear,  than  that  if  we  ^  do  to  others  as  we  would 
that  they  should  do  to  us,'  we  cannot  fight ;  and  that  if  we 
love  our  neighbour  as  ourselves,  we  cannot  make  war  upon 
him.  That  if  the  keeping  of  the  commandments  of  Jesus  be 
a  proof  of  our  love  to  him,  it  is  impossible  to  make  war,  and 
love  him ;  for  this  evil  is  as  much  opposed  to  his  command- 
ment, ^  If  thine  enemy  hunger,  feed  him,  and  if  he  thirst,  give 
him  drink,'  as  darkness  is  to  light.     It  seems  a  vain  attempt 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

62  CLARENCE    PLAINS.  [8th  mO. 

to  elude  the  force  of  this  injunction^  by  saying  it  applies  to 
persons^  and  not  to  nations.  Is  not  this  making  the  com- 
mandment of  none  effect  by  the  tradition  of  men  ? 

8th  mo.  15th.  We  crossed  the  Derwent  to  Kangaroo 
Point — a  distance  of  about  three  miles — ^in  an  open  boat; 
and  travelled  along  a  cart  track  through  the  Bush^  to  the 
house  of  a  Government  Surveyor  on  Clarence  Plains,  whose 
wife  was  our  fellow-passenger  firom  England.  Here  we  were 
received  with  that  hospitality  for  which  the  settlers  in  this 
country  are  justly  celebrated,  and  of  which  we  largely  partook 
during  our  journeying  among  them.  There  are  several  houses 
in  this  direction ;  but  as  is  generally  the  case  in  this  coimtry, 
most  of  the  land  is  unenclosed,  grassy  forest.  The  few  fields 
which  are  near  the  houses  are  fenced  with  posts  and  rails. 

16th.  We  visited  one  of  the  Government  Schools,  many 
of  which  are  established  in  different  parts  of  the  Island.  They 
are  generally  imperfectly  organized  on  the  plan  of  the  English 
National  Schools,  which  is  far  from  working  well  with  the 
small  and  irregular  attendance  general  in  this  country. 
This  originates  in  the  lack  of  interest,  induced  by  the 
schools  being  free,  the  want  of  a  proper  value  for  education 
on  the  part  of  parents,  the  unsettled  and  imdisciplined  habits 
which  prevail  extensively,  and  from  the  circumstances  in  which 
the  settlers  in  a  newly-occupied  country  are  generally  placed. 
Many  of  the  people  in  this  district  were  formerly  resident  on 
Norfolk  Island;  from  whence  they  were  removed  by  the 
Government :  they  have  had  too  little  education  themselves 
to  be  able  to  estimate  its  value  for  their  children. 

1 7th.  We  visited  a  chain-gang  stationed  at  Kangaroo  Point, 
consisting  of  twenty-nine  men,  employed  in  making  roads,  &c. 
While  speaking  to  the  men  as  they  sat  on  the  ground  at  the 
dinner  hour,  a  Scorpion  came  out  of  a  log  upon  their  fire,  and 
attempted  in  vain  to  escape  from  the  heat ;  it  became  affected 
with  convulsive  movements,  by  which  its  tail  struck  its  back. 
Probably  something  of  this  kind  may  have  given  rise  to  the 
notion,  that  a  scorpion  commits  suicide  by  stinging  itself 
when  surrounded  by  fire.  Scorpions  are  common  in  this 
coimtry  among  decayed  timber ;  they  are  of  small  sise,  and 
their  sting  is  not  much  worse  than  that  of  a  wasp.     A  green. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBMENS    LAND.  63 

TenomoQS  Centipede,  about  three  inches  long,  is  fotind  in 
similar  situations,  and  among  stones.  Its  bite  is  considered 
worse  than  the  sting  of  the  scorpion,  producing  gangrenous 
inflammation ;  but  from  the  habits  of  these  animals,  which 
sting  only  in  self-defence,  and  seek  retirement,  accidents 
rarely  happen  by  them. 

18th.  Haying  received  an  invitation  from  a  settler  named 
Robert  Mather,  to  pay  him  a  visit  at  Lauderdale,  on  Muddy 
Plains,  we  made  our  way  to  his  house,  crossing  a  salt  marsh, 
on  the  side  of  which  were  large  bushes  of  Shrubby  Sam- 
phire. R.  Mather  sent  notice  to  his  neighbours,  of  our  wish 
to  have  a  meeting  with  them,  and  walked  with  us  to  the  house 
of  an  industrious,  sober  couple,  who,  while  prospering  in  tem- 
poral things,  did  not  forget  the  importance  of  those  that  are 
spiritual.  A  well-worn  bible  was  lying  on  their  table,  and 
the  woman  told  us,  that  as  she  became  unable  to  do  needle- 
work by  candle-light,  she  spent  much  of  her  evenings  in 
reading  this  precious  book  to  her  family.  Her  husband  was  a 
marine,  and  is  a  pensioner.  He  was  formerly  addicted  to  the 
use  of  spirits,  tall,  like  many  others  in  this  country,  he  would 
bring  rum  home  in  a  bucket,  and  drink  it  neat  out  of  a  pint 
tin.  This,  his  wife  would  not  allow,  and  he  had  the  good 
sense  to  submit  to  her  better  government,  by  which  he  has 
become  greatly  raised  in  circumstances  and  in  comfort. 
They  have  a  neat,  clean  brick  house,  two  tidy  children, 
and  a  thriving  garden,  clear  of  weeds. — ^The  hills  on  the 
peninsula  of  Muddy  Plains  abound  with  Blue  Guin,'  Pepper- 
mint, and  She-Oak:  some  of  these  trees  as  well  as  another 
kind  called  He-Oak,  are  also  plentiful  on  the  lower  grounds. 

19th.  We  had  a  meeting  on  R.  Mather's  premises,  with 
about  twenty-five  persons,  some  of  whom  were  prisoners,  in 
which  the  people  were  warned  against  habitual  sins.  Drunken- 
ness and  swearing  were  particularly  adverted  to,  as  openly 
dishonouring  Ood  and  serving  the  devil. 

20th.  Accompanied  by  R.  Mather,  we  called  on  several 
of  the  settlers,  many  of  whom  are  of  the  poorer  class,  to 
whom  we  spoke  on  the  importance  of  attending  to  their 
spiritual  concerns,  and  gave  some  tracts,  for  which  they 
appeared  grateful.    We  dined  with  a  respectable  family  living 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

64  MUDDY  PLAINS.  [8th  mo. 

in  a  hut  of  the  humblest  structure,  who  increased  their  means 
of  support,  by  converting  into  lime,  such  shells  as  have  accu- 
mulated in  great  abundance  on  the  shore  of  Ralphs  Bay.  At 
this  place  we  met  with  William  Gellibrand — a  settler  resid- 
ing on  a  peninsula  in  the  Derwent  called  South  Arm, — and 
accepting  an  invitation  to  visit  his  establishment,  proceeded 
thither  in  a  lime  boat.  W.  Gellibrand's  hoi^se  is  situated 
near  the  northern  extremity  of  the  peninsula :  it  commands 
a  view  of  Ralphs  Bay  and  the  Derwent,  backed  by  the 
woody  hills  on  the  shore,  with  Hobart  Town  at  the  distance 
of  9  miles.  This  part  of  South  Arm  is  a  little  elevated. 
Basaltic  and  grit  rocks  project  on  its  steep  sides ;  on  which 
Qulls  and  Shags  roost  in  great  numbers.  Peach  and  almond 
trees  are  coming  into  blossom  in  the  well-stocked  garden. 
The  native  grass  of  the  country  is  thin;  but  the  land  in 
tillage  yields  a  fair  return.  The  intelligent  proprietor  pays 
more  attention  than  most  persons,  to  the  comfort  and 
morals  of  his  assigned  servants.  This  attaches  them  to 
him,  and  raises  a  tone  of  feeling  in  their  minds  congenial 
to  their  reformation.  On  conversing  with  one  of  these  men, 
who  has  had  an  unusual  measure  of  privilege  during  the  time 
he  has  been  a  prisoner,  respecting  the  comparative  difficulties 
he  might  expect  on  becoming  free,  his  sentence  expiring  in 
a  few  days ;  he  remarked,  ^^  But,  Sir,  Liberty  is  sweet  \" 

21st.  We  returned  to  the  main  land,  and  dined  with  an 
interesting  family  of  Independents.  Here  we  first  partook 
of  Kangaroo,  the  taste  of  which  is  somewhat  intermediate 
between  that  of  beef  and  mutton :  it  is  usually  served  up 
with  bacon  in  a  kind  of  hash  called  '^  a  steamer.'^ 

22nd.  Accompanied  by  a  son  of  R.  Mather,  we  visited 
the  settlers  around  the  Pipeclay  Lagoon,  which  opens  into  the 
sea,  and  on  the  shores  of  which  were  lying  the  remains  of 
some  Box  and  Cow-fishes.  These  are  about  four  inches  long, 
and  are  encased  in  coats  of  mail;  having  apertures  for  their 
mouths,  eyes,  fins  and  tails.  One  of  the  people  on  whom 
we  called  is  said  to  be  an  illicit  dealer  in  spirits,  or  what 
is  called  in  the  Colony,  the  keeper  of  a  ^'Sly-grog-shop.'* 
These  are  a  description  of  persons  that  are  a  great  nuisance, 
but  it  is  difficult  to   obtain   evidence    against  them,    and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  65 

they  are  rather  numerous  in  the  Australian  Colonies^  espe- 
cially in  remote  places. 

23rd.  Proceeding  across  a  salt  marsh  to  the  shores  of 
Frederick  Henry  Bay,  we  saw  the  Princess  Royal — a  vessel 
with  female  emigrants  from  England — driving  from  her 
anchors,  in  a  violent  storm  of  wind  and  snow.  She  was 
perceived  also  by  some  persons  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
bay,  who  lighted  a  fire  as  a  signal,  on  a  point,  behind  which 
was  a  mud  bed;  on  this,  the  ship  went  safely  on  shore 
in  the  night,  the  helmsman  attending  to  an  instruction 
received  from  the  land,  in  a  welcome  English  tongue,  when 
those  on  board  knew  not  on  what  coast  they  were  driving. 
We  took  refuge  from  the  snow  storm  in  the  house  of  a 
settler  from  Uxbridge,  by  whom  we  were  hospitably  en- 
tertained ;  and  afterward  proceeded  to  Glen  Ayr,  the  resi- 
dence of  William  de  Gillern,  which  we  made  out  when 
almost  dark,  by  following  the  barking  of  a  dog,  and  where 
we  felt  the  value  of  a  kind  welcome,  after  a  walk  of  15 
miles  in  snow,  wet  and  mire. 

24th.  The  snow  was  about  three  inches  thick  in  the 
morning;  but  defending  ourselves  against  the  frequent 
showers,  we  went  to  Richmond,  to  arrange  for  holding  a 
meeting.  The  court-house  was  readily  granted  for  the 
purpose  by  William  T.  Parramore,  the  Police  Magistrate; 
who  also  ordered  a  constable  to  invite  the  inhabitants.  The 
court-house  at  this  time  was  used  as  a  place  of  worship  by 
the  Episcopalians  and  Wesleyans.  The  town  of  Richmond 
consisted  of  the  court-house,  a  jail,  a  windmill,  and  about  30 
dwelling-houses,  three  of  which  were  inns.  It  is  prettily  situ- 
ated, at  the  extremity  of  an  inlet  called  the  Sweet  Water. 

In  the  evening  we  returned  to  Glen  Ayr.  The  snow 
among  trees  in  full  foliage,  presented  a  novel  appearance  to 
an  Englishman. — ^All  the  trees  and  shrubs  of  this  country 
are  evergreens ;  and  with  the  exception  of  the  little  patches  of 
land  that  have  been  cleared  by  settlers,  may  be  said  to  cover 
the  whole  country.  The  thermometer  at  Richmond  was  at 
27°  several  times  this  winter. 

25th.  We  returned  to  Richmond,  and  called  upon  John 
H.   Butcher,  a  magistrate,  residing  in  an  unfinished  stone 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

66  RICHMOND.  [8th  mo. 

house  near  the  town ;  who,  when  he  came  to  this  country, 
brought  a  variety  of  fruit  trees,  packed  and  stowed  at  the 
bottom  of  the  ship's  hold.  The  Ribstone  Pippin,  French 
Crab,  Golden  Harvey,  and  a  few  other  sorts  of  choice 
apples,  survived  the  voyage,  and  have  stocked  the  gardens 
of  the  Colony,  in  which  fruits  of  this  kind  are  produced  in 
greater  abundance  and  perfection  than  in  England.  People 
in  this  country  often  occupy  houses  as  soon  as  they  are 
built,  and  finish  diem  as  they  have  opportunity.  In  the 
earlier  days  of  the  colony  J.  H.  Butcher,  as  well  as  many 
others,  was  robbed  of  much  of  what  was  available  in  his 
house,  by  Bush-rangers ;  but  these  marauders  have  been 
so  reduced,  diat  the  inhabitants  now  live  in  such  security, 
as  often  to  be  without  fastenings  to  their  doors  and  windows. 

26th.  We  had  a  religious  interview  with  the  prisoners 
in  the  jail,  and  a  meeting  with  the  inhabitants  in  the 
court-house.  In  the  latter,  it  did  not  seem  to  be  my 
place  to  express  much ;  nevertheless  I  was  well  satisfied  in 
having  appointed  the  meeting;  believing  that  if  people  were 
directed  to  wait  more  singly  upon  the  Lord,  they  would  not 
omit  assembling  for  worship  because  no  minister  was  pre- 
sent, as  some  did  to-day,  when  their  minister  was  prevented 
from  arriving  by  the  stormy  weather.  It  is  a  hurtful  thing 
to  lean  upon  man,  in  that  which  is  a  duty  to  God,  and  which 
ought  to  be  performed  in  spirit  and  in  truth. 

27tih.  Accompanied  by  J.  H.  Butcher,  we  visited  some 
of  the  settlers  upon  the  Coal  River.  The  district  which 
bears  this  name  is  remarkably  rich  and  fertile :  it  consists 
chiefly  of  extensive  grassy  levels,  and  gentle  undulations, 
thinly  timbered,  and  bounded  by  more  thickly  wooded  hills, 
of  various  height  and  form.  In  this  district  there  is  a 
striking  variety  in  the  settlers.  One  of  them  is  an  intel- 
ligent man  from  one  of  the  West  India  islands,  who  is 
improving  a  beautiful  park-like  estate,  on  which  he  has  put 
up  about  17  miles  of  post  and  rail  fence,  at  the  rate  of  jB/O 
per  mile,  by  free,  and  £60  by  convict  labour.  Another  was 
a  prisoner,  in  the  earlier  days  of  the  Colony:  he  became 
free  and  obtained  a  location  of  land,  but  retained  such 
a  love  for  strong  drink  as  was  incompatible  with  advance- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN   DIEMENS   LAND.  67 

ment  in  the  scale  of  society.  Few  of  this  class  have  retained 
their  possessions  ^  and  the  greater  strictness  in  the  penal 
discipUne  of  latter  years^  combined  with  the  new  regulations^ 
which  put  a  stop  to  the  granting  of  land^  and  only  allow  it 
to  become  the  property  of  settlers  by  purchase^  now  pre- 
cludes such  men  from  becoming  proprietors.  The  day  was 
bright  and  pleasant.  Numbers  of  little  green  Parrots  were 
extracting  honey  from  the  flowers  of  the  Black-butted  Gum- 
tree  ;  and  AnguUlaria  dioica,  a  little^  purple-spotted^  white- 
blossomed^  bulbous  plant,  was  decorating  a  sunny  bank^  as 
one  of  the  first  harbingers  of  spring. 

*28th.  We  have  lodged  a  few  nights  at  the  Lenox  Arms^ 
a  good  inn^  but  with  higher  charges  than  in  England.  This 
evenii^  we  returned  to  Glen  Ayr,  after  attending  a  meeting 
for  the  formation  of  a  Temperance  Society,  and  visiting  some 
caves,  in  a  range  of  hills  near  Richmond,  called  the  Oven 
Hills.  Formerly  they  were  the  resort  of  a  horde  of  bush- 
rangers, the  name  of  the  chief  of  whom  was  Michael  Howe. 
These  hills  are  of  silicious  sandstone,  and  are  clothed  chiefly 
with  thin  grass,  and  Gum  and  She  Oak  trees. 

29th.  We  visited  Orielton,  a  fine  estate,  on  which  a 
considerable  quantity  of  land  has  been  brought  into  cultiva- 
tion. Our  guide  thither  was  a  prisoner  constable,  from 
Birmingham.  On  remarking  to  him,  that  we  met  with  many 
prisoners  from  that  place,  he  replied,  that  many  of  them 
were  persons  who  had  formed  bad  habits,  beginning  with 
drinking ;  and  that  they  were  often  drawn  into  this  practice 
by  having  their  wages  paid  at  public-hoiises,  or  by  the 
wages  of  several  being  paid  to  one  man,  which  occasioned 
them  to  resort  to  public-houses  for  change,  in  order  to 
divide  the  sum.  From  Orielton  we  went  to  Sorell  Town, 
and  became  the  guests  of  James  Norman,  one  of  the  Co-' 
lonial  Chaplains,  with  whom  we  became  acquainted  in  Hobart 

30th.  Sorell  Town,  often  called  Pitt  Water,  firom  being 
situated  on  a  little  gulf  of  that  name,  has  a  neat  Episcopal 
place  of  worship,  a  parsonage,  a  Government  School-house, 
and  a  watch-house  of  stone,  as  well  as  about  50  houses  and 
cottages,  most  of  which  are  of  wood.      There  is  likewise 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

68  PITT  WATER.  [8th  mo. 

near  the  town^  a  hird-cage  windmill^ — a  lively  object,  and 
rare  in  this  country.  The  land  in  the  vicinity  is  considered 
the  richest  in  the  Colony ;  some  of  it  is  said  to  have  pro- 
duced sixteen  crops  of  wheat  in  succession,  many  of  them 
self-sown :  but  this  careless  sort  of  agriculture,  has  in  some 
places  allowed  Perennial  Cress,  an  imported  plant  that  has 
become  a  troublesome  weed,  to  take  almost  exclusive  pos- 
session of  the  land. — ^An  estate  of  400  acres  is  now  on  sale. 
The  price  asked  is  j£2,000 — a  large  sum  for  this  country. 
A  meeting  was  held  for  the  formation  of  a  Temperance 
Society:  it  was  the  first  for  a  philanthropic  purpose  ever 
held  in  the  place. 

31st.  We  visited  the  lower  settlement  on  Pitt  Water,  and 
dined  with  James  Gordon,  a  native  of  Middleton  Tyas, 
Yorkshire,  who  was  acquainted  with  some  of  the  older 
branches  of  my  family,  and  was  one  of  the  first  persons 
who  welcomed  me  to  this  land,  where  a  knowledge  of 
family  connexions,  is  a  source  of  great  interest,  often  pro- 
ducing pleasant  recollections.  At  his  house  we  found 
several  of  the  females  landed  from  the  Princess  Royal,  and 
formed  an  acquaintance  with  Charles  Price,  an  Independent 
Minister,  who  came  out  as  superintendent  of  the  female 
emigrants,  and  had  much  trouble  with  some  disorderly  in- 
dividuals, who  were  injudiciously  put  on  board,  to  the 
destruction  of  the  comfort  of  all  the  others.  In  the  evening 
we  had  a  meeting  with  a  small  company  in  the  Government 
School-house  at  Sorell  Town. 

9th  mo.  1st.  Accompanied  by  J.  H.  Butcher,  who  again 
joined  us  at  Sorell  Town,  we  visited  a  number  of  the 
settlers  to  the  north  of  that  place,  to  invite  them  to  a  meet- 
ing. Some  of  these  were  bom  on  Norfolk  Island  and  others 
in  this  Colony ;  and,  as  is  the  case  in  numerous  instances, 
these  are  less  intemperate  than  many  originally  from  Europe. 
— The  view  from  behind  Sorell  Town  is  striking  and  beau- 
tiful. Undulating,  cultivated  ground,  divided  into  fields 
by  post  and  rail  fences,  and  ornamented  by  the  scattered 
dwellings  of  settlers,  stretches  in  various  directions  among 
the  woody  hills,  except  to  the  south,  where  the  lively- 
looking  little  town  stands  on  the  shore  of  Pitt  Water,  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  69 

which  are  several  small  islands.  On  its  further  side  is  a 
long  and  narrow  woody  point  of  land^  over  which  are  seen 
the  sea  in  Frederick  Henry  Bay^  the  hills  of  Tasmans 
Peninsula  and  Muddy  Plains^  and  more  remotely^  those  of 
Bruny  Island.  In  the  distance,  surmounting  the  lower  hills 
to  the  west,  Moimt  Wellington,  the  top  of  which  is  still 
covered  with  snow,  bounds  the  interesting  picture.  The 
weather  has  become  as  fine  as  that  of  5th  month,  in  England. 
Many  little  flowers  begin  to  enamel  the  ground,  one  of  which 
is  too  much  like  an  English  daisy  not  to  excite  the  pleasing 
recollections  associated  with  that  little  flower.  Others,  by 
their  form  and  colour,  bespeak  the  antipodes  of  England: 
and  *^ strange  bright  birds'^  of  the  parrot  tribe,  as  they 
exhibit  in  the  sun  their  brilliant  plumage  of  crimson,  yellow, 
blue,  and  green,  remind  the  British  spectator,  that  he  is  in 
a  foreign  land;  his  ears  are  also  assailed  by  the  strange 
sound  of  their  screaming  voices,  and  by  the  imceasing  noise 
of  frogs  and  crickets,  the  former  of  which  often  rival  that 
of  a  spinning  miU. 

By  the  day  of  the  week,  it  is  a  year  since  we  sailed  from 
London.  The  time  seems  to  have  gone  rapidly,  though 
we  have  passed  through  a  great  variety  of  scenes.  On  the 
5th,  it  will  be  a  year  since  we  saw  the  fiice  of  a  member  of 
our  own  Society,  to  which  we  do  not  feel  the  less  attached 
on  that  accoimt.  The  remembrance  of  the  last  meeting  we 
were  at,  with  our  fellow  professors,  is  still  fresh  in  our  recollec- 
tion. The  Comforter,  who  powerfully  affected  our  minds  at 
that  time,  is  still,  through  the  mercy  of  God  in  Christ 
Jesus,  present  with  us,  to  bless  and  to  keep  us;  so  that 
from  season  to  season  we  can  acknowledge  that  the  Lord 
hath  dealt  bountifully  with  us. 

On  the  2nd  we  had  a  meeting  with  about  70  persons, 
in  the  school-house  at  Sorell  Town,  and  on  the  3rd,  after  a 
rough  passage  over  the  Bluff  Ferry,  and  a  walk  of  nine 
miles  through  the  bush,  we  re-crossed  the  Derwent,  in  a 
large  boat,  from  Kangaroo  Point,  to  Hobart  Town,  where 
we  were  cheered  by  letters  from  our  friends  in  England. 

F  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Attendance  of  Meetings. — ^Religions  Communications. — ^Embarkation  for  Flinders 
Island. — Cape  Roanl. — ^Port  Arthur. — PerUons  Situation. — Cape  Pillar. — 
Birds. — Maria  Island. — Spring  Bay. — ^Prisoner  Seaman. — Octopodia. — ^Frey- 
cinets  Peninsula. — ^Trees,  &c. — Black  Swans. — Schouten  Passage. — ^Mutton 
Birds. — Swan  Island. — ^Banks's  Strait. — Superstition  of  Sailors. — Wreck. — 
Preservation  Island. — Sealers  and  Native  Women. — ^Black  Snakes — Oreen 

With  the  exception  of  holding  a  meeting  with  a  road  party 
at  a  place  called  Robleys  Barn^  and  another  with  the 
inhabitants  of  Clarence  Plains,  in  a  school-house,  on  the 
-east  side  of  the  Derwent,  we  remained  in  Hobart  Town  till 
the  25th  of  9th  month.  In  the  mean  time,  a  few  persons  be- 
gan to  meet  with  us  frequently  for  public  worship ;  among 
these  was  a  member  of  our  Society,  who  came  out  to  the  Swan 
River,  but  not  succeeding  there,  proceeded  to  V.  D.  Land, 
and  took  up  his  residence  in  Hobart  Town,  where  he  has  not 
found  it  easy  to  obtain  a  Uvelihood.  At  the  conclusion  of 
one  of  our  meetings,  a  young  man  informed  me,  that  he  felt 
burdened  in  mind  from  not  having  expressed  something 
that  had  impressed  him,  believing  that  he  ought  to  have 
communicated  it.  I  therefore  requested  the  company  again 
to  take  their  seats ;  and  he  proceeded  in  a  humble  but  feeling 
manner,  to  comment  on  the  declaration  of  Christ,  ''My 
yoke  is  easy  and  my  burden  is  light ;  '^  saying,  he  had  felt  it 
so,  when  he  had  waited  on  the  Lord  for  strength ;  but  that 
when  he  had  attempted  in  his  own  will  and  strength  to 
perform  religioiis  acts,  he  had  become  burdened  by  them. 
At  another  time,  after  I  had  made  some  remarks  on 
the   advantage   of  allowing  the   mind   to  dwell  under  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  7l 

influenoe  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  in  silence^  alter  vocal  aappK- 
cation^  a  good  old  Wesleyan  observed^  that  the  remarks 
reminded  him  of  the  expressions  in  the  parable  of  the  Sower, 
^  Immediately  Satan  cometh  and  taketh  away  that  which  was 
sown.  '^  This,  he  said^  he  had  often  noticed  to  be  the  case, 
in  passing  immediately  from  religious  exercises  to  con- 
versation, without  taking  time  to  dwell  under  the  impressions 

25th.  Having  received  the  sanction  of  the  Lieutenant 
Governor^  to  visit  the  Establishment  for  the  Aborigines 
on  Flinders  Island  (Great  Island,  of  Maps)  in  Bass's  Straits, 
we  embarked  in  the  Charlotte  Cutter,  John  Thornloe, 
a  young  man  from  Doncaster,  commanding  her  for  the 
voyage.  The  little  cabin  was  in  such  confasion  when 
we  went  on  board,  that  during  much  of  the  day,  which 
was  wet,  we  could  do  little  to  advantage  but  stand  still  and 
exercise  patience,  till  others  got  their  luggage  out  of  the  way. 
In  the  evening  the  cutter  drifted  against  the  Challenger  Man- 
of-war,  in  the  dark.  Without  discovering,  so  feur  as  we 
could  make  out,  that  the  Cutter  was  a  Government  vessel^ 
the  officers  and  men  on  board  that  ship,  exerted  themselves 
with  civility  and  kindness,  and  cleared  us  without  cutting 

26th.  Early  in  the  morning  we  sailed,  and  in  the  even- 
ing, passed  Cape  Raoul  or  Basaltes,  a  magnificent  mass  of 
perpendicular  basaltic  columns,  forming  the  south  west  point 
of  Tasmans  Peninsula. 

27th.  We  put  into  Port  Arthur,  a  penal  settlement 
lately  formed  to  receive  prisoners  from  one,  recently  given  up 
on  Maria  Island. — ^The  Clarence  bound  for  England  put  in 
here  to-day,  to  deliver  up  three  prisoners,  found  on  board 
after  sailing  firom  Hobart  Town ;  who  had  stowed  themselves 
away  in  the  hope  of  escaping. — Port  Arthur  is  much  of  the 
same  character  as  Macquarie  Harbour^  but  being  newly 
formed,  it  is  less  organized. — ^Allowing  such  of  the  prisoners 
as  conducted  themselves  well  at  this  place,  a  few  square 
yards  of  ground  for  gardens,  and  a  small  quantity  of  tea  and 
sugar,  had  a  very  beneficial  influence  upon  their  conduct, 
but  these  indulgences  being  considered  incompatible  with 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

72  BAST  COAST.  [9th  mo, 

the  rigid  nature  of  the  discipline  intended  to  be  maintained 
at  such  stations^  were  after  a  time  withdrawn. 

28th.  We  again  proceeded  on  our  voyage,  but  got  to  sea 
with  great  difficulty.  At  one  time  the  cutter  "  missed  stays.*' 
Though  little  of  a  sailor,  I  saw  the  only  alternative  was  to 
get  way  upon  the  vessel,  by  running  directly  toward  a  rock 
near  us,  and  on  which  there  was  a  danger  of  being  wrecked, 
and  then  to  try  again.  The  commander  of  the  vessel,  though 
an  intrepid  young  man,  had  turned  pale  with  fear,  but  on 
my  promptly  pointing  out  the  possibility  of  escape  by  this 
means,  he  recovered  his  courage,  and  made  the  efiFort,  which 
proved  successful ;  the  vessel  amswered  her  helm,  and  we 
glided  safely  past  the  point  of  impending  of  danger.  In  the 
course  of  the  day  we  rounded  Cape  Pillar  and  Tasmans 
Island,  which  is  aJso  of  columnar  basalt,  and  in  the  evening 
were  oflF  the  Hippolyte  Rocks.  Near  Cape  Pillar  we  fell  in 
with  the  barque  Bolina,  of  London,  on  her  passage  from 
New  Zealand.  Along  the  coast  many  Gannets  were  diving 
for  fish,  which  they  dart  upon  from  a  considerable  height  in 
the  air.  Albatrosses,  Cape  Pigeons,  and  Blue  and  Stormy 
Petrels,  were  seen  at  intervals.  Large  flocks  of  Mutton- 
birds  were  flying  about  Tasmans  Island  at  sunset. 

29th.  We  beat  up  between  Maria  Island  and  the  main  land. 
The  coast  of  the  latter  was  steep  and  woody.  Some  parts  of 
Maria  Island  are  lofty :  the  northern  end  is  3,000  feet  high, 
and  steep :  the  island  is  divided  into  two  portions  by  a  low 
sandy  neck.  Black-fish,  Gannets,  and  Mutton-birds  were 
seen ;  and  in  the  evening,  we  were  cheered  by  lights  on  the 
coast,  at  the  house  of  a  settler,  and  at  a  whaling  station,  in 
Spring  Bay.  The  last  proved  of  great  service  in  directing 
the  course  of  the  cutter,  which  dropped  anchor  at  midnight, 
the  wind  having  failed. 

30th.  We  had  reading  on  deck.  The  company,  among 
whom  were  a  few  other  passengers,  did  not  exhibit  much 
appearance  of  religion,  but  some  of  them  showed  evidence 
of  the  want  of  it.  One  of  the  crew,  a  prisoner  having  a 
ticket  of  leave,  who  had  been  educated  in  a  school  on  the  sys- 
tem of  the  British  and  Foreign  School  Society,  at  Norwich, 
said  he   had   not  met  with   any   of  his   school-fellows   in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  73 

this  Colony^  except  one  of  his  own  brothers.  These  men^ 
as  well  as  some  others,  retain  a  sense  of  the*  kindness  they 
met  with  from  Joseph  John  Gumey,  Peter  Bedford,  Eli- 
zabeth Fry,  and  some  others  of  our  friends  in  England^ 
such  as  gives  us  a  more  ready  access  to  their  best  feel- 

In  the  afternoon  we  again  made  sail,  passed  Green  Island^ 
which  has  been  stocked  with  Rabbits,  and  made  a  course 
outside  the  White  Rock,  oflF  Oyster  Bay,  on  which  the  kind 
of  Seal  that  affords  rich  fur,  is  occasionally  taken.  In 
Spring  Bay  one  of  the  people  fishing,  brought  up  a  species 
of  Octopodia,  an  animal  of  the  Cuttle-fish  tribe,  with  eight 
arms^  which  in  this  specimen  were  15  inches  long.  These 
it  fixed  to  whatever  came  in  its  way,  by  means  of  circular, 
saucer-like  suckers.  It  travelled  with  its  mouth,  which  is 
in  the  centre  of  the  arms  and  like  the  beak  of  a  parrot, 
downward,  and  its  red  body  of  about  3  inches  long,  and  like 
an  oval  fleshy  bag,  upward.  Between  these,  its  large  eyes 
were  very  conspicuous.  Its  strange  appearance  and  re- 
markable movements,  excited  no  small  degree  of  surprise 
among  our  company. 

10th  mo.  1st.  Mutton  Birds  were  in  such  vast  flocks, 
that,  at  a  distance,  they  seemed  as  thick  as  bees  when 
swarming. — ^The  wind  became  adverse,  and  fearing  lest  we 
should  be  driven  out  to  sea,  we  ran  into  Schouten  Passage, 
and  brought  up  under  Preycinets  Peninsula,  in  Oyster  Bay, 
where  we  went  on  shore.  One  of  the  soldiers,  going  as  a 
guard  to  Flinder's  Island,  shot  a  Black  Swan,  on  a  lagoon 
running  parallel  with  the  beach.  The  hills  on  the  peninsula 
are  red,  porphyritic  granite,  as  are  also  some  of  those  on 
Schouten  Island  ;  but,  on  the  inside  of  the  latter,  which  is 
about  four  miles  across,  the  newer  formations  occur  vertically. 
On  the  hills,  are  the  Blue  Gum,  the  Oyster  Bay  Pine,  and  the 
CaUiiris  pyramidalisy  which  is  a  Cypress-like  tree. — ^The  bush 
here  was  gay  with  various  shrubs,  among  which  were  several 
species  of  Acacia,  Boronia  and  Hibbertia,  some  of  the 
Epacris  tribe,  Pomaderris  elliptica,  with  large  clusters  of 
small  sulphur  coloured  blossoms,  and  Comesperma  voltUnliSy 
a  beautiftil  climber,  the  flowers  of  which,  in  spring,  hang 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

74  8CHOUTBN    PASSAGE.  [10th  mO. 

in  blue  festoons^  among  the  bushes^  in  all  parts  of  V.  D. 

2nd.  The  wind  continuing  adverse^  the  cutter  remained 
at  anchor.  Some  of  the  men  procured  another  Black  Swan 
and  some  ^gs.  I  took  a  solitary  walk  among  the  hills,  in 
the  course  of  which  I  was  brought  into  close  self-examina- 
tion, and  given  to  feel  afresh  the  importance  of  watchful- 
ness and  prayer,  and  of  the  continued  exercise  of  faith 
in  Christ;  thus  the  traversing  of  the  uninhabited  wilds, 
to  observe  the  works  of  Him,  whose  all-seeing  eye  beholds 
us  in  the  deepest  solitudes,  as  well  as  in  the  most  crowded 
haunts  of  men,  was  made  conducive  to  my  spiritual 

3rd.  This  morning  I  took  three  fine  Flat-heads,  which, 
with  a  Swanks  egg,  contributed  toward  an  abundant  break- 
fast: the  latter  is  rather  inferior  to  the  egg  of  a  common 
fowl.  In  the  forenoon  the  anchor  was  weighed,  and  sail 
made ;  but  just  when  we  got  near  the  outside  of  the  passage, 
the  wind  failed,  and  left  us  drifting  from  side  to  side  for  several 
hours,  so  that  it  was  necessary  from  time  to  time,  to  tow 
the  head  of  the  vessel  round  by  means  of  a  boat,  to  keep 
her  from  drifting  against  the  terrific,  granite  rocks,  which 
are  too  perpendicular  to  allow  of  anchorage  near  them. 
The  dangers  of  a  calm  do  not  appear  to  be  much  less  in 
such  a  situation,  than  those  of  a  storm.  Though  no  one 
expressed  fear,  anxiety  was  marked  on  many  countenances, 
during  this  time  of  suspense,  from  which  we  were  at  length 
favoured  to  be  relieved  by  the  turn  of  the  tide,  which  carried 
us  out  to  sea. 

7ih.  During  the  last  three  days,  we  have  been  beating 
up  the  coast  against  a  contrary  wind.  Yesterday  the  brig 
Helen,  from  the  Isle  of  France  to  Sydney,  with  sugar,  sent 
a  boat  to  the  Charlotte,  and  obtained  a  bag  of  biscuit,  hav- 
ing run  short  of  this  necessary  article.  A  Right  Wliale,  a 
shark,  and  niunerous  flocks  of  birds,  were  seen.  The  flocks 
of  Mutton-birds  sometimes  formed  dense  lines  near  the  ho- 
rizon, that  might  have  been  mistaken  for  rocks  or  land. 
Their  flight  is  usually  low ;  they  move  their  wings  smartly 
a  few   times,    and  then  soar  with   them  motionless   for   a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

18S2.]  VAN   DnSMENS    I<AND.  J 5 

considerable  distance^  except  in  taming  or  changing  their 
altitude^  which  they  effect  by  altering  the  position  of  their 
wings.  A  flock  of  them  was  swimming  off  Ekldystone 
Point.  In  the  course  of  the  forenoon  we  dropped  anchor 
in  13  fathoms  water,  under  Swan  Island,  in  Banks^s  Strait, 
to  avoid  drifting  back  with  the  strong  tide.  To  the  south 
we  had  the  low  sandy  shore  of  Cape  Portland,  with  low 
woody  and  grassy  hilLs  further  distant;  and  to  the  north, 
Clarkes  Island,  and  Cape  Barren  Island,  with  its  lofty 

The  superstition  of  sailors  often  leads  them  to  attribute 
a  tedious  voyage  to  having  some  unlucky  person  in  the 
vessel.  On  hearing  one  of  them  remark,  that  we  must  have 
some  Jonah  on  board,  I  took  occasion  to  observe,  that  it 
would  be  well  if  we  had  not  many  worse  than  Jonah ;  for 
he  was  remarkable  for  disobedience  to  the  Lord  in  one  in- 
stance, but  I  feared,  that  in  our  company,  there  were  those 
who  were  disobedient  in  many. — ^There  is  little  ear  for 
religious  instruction,  but  no  profession  to  despise  it.  I 
have  been  much  restrained  in  mind  in  regard  to  expression 
on  religious  subjects,  and  have  felt  the  force  of  the  decla- 
ration *^  Where  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  is  there  is  liberty  f 
the  reverse  of  which  is  also  true.  Here,  there  is  a  want  of 
regard  for  this  Spirit,  and  little  ear  to  hear.  Nevertheless 
there  are  two  individuals  on  board,  who  say  little,  but  spend 
much  of  their  time  in  reading  the  Bible  and  hymns,  whom 
we  look  upon  with  some  comfort.  The  wreck  of  a  brig  that 
was  lately  lost,  it  is  said,  in  consequence  of  drunkenness, 
was  still  lying  on  Swan  Island. 

As  soon  as  the  tide  served,  we  again  made  sail;  and 
passing  the  west  end  of  Clarkes  Island,  came  safely  to 
anchor  in  Horse-shoe  Bay,  under  the  east  shore  of  Preser- 
vation Island. 

8th.  Early  in  the  morning,  five  Pelicans  and  some  Cape 
Barren  Geese,  were  upon  the  beach  of  Preservation,  not 
far  from  two  huts  belonging  to  James  Munro,  an  old  sealer, 
who,  with  a  native  black  woman  named  Jumbo,  is  the  only 
permanent  resident  on  the  Island.  We  went  on  shore  and 
paid  them  a  visit,   and  had  an  interview  also  with   three 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

76  PRESERVATION    ISLAND.  [lOth  mO. 

other  sealers^  and  three  female  Aborigines^  casually  here, 
on  their  way  to  the  coast  of  New  Holland,  where,  on  a 
number  of  small  islands,  they  still  obtain  Fur  Seals. 
These  animals  have  become  rare  in  the  Australian  seas 
compared  to  what  they  were  a  few  years  since,  when  they 
were  destroyed  in  vast  numbers,  often  in  the  breeding 
season.  On  Ouncarriage  and  Woody  Islands,  a  few  miles 
distant,  several  odier  sealers  are  residing,  with  female  Abo- 
rigines, who  assist  in  the  management  of  their  boats,  take 
Mutton-birds,  and  do  other  kinds  of  work  for  these  men* 
Some  of  the  sealers  exhibit  the  recklessness  frequent  in  the 
character  of  sailors,  in  a  superlative  degree.  The  women 
were  dressed  in  frocks  made  of  the  skins  of  the  Wallaby, 
a  small  species  of  Kangaroo.  One  of  them  presented  neck- 
laces of  shells  to  my  companion  and  myself;  these  she 
dropped  into  our  hands  as  she  passed,  appearing  to  wish 
to  avoid  receiving  any  acknowledgment. 

Preservation  Island  is  low,  and  surrounded  by  round- 
topped,  grey,  granite  rocks,  except  in  a  few  places,  where 
tihere  are  small  sandy  bays :  it  is  covered  with  grass,  barilla 
and  nettles,  and  a  large  portion  of  it  is  so  thickly  bur- 
rowed by  Mutton-birds,  that  it  is  difficult  to  walk  without 
breaking  into  their  holes.  J.  Munro  raises  wheat,  potatoes^ 
and  other  vegetables  near  his  house,  which  is  sheltered 
by  a  few  Tea-trees,  the  only  ones  on  the  island :  he  also 
rears  goats,  pigs  and  fowls ;  and  by  means  of  these,  added  to 
the  collecting  of  birds  and  their  eggs,  obtains  a  subsistence. 
Black  Snakes  sometimes  take  possession  of  the  burrows  of 
the  Mutton-birds.  We  saw  one  of  these  formidable  animals, 
more  than  five  feet  long,  and  gave  it  a  blow  that  made  it 
rear  its  head  with  a  threatening  aspect.  As  the  only  switch 
we  could  raise  was  a  feeble  one  of  Cape  Barren  Tea-bush, 
it  was  not  thought  expedient  to  repeat  the  blow,  and  the 
animal  soon  took  refuge  in  a  neighbouring  hole.  A  sister 
of  Jumbo  lost  her  life  by  the  bite  of  a  Black  Snake,  in 
her  hand.  When  taking  Mutton-birds,  the  natives  put  a 
stick  into  the  burrows  and  listen,  to  distinguish  whether 
snakes  or  birds  are  the  occupants. 

9th.     Notwithstanding  the  wind  was  adverse,  J.  Thornloe 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  77 

detennined  to  attempt  proceeding,  having  heard  that  the 
settlement  on  Flinders  Island  was  suflFering  for  want  of 
proTisions;  he  therefore  sailed  from  Preservation,  and  by 
the  assistance  of  J.  Munro,  as  pilot,  passed  Long  Island, 
Badger  Island,  Chapel  Island,  and  a  number  of  others, 
and  succeeded  in  reaching  the  anchorage  under  Green  Island, 
the  nearest  place  of  safety  to  the  settlement,  at  which  a 
vessel  could  lie. 

On  approaching  Flinders  Island,  a  smoke  was  observed 
on  the  shore,  which  we  afterwards  learned  was  a  signal  to 
the  boats  of  the  Settlement  that  were  out,  where  they  could 
not  see  the  cutter.  Two  boats  soon  came  off,  in  which 
were  the  Commandant,  Ensign  William  J.  Darling,  and  A. 
McTiachlan,  the  surgeon  of  the  Establishment  for  the 
Aborigines.  The  arrival  of  the  Charlotte  was  hailed  with 
joy,  the  white  inhabitants  of  the  settlement  having  been 
reduced  in  supplies,  to  potatoes  and  oatmeal,  and  the  Abo- 
rigines, who  do  not  like  oatmeal,  to  potatoes  and  rice ;  so  that 
had  it  not  been  for  the  supply  of  Mutton-birds  which  they 
were  able  to  obtain,  they  would  have  been  greatly  straitened. 
Happily  their  tea  and  sugar  also,  were  not  exhausted ;  for 
of  tea,  as  a  beverage,  the  Aborigines  are  not  less  fond  than 
the  Europeans,  from  whom  they  have  acquired  this  taste. 

Before  proceeding  with  my  Journal,  I  will  introduce  a 
brief  notice  of  Van  Diemens  Land  and  its  Aboriginal  In- 
habitants, and  of  their  history  up  to  the  time  we  first 
visited  them  on  Flinders  Island. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Discoyerj  of  Y .  D.  Land. — Its  positioa  and  character. — ^Aborigines. — ^Erroneous 
ideas  of. — Attack  upon. — Provocations. — Hostilities  of. — ^Attempt  to  capture. 
— G.  A.  Bobinson's  Mission. — Settlement  in  Bass's  Straits. — ^Flinders  Island. — 
Productions. — Manners  of  the  Natives. — Dances. — Civilization. — Sealer  and 
Child. — Breakwinds.  -Songs. — Clothing. — Capacity. — Ornaments.  —  Sickness. 
— Birds,  &c. — ^Excursion. — Cookery. — Dogs. — ^Mangroves. — ^Kangaroo  Rat — 
Bandicoot. — Rain. — Commandant's  Hut. — "  Boatswain,"  a  Native  Woman. — 
Sealers. — ^Tasmanian  Porcupine. — ^Wallowing  in  Ashes. — Gratitude. — ^Wea- 
pons.— Green  Island. — ^Mutton  Birds. — Music.—- Tide-ripple. — Azrival  at 
George  Town. 

Van  Diemens  Land  was  discovered  by  Abel  Jansen 
Tasman,  in  1642;  he  supposed  it  to  be  a  part  of  the 
Australian  Continent,  and  named  it  in  honour  of  Anthony 
Van  Diemen,  at  that  time  Governor  General  of  the  Dutch 
possessions  in  the  East  Indies.  It  was  ascertained  to  be  an 
bland  in  1798^  by  Dr.  Bass,  and  taken  possession  of  by 
the  English  in  1803,  by  Lieutenant  Bowen.  The  first 
Lieutenant  Governor  arrived  in  1804,  and  removed  the  seat 
of  Government  from  the  original  settlement  at  Risdon,  or 
Rest-down,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Derwent,  to  the  present 
site,  which  he  named  Hobart  Town,  after  Lord  Hobart. 

The  island  lies  between  41°  20^  and  43°  40'  south  latitude, 
and  between  144°  40^  and  148°  20'  east  longitude :  its  length 
is  about  210  miles,  from  north  to  south,  and  its  breadth  150 
from  east  to  west;  it  is  very  mountainous  and  covered  with 
forest,  which  in  many  parts  is  extremely  thick,  but  in  others 
open  and  grassy.  The  original  inhabitants,  whose  forefathers 
had  occupied  it  from  time  immemorial,  were  of  the  Negro 
race.  They  were  of  moderate  stature,  dark  olive  colour, 
and  had  black,   curly,  woolly  hair.      They  were    few  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  7d 

number^  probably  never  more  than  from  700  to  1^000^  their 
habits  of  life  being  mifriendly  to  increase.  Excepting  on 
the  west  coast,  they  had  no  houses^  but  in  inclement 
weather  took  shelter  in  the  thicker  parts  of  the  forest^  in  the 
yallies  or  near  the  sea.  They  wore  no  clothes,  but  some- 
times ornamented  themselves  by  strips  of  skin  with  the 
fur  on,  which  they  wore  around  the  body,  arms,  or  legs. 
To  enable  them  to  resist  the  changes  of  the  weather,  they 
smeared  themselves  from  head  to  foot  with  red  ochre  and 
grease.  The  men  also  clotted  their  hair  with  these  articles, 
and  had  the  ringlets  drawn  out  like  rat-tails.  The  women 
cropped  their  hair  as  close  as  they  could  with  sharp  stones 
or  shells. 

These  people  formed  a  few  tribes,  differing  a  little  in 
dialect  and  habits;  they  were  destitute  of  any  traces  of 
civilization ;  their  food  consisted  of  roots  and  some  species 
of  fungus,  with  shell-fish,  grubs,  birds,  and  other  wild  ani- 
mals. The  latter  they  took  by  means  of  the  simplest  mis- 
siles, or  by  climbing  trees ;  they  cooked  them  by  roasting, 
and  daily  removed  to  a  fresh  place,  to  avoid  the  offal  and 
filth  that  accumulated  about  the  little  fires  which  they 
kindled  daily,  and  around  which  they  slept.  In  this  state, 
the  first  European  visitants  of  their  island,  found  them,  and 
mistaking  some  peculiarities  in  their  manners  for  stupidity, 
set  them  down  as  lower  in  intellect  than  other  human  beings. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Settlement  of  V.  D.  Land  by 
the  English,  a  party  of  the  Aborigines  made  their  appear- 
ance near  Risden,  carrying  boughs  of  trees  in  token  of 
peace,  and  were  fired  at  by  order  of  a  timid  officer,  who 
became  alarmed  at  their  visit.  Several  of  them  were  killed, 
and  the  rest  fled  in  alarm.  Though  they  did  not  forget 
this  act  of  outrage,  they  were  long  before  tiiey  became 

The  opinion  seems  general  that  the  misconduct  of  Euro- 
peans gave  rise  to  the  aggressions  of  the  Aborigines.  These 
aggressions,  however,  produced  retaliation  on  the  part  of 
the  Whites,  who  shot  many  of  the  Aborigines,  sometimes 
through  fear,  and  there  is  reason  to  apprehend,  sometimes 
through  recklessness.      At  lengtii,  the  Aborigines  finding 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

80  FLINDBR8   ISLAND.  [10th  mO. 

diemselves  in  danger^  and  their  hunting  grounds  occupied 
by  the  intruders  into  their  country^  determined  to  attempt 
to  expel  them.  For  this  purpose  they  set  fire  to  houses, 
and  speared  persons  at  unawares,  until  there  were  few  fami- 
lies in  the  Island,  who  had  not  sustained  some  injury,  or 
lost  some  member  by  them :  the  woody  nature  of  the  coun- 
try afforded  them  ready  concealment  in  thus  carrying  forward 
their  attacks. 

About  1828,  a  part  of  the  Colony,  was  declared  to  be 
under  martial  law,  as  regarded  the  Aborigines,  and  about 
two  years  after,  a  military  expedition  was  imdertaken,  with 
the  intention  of  driving  all  those  in  the  south-east  part  of 
the  island,  to  Tasmans  Peninsula.  This  project,  which 
a  better  knowledge  of  the  country  and  the  people,  proved  a 
most  absurd  one,  happily  ended  in  no  greater  evil  than  the 
expenditure  of  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  and  the  sojourn 
of  a  large  proportion  of  the  male,  white  inhabitants,  for  a 
few  weeks,  in  *^  the  bush,^^  with  little  or  no  loss  of  life  on 
either  side.  A  *^ cordon^*  was  formed  across  the  coimtry,  but 
it  was  found  impossible  to  keep  the  people  in  a  Une  among 
the  rocks,  ravines  and  thickets,  with  which  the  island 
abounds,  and  the  Aborigines  stole  through  the  ranks  in 
the  night,  and  escaped  safely  into  the  rear  of  their  pursuers. 

At  length  George  Augustus  Robinson,  a  benevolent  indi- 
vidual, professing  to  be  actuated  by  a  sense  of  reUgious 
duty,  offered  to  go  into  the  woods,  attended  only  by  a  few 
of  the  native  Blacks,  who  had  become  domesticated,  and 
had  lived  with  him  for  a  time  on  Bruny  Island,  and  from 
whom  he  had  acquired  some  knowledge  of  their  language, 
and  to  endeavour  to  conciliate  the  Aborigines,  and  to  per- 
suade them  to  give  themselves  up  to  the  protection  of  the 
Government,  on  condition  of  being  well  provided  for,  on 
an  island  in  Basses  Straits.  This  project  was  considered 
by  most,  as  one  of  madness,  but  it  met  the  patronage  of  the 
Lieutenant  Governor,  and  the  Senior  Colonial  Chaplain,  as 
well  as  of  a  few  others,  and  Robinson  set  forth  on  his  mission 
of  mercy,  and  succeeded  in  his  object.  He  was  sometimes 
exposed  to  considerable  danger,  and  had  difficulty  in  obtain- 
ing interviews  with  the  alarmed  natives;  but  in  order  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  81 

inspire  them  with  confidence^  he  put  away  every  thing  that 
they  could  mistake  for  weapons^  and  approached  them  with 
extended  hands^  even  when  the  Blacks  who  accompanied 
him^  shrunk  back  through  fear. 

The  first  of  these  people  who  became  conciliated^  were 
placed  on  Swan  Island,  which,  being  bare  of  wood  and  much 
exposed,  was  soon  found  unsuitable.  They  were  therefore 
removed  to  Ouncarriage  Island,  but  this  was  also  found  too 
small,  and  it  did  not  afford  wild  animals  for  their  support, 
in  case  of  need.  They  were  at  one  time  in  danger  of  star- 
vation from  the  failure  of  their  provisions,  which  were 
irregularly  supphed  firom  the  colony,  but  they  were  relieved 
by  a  small  quantity  of  potatoes  obtained  £rom  some  sealers. 
Their  next  removal  was  to  a  place  on  Flinders  Island, 
where  their  wants  were  better  attended  to,  and  where  we 
found  them  in  1832.  And  here,  their  number  received  ac- 
cessions £rom  various  parties  successively  conciliated,  but  it 
never  became  large,  as  few  of  them  had  children,  and  many 
of  them,  before  being  removed  hither,  had  attained  to  the 
ayerage  period  of  the  duration  of  their  lives. 

Flinders  Island  is  of  granite,  and  is  about  130  miles  in 
circumference ;  mountainous  and  rocky.  The  lofty  parts  are 
sterile,  but  the  lower  hills  are  covered  with  timber,  chiefiy 
Blue  Gum.  The  lower  grounds  in  various  places  are  clothed 
with  tall  scrub,  intermixed  with  She-oak  and  other  trees. 
The  open,  grassy  parts  are  not  numerous,  but  some  portions 
are  capable  of  cultivation.  The  Wallaby,  a  small  species  of 
Kangaroo,  abounds  here,  as  do  also  various  kinds  of  wild- 

A  considerable  number  of  the  Aborigines  were  upon  the  'beach 
when  we  landed,  dose  by  the  Setdement,  but  they  took  no 
notice  of  us  until  requested  to  do  so  by  W.  J.  DarUng ; 
they  then  shook  hands  with  us  very  affably.  It  does  not 
accord  with  their  ideas  of  proper  manners  to  appear  to  notice 
strangers,  or  to  be  surprised  at  any  novelty.  On  learning 
that  plenty  of  provisions  had  arrived  by  the  cutter,  they 
shouted  for  joy.  After  sunset  they  had  a  "  corrobery  ^'  or 
dance  around  a  fire,  which  they  kept  up  till  after  midnight, 
in  testimony  of  their  pleasure. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

82  FLINDERS   ISLAND.  [10th  mO. 

In  these  dances  the  Aborigines  represented  certain  eyents, 
or  the  maimers  of  different  animals:  they  had  a  horse 
dance^  an  emu  dance^  a  thunder  and  lightning  dance^  and 
many  others.  In  their  horse  dance^  they  formed  a  strings 
moving  in  a  circle^  in  a  half  stooping  posture,  holding  by 
each  others  loins,  one  man  at  the  same  time  going  along;, 
as  if  reining  in  the  others,*  and  a  woman  as  driver,  striking 
them  gently  as  they  passed.  Sometimes  their  motions  were 
extremely  rapid,  but  they  carefully  avoided  treading  one  upon 
another.  In  the  emu  dance,  they  placed  one  hand  behind 
them,  and  alternately  put  the  other  to  the  ground  and  raised 
it  above  their  heads,  as  they  passed  slowly  round  the  fire, 
imitating  the  motion  of  the  head  of  the  emu  when  feeding. 
In  the  thunder  and  lightning  dance,  they  moved  theb  feet 
rapidly,  bringing  them  to  the  ground  with  great  force,  so  as 
to  produce  a  loud  noise,  and  make  such  a  dust  as  rendered  it 
necessary  for  spectators  to  keep  to  windward  of  the  group. 
Each  dance  ended  with  a  loud  shout,  like  a  last  effort  of 
exhausted  breath.  The  exertion  used,  made  them  very  warm^ 
and  occasionally  one  or  other  plunged  into  the  adjacent 
lagoon.  One  of  their  chiefs  stood  by  to  direct  tiiem,  and 
now  and  then  turned  to  the  bystanders  and  said,  ^^  Narra, 
coopa  corrobery^* — ^very  good  dance— evidentiy  courting  ap- 

10  mo.  10th.  Several  of  the  Aborigines  came  into  the 
Commandant's  hut,  when  we  were  at  breakfast,  and  seated 
themselves  quietiy  on  stoolsf,  or  on  the  floor;  they  did  not 
offer  to  touch  anything,  but  expressed  pleasure  on  receiving 
a  Httle  tea  or  bread.  They  have  a  great  dislike  to  butter  or 
anything  fat.  At  their  own  meals,  they  have  learned  to  use 
tin  cans  and  dishes,  of  which  they  take  some  care.  On  their 
first  setdement,  they  threw  away  these  articles  as  soon  as 
their  meals  were  over,  and  it  was  a  matter  of  no  small 
trouble,  and  exercise  of  patience  to  gather  them  together 
again.  Fuel  was  at  first  collected  by  their  white  attendants, 
to  boil  the  water  for  their  tea,  but  when  their  taste  for 
this  article  became  strong,  they  were  told,  that  they  must 
either  bring  fael  for  themselves  or  go  without  tea;  and  by 
meibis  of  this  kind  they  were  led  to  exertion  in  supplying 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  83 

their  own  wants.  They  now  collect  fad  cheerfully^  and 
assist  in  cookings  making  breads  &c.^  and  a  soldier's  wife 
teaches  the  women  to  wash. — In  the  course  of  the  day  a 
sealer  from  Ouncarriage  Island^  came  and  took  away  a  child 
that  he  had  had  by  a  native  woman^  now  married  to  a  man  of 
her  own  nation,  on  the  Settlement:  he  would  not  be  persuaded 
to  leave  the  Httle  girl  tmder  the  care  of  its  mother,  who 
was  greatly  distressed  at  parting  with  it. 

Late  in  the  evening  we  visited  the  Aborigines  in  the  three 
huts  or  "breakwinds"  that  have  been  erected  for  them; 
these  are  built  of  spars,  and  thatched  with  rushes :  they 
resemble  roofs,  and  have  an  aperture  along  the  ridge,  for 
the  escape  of  smoke.  These,  with  a  few  cottages  of  similar 
materials,  for  the  soldiers  and  prisoner  boats-crew,  and  some 
weather-board  huts,  occupied  by  the  Conmiandant,  Surgeon, 
&c.,  and  a  tent  used  by  a  Surveyor,  form  the  Settlement  at 
this  place,  wMch  is  called  The  Lagoons.  In  each  of  the  huts 
of  the  natives,  there  were  fires  along  the  centre,  around  which 
they  were  lying,  in  company  with  their  dogs,  which  are  good 
tempered  like  themselves.  On  our  entering  the  people  sat 
up,  and  began  to  sing  dieir  native  songs — sometimes  the  men, 
at  others  the  women — ^with  much  animation  of  countenance 
and  gesture.  This  they  kept  up  to  a  late  hour:  they  are 
said  often  to  continue  their  singing  till  midnight.  To  me^ 
their  songs  were  not  impleasing:  persons  skilled  in  music 
consider  them  harmonious. 

11th.  The  men  having  been  requested  to  cease  &x)m 
wearing  ^^bal-de-wiimy,"  that  is  red  ochre  and  grease,  in  their 
hair,  they  had  signified  a  willingness  to  do  so,  if  they  might 
have  some  other  covering  for  their  heads ;  and  to-day,  ac- 
cording to  a  previous  agreement,  Scotch  Caps  were  distri- 
buted among  them,  with  which  they  were  much  delighted. 
In  these  they  seemed  to  perceive  a  similarity  to  the  head- 
dress of  the  military,  and  they  immediately  arranged  them- 
selves in  a  rank !  Tliey  are  very  docile,  and  having  noticed 
that  the  soldiers  always  went  to  inform  the  Commandant 
when  going  off  the  Settlement,  they  have  adopted  a  similar 
practice,  of  their  own  accord.  They  neither  exhibit  the 
intellectual   nor  the  physical  degradation,  that  have  been 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

84  FLINDERS    ISLAND.  [lOth  mO. 

attributed  to  them.  Naked  human  beings^  when  in  a  lean 
condition^  are  forlorn  looking  creatures ;  but  many  of  these 
people  have  become  plump^  and  are  partially  clothed^  and  these 
circumstances  have  removed  much  of  what  was  forbidding  to 
a  civilized  eye. 

The  Blacks  make  symmetrical  cuttings  on  their  bodies  and 
limbs^  for  ornament.  They  keep  the  cuts  open  by  filling 
them  with  grease^  until  the  flesh  becomes  elevated.  Rows 
of  these  marks^  resembling  necklaces  around  the  neck^  and 
similar  ones  on  the  shoulders^  representing  epaulets^  are  fre- 
quent. Rings  representing  eyes  are  occasionally  seen  on 
the  body^  producing  a  rude  similitude  of  a  face.  They 
also  wear  necklaces  formed  of  Kangaroo-sinews  rolled  in 
red  ochre^  and  others  of  small  spiral  shells.  They  likewise 
wear  the  bones  of  deceased  relatives  aroimd  their  necks^ 
perhaps  more  as  tokens  of  affection  than  for  ornament ;  and 
these  are  also  used  as  charms.  They  are  commonly  leg  or 
jaw  bones^  wrapped  with  strings  rolled  in  grease  and  ochre, 
the  ends  only  protruding ;  but  there  is  a  couple  here  who 
lost  their  only  child  in  infancy,  and  its  skull  is  generally  to 
be  seen  suspended  on  the  breast  either  of  its  father  or  its 
mother.  A  man  who  had  a  head-ache  to-day,  had  three 
leg  bones  fixed  on  his  head,  in  the  form  of  a  triangle,  for  a 
charm.  The  shells  for  necklaces  are  of  a  brilliant^  pearly 
blue :  they  are  perforated  by  means  of  the  eye-teeth,  and  are 
strung  on  a  kangaroo-sinnew ;  they  are  then  exposed  to  the 
action  of  pyroligneous  acid,  in  the  smoke  of  brushwood 
covered  up  with  grass;  and  in  this  smoke  they  are  turned 
and  rubbed  till  the  external  coat  comes  off,  after  which,  they 
are  polished  with  oil  obtained  from  the  penguin  or  the 

When  any  of  these  people  fall  sick,  in  their  native  state, 
so  as  to  be  unable  to  accompany  the  others  in  their  daily 
removals,  they  are  famished  with  a  supply  of  such  food  as 
the  party  happens  to  have,  and  a  bundle  of  the  leaves  of 
Mtsembryanthemum  equilaterale — a  plant  known  in  the  Co- 
lony by  the  name  of  Pig-faces — ^which  the  natives  use  as  a 
purgative ;  and  they  are  left  to  perish,  unless  they  recover 
in  time  to  follow  the  others.    This  is  done  as  a  matter  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  85 

necessity,  and  does  not  appear  to  arise  out  of  a  nature  more 
cnid  than  is  common  to  mankind  generally. 

In  the  course  of  a  walk,  along  the  margin  of  the  woody 
land,  adjoining  the  beach,  we  saw  a  Black  Swan  and  some 
Ducks,  upon  a  lagoon:  several  Spur-winged  Plovers  were 
feeding  among  the  rocks  on  the  coast,  and  we  observed  a 
number  of  interesting  shells  on  the  shore. 

12th.  The  present  site  of  the  Settlement,  being  unfit  for 
agriculture,  and  in  other  respects  unfavourable  for  advance* 
ment  in  civilization,  a  project  has  been  formed  for  removing 
it  about  15  miles  northward,  to  a  place  named  by  the  sealers 
Pea  Jacket  Point.  For  this  place,  we  set  out  in  the  after- 
noon, the  weather  having  become  fine  after  a  wet  morning. 
The  company  consisted  of  W.  J.  Darling,  G.  W.  Walker, 
and  myself,  attended  by  four  native  men  and  two  of  their 
wives,  with  eight  dogs.  We  had  not  proceeded  far  before 
a  duck  flew  off  her  nest,  and  her  numerous  eggs  quickly 
became  the  spoil  of  some  of  our  attendants,  who  rushed  to 
the  spot,  and  each,  seized  as  many  as  he  could,  but  without 
quarrelling  as  to  the  division  of  them.  Our  way  was  some- 
times along  the  beach,  at  others  on  the  adjacent  land,  and 
sometimes  through  the  scrub,  in  crossing  projecting  points. 
The  dogs  killed  a  Kangaroo  Rat  and  some  mice,  rather 
larger  than  English  Field-mice.  The  Kangaroo  Rat  was 
cooked  during  a  halt,  made  till  the  tide  ebbed  sufficiently 
to  allow  us  to  cross  a  creek.  The  animal  was  thrown  into 
the  ashes  till  the  hair  was  well  singed  off,  and  it  became  a 
little  distended  by  the  heat;  it  was  then  scraped,  and 
cleared  of  the  entrails,  after  which  it  was  returned  to  the 
fire  till  roasted  enough.  This  is  the  dommon  mode  of  cooking 
practiced  by  the  Aborigines,  who  find  that,  by  thus  roasting 
the  meat  in  the  skin,  the  gravy  is  more  abundant.  In 
eating,  they  reject  the  skin,  and  it  forms  the  portion  of  their 
numerous  dogs.  These  are  generally  very  lean,  but  they 
are  highly  valued  by  their  owners,  who  obtained  them  from 
Europeans,  there  being  originally  no  wild  dogs  in  V.  D. 
Land.  The  flesh  of  the  Kangaroo  Rat  is  much  like  that  of 
a  rabbit.  Near  this  creek  some  fine  bushes  of  Myoporum 
serratum  were  beautifully  in  blossom.    This  shrub  is  like  a 

G  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

86  FLINDBBS    ISLAND.  [10th  mO. 

laurel,  in  size  and  general  aspect,  and  is  common  along  the 
coasts  of  V.  D.  Land,  where  it  bears  the  name  of  Man- 
grove, which,  in  Australia,  is  given  very  promiscuously  to 
shrubs  and  trees  growing  within  the  reach  of  salt-water.  On 
the  ebb  of  the  tide,  we  crossed  the  creek,  and  proceeded  till 
near  dark.  The  dogs  killed  a  Bandicoot.  This  animal  like 
most  other  quadrupeds  in  this  part  of  the  world,  carries  its 
young  in  a  pouch.  The  Bandicoot  of  V.  D.  Land,  feeds  chiefly 
on  ants,  but  it  gets  the  blame  of  much  of  the  mischief  done 
in  gardens  by  the  Kangaroo  Rat.  After  passing  over  a 
remarkable,  sloping  point  of  granite,  by  following  a  pro- 
jecting vein  of  quartz,  that  afforded  hold  for  our  feet,  and' 
collecting  some  limpets  from  the  adjoining  rocks,  where  four 
fine  Pelicans  passed  over  our  heads,  we  turned  into  a  well 
sheltered  place,  by  a  small  streamlet,  to  remain  for  the  night. 
A  fire  was  quickly  kindled,  and  the  tear-kettle,  which  one  of 
women  brought  suspended  round  her  neck  by  a  string,  was 
set  upon  it.  The  Bandicoot  and  limpets  were  cooked,  the 
latter  being  pitched  by  the  natives,  with  great  dexterity, 
into  the  glowing  embers,  with  the  points  of  the  shells  down- 
ward :  their  contents,  when  cooked  enough,  were  taken  out  by 
means  of  a  pointed  stick.  These,  with  provisions  from  the 
settlement,  formed  an  ample  meal,  after  which  we  laid  down 
by  the  fire,  in  blankets,  &c.,  brought  by  one  of  the  men, 
and  rested  till  morning. 

18th.  On  the  way  to  the  place  of  our  destination,  the 
dogs  killed  a  Wallaby,  about  the  size  of  a  lamb  of  three 
months  old.  Here  we  found  two  huts  built  of  wattles 
and  Uned  with  grass,  by  an  industrious  soldier,  who  had 
also  brought  a  plot  of  ground  into  cultivation.  The  site 
appeared  much  preferable  for  a  settlement  to  the  Lagoons, 
being  a  promontory  with  a  considerable  quantity  of  grass- 
land, sheltered  by  thick  scrub  toward  the  sea,  and  having 
access  to  the  mountains  behind;  nevertheless  fresh  water 
was  not  so  plentiful  as  was  desirable,  but  sufficient  for 
necessary  purposes.  Having  surveyed  the  place,  we  returned 
to  the  Lagoons,  with  the  addition  to  our  company  of  a  man 
carrying  two  young  Cape  Barren  Geese,  one  of  which  died 
on  the  way,  from  the  effect  of  cold  and  rain. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  87 

The  Aborigines  retained  their  cheerfcdness  all  the  way,  and 
hraghedwhen  looked  at,  as  the  storm  beat  against  them,  not- 
withstanding, at  first,  they  wished  to  stop  when  it  rained.  On 
being  informed  that  people  stopping  in  wet  clothes  would 
take  cold,  they  were  satisfied,  and  travelled  on  till  the  rain 
abated,  when  they  dried  their  garments  by  holding  them 
separately  to  the  fire — ^a  much  safer  and  more  expeditious 
plan,  than  drying  them  upon  their  backs. 

We  reached  the  Settlement  again  about  six  in  the  evening, 
well  pleased  with  our  excursion,  but  heartily  tired ;  and  had, 
as  before,  visits  firom  some  of  the  Aborigines ;  to  whom 
both  W.  J.  Darling  and  A.  Mc'Liachlan  are  Uberal,  offcen 
encouraging  good  feeling,  by  giving  them  out  of  their  own 
supplies,  a  panakin  of  tea,  and  a  piece  of  biscuit  or  damper, 
which  is  a  kind  of  bread  made  of  flour,  water  and  salt,  and 
baked  in  the  ashes,  with  which  they  are  much  pleased.  They 
were  also  highly  gratified  by  some  coloured  cotton  hand- 
kerchiefs, which  we  distributed  amongst  them. 

14th.  This  morning,  the  white  population  assembled  in 
a  place  formed  of  brandies,  and  used  as  a  chapel :  several 
of  the  Blacks  were  also  present.  I  was  particularly  desirous 
of  this  opportunity,  to  point  out  to  the  Europeans,  their 
responsibility  to  God,  for  being  blessed  with  the  knowledge 
of  the  Gospel,  especially  as  it  regarded  their  influence  and 
example  among  these  unenlightened  people.  By  a  paraphrase 
upon  Romans  2nd,  beginning  with  the  I7th  verse,  and  some 
comments  upon  the  other  parts  of  the  same  chapter,  with 
the  1st  and  3rd,  which  were  also  read,  I  endeavoured  to 
point  out  the  danger  to  some  of  them,  through  neglecting 
these  things,  of  the  unenlightened  Blacks  rising  up  with 
them  in  the  judgment  and  condemning  them;  seeing  that 
these  people,  like  the  Gentiles  of  old,  having  not  the  law, 
are  a  law  unto  themselves,  when  they  do  by  nature  the 
things  contained  in  the  law,  showing  the  work  of  the  law 
written  in  their  hearts ;  their  consciences  also  bearing  wit^ 
ness,  and  their  thoughts  meanwhile  accusing,  or  else  excus- 
ing, one  another. 

Though  able  to  understand  little  more  than  the  general 
object  for  which  we  were  assembled,  and  having  scarcely 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

88  FLINDERS    ISLAND.  [lOtll  mO. 

any  ideas  of  a  Deity^  or  a  future  state,  the  Aborigines  be- 
haved with  great  reverence  and  attention. — It  was  afiecting 
and  humiliating  to  be  cut  off  from  communication  with  them 
on  these  subjects,  by  the  want  of  a  knowledge  of  their 
language ;  but  there  was  a  comfort  in  knowing,  that  ^^  where 
there  is  no  law,  there  is  no  transgression  ;^^  and  that  '^  sin 
is  not  imputed  where  there  is  no  law  ;^'  and  that  they  will 
be  judged  only  according  to  the  measure  of  light,  they  have 

I  am  persuaded  that  this  doctrine,  which  is  held  up  in 
the  Holy  Scriptures,  in  no  way  invalidates  that  of  salvation 
through  Jesus  Christ,  nor  diminishes  the  force  of  his  in- 
junction to  his  disciples,  ''Go  ye  into  all  the  world  and 
preach  the  Oospel  to  every  creature.*'  The  sins  of  those 
who  attain  to  peace  with  God,  through  attention  to  the  law 
written  in  their  hearts  by  the  Holy  Spirit,  are  blotted  out 
through  the  blood  of  Christ,  whether  they  know  it  or  not ; 
for  they  are  baptized  by  the  Spirit  unto  him,  and  accepted 
in  him,  the  Beloved.  Nevertheless,  it  is  an  unspeakable 
blessing  and  comfort  to  have  the  understanding  enlightened 
upon  this  all-important  subject,  and  to  know  Him  in  whom 
we  have  believed,  and  to  have  this  knowledge  as  a  powerful 
motive  to  induce  us  to  comply  with  those  indispensable 
proofs  of  discipleship,  self-denisJ  and  the  bearing  of  the 
cross  daily.  I  cannot  but  fear  that  many  who  are  great 
sticklers  for  this  knowledge,  and  are  ready  to  Hmit  salva- 
tion to  the  possession  of  it,  are  so  far  from  living  in  accord- 
ance with  it,  as  to  fall  under  the  condemnation  spoken  of  by 
the  Apostle,  when  he  says:  ''Shall  not  uncircumcision 
which  is  by  nature,  if  it  fulfil  the  law,  judge  thee,  who  by 
the  letter  and  circumcision  dost  transgress  the  law  V^ 

In  the  evening,  a  number  of  the  Aborigines  joined  us, 
when  we  were  seated  around  some  charcoal  embers,  con- 
tained in  an  old  iron  pot,  by  which  the  Commandant's  hut 
is  warmed,  and  which  might  endanger  the  lives  of  the  in- 
habitants, were  it  not  for  the  free  admission  of  air  through 
the  crevices  of  the  weatherboard  walls.  An  elderly  woman, 
named  Boatswain,  by  the  sealers,  to  whom  she  had  long 
been  in  bondage,  informed  us,  by  means  of  signs,  and  a  few 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  BASSES   STRAITS.  89 

words  in  broken  English^  of  the  manner  in  which  these  men 
flogged  the  women  who  did  not  pluck  Mutton-birds,  or  do 
other  work  to  their  satisfaction.  She  spread  her  hands  to 
the  wall,  to  shew  the  manner  in  which  they  were  tied  up, 
said  a  rope  was  used  to  flog  them  with,  and  cried  out  with  a 
failing  voice  till  she  sank  upon  the  ground,  as  if  exhausted. 
The  statements  of  this  woman  were  confirmed  by  others, 
several  of  whom  have  escaped  to  the  settlement.  A  M^Lach- 
Ian  fell  in  with  Boatswain  and  a  New  Holland  woman,  when 
they  had  been  left  on  a  distant  part  of  the  island  to  hunt, 
and  they  gladly  availed  themselves  of  the  opportunity  to 
obtain  their  liberty.  The  sealers  got  them  back  by  fedse 
pretences,  but  Boatswain  was  afterwards  found  early  in  the 
morning,  by  the  Commandant,  on  Guncarriage  Island,  where 
she  stated,  that  herself  and  another  woman  were  hid  by  the 
sealers,  at  a  former  time  when  one  of  these  men  assured  him 
they  were  not  there.  The  cutter's  boat  happened  to  go  to 
Green  Island  about  a  year  since,  when  two  women,  called 
Isaac  and  Judy,  took  the  opportunity  of  escaping  by  it,  while 
the  sealers  were  asleep. — ^Two  other  women  waded  and  swam 
from  Green  Island  to  the  Settlement — a  distance  of  three 
miles.  Most  of  these  women  were  originally  kidnapped. 
Boatswain  says,  she  got  into  a  boat  when  a  girl,  and  the 
sealers  rowed  away  with  her.  These  men  teach  the  women 
to  manage  their  boats,  and  often  give  them  names  ordinarily 
belonging  the  male  sex — a  circumstance  small  in  itself,  but 
connected  with  reckless  depravity. 

15th.  Old  Boatswain  having  understood  that  we  wished 
to  taste  the  inner  portion  of  the  upper  part  of  the  stem  of 
the  tree-fern,  which  is  used  by  the  natives  as  an  article  of 
diet,  went  several  miles  for  some.  It  is  in  substance  like  a 
Swedish-turnip,  but  is  too  astringent  in  taste  to  be  agreeable, 
and  it  is  not  much  altered  by  cooking.  They  also  use  the 
root  of  Pteris  esculent  a — a  fern,  much  Uke  the  common  Brake 
of  England,  which  they  call  Tara — a  name  given  to  other 
esculent  roots,  and  to  rice  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  In 
hunting  to-day,  the  people  took  several  Wallabies,  Porcu- 
pines, and  Kangaroo-rats.  The  Porcupine  of  this  land, 
Echnida  HystriVy  is  a  squat  species  of  ant-eater,  with  short 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

90  FLINDBRS   ISLAND.  [lOtfa  mO. 

quills  among  its  hair  :  it  conceals  itself  in  die  day-time 
among  dead  timber  in  the  hilly  forests. — An  eruptive  disease 
prevailed  among  the  Aborigines  at  this  period  :  it  was 
attended  with  fever  for  about  four  days^  and  was  supposed  to 
have  arisen  from  feeding  too  freely  on  young  Mutton-birds. 
One  of  the  men  suffering  under  it,  and  covered  with  sores  as 
large  as  a  shilling,  lay  by  a  fire  in  one  of  the  breakwinds, 
and  was  literally  *'  wallowing  in  ashes/'  having  covered 
himself  with  them  from  head  to  foot.  This,  we  were  in- 
formed^ was  one  of  their  common  remedies. 

There  being  no  hospital  here,  the  surgeon  took  some  of 
the  sick  people  into  his  hut:  one  of  them  who  recovered  after 
being  very  ill,  has  shewn  many  demonstrations  of  gratitude. 
This  virtue  is  often  exhibited  among  these  people.  A  romantic 
instance  of  it  occurred  in  one  of  them,  named  Roomtya 
or  Bet ;  she  was  addressed  by  a  young  man,  named  Trigoomi- 
poonenah  or  Jackey^  who  received  a  refusal ;  but  on  a  certain 
occasion^  the  young  woman  was  taken  so  ill  when  crossing  a 
river,  as  to  be  in  danger ;  Jackey  was  present,  and  availed 
himself  of  the  opportunity  of  proving  his  attachment,  he 
carried  her  out  of  the  water,  and  thus  saved  her  life.  After 
this^  she  accepted  his  addresses  and  became  his  wife,  and  in 
her  turn,  she  nursed  him  carefully  when  he  was  sick. — ^This 
woman  excels  in  the  chase ;  and  once  when  the  Commandant 
was  detained  for  some  days,  in  Kents  Bay,  by  a  storm^  she 
and  her  husband,  left  a  Wallaby  at  his  house  daily  lest  he 
should  come  home  and  not  find  a  supply  of  food. 

The  chief  instrument  used  in  the  chase  by  these  people^ 
is  a  Waddy^  a  short  stick  about  an  inch  in  thickness^ 
brought  suddenly  to  a  conical  point  at  each  end^  and  at 
one  end  a  Uttle  roughened,  to  keep  it  from  slipping  out  of  the 
hand.  This,  they  throw  with  a  rotatory  motion,  and  with 
great  precision.  They  also  use  spears  made  of  simple  sticks, 
having  the  thicker  end  sharpened,  and  hardened  in  the  fire. 

16th.  After  receiving  a  few  waddies  and  some  shell  neck- 
laces from  the  natives,  and  making  them  presents  in  return, 
we  took  leave  of  them,  and  went  back  to  the  cutter,  at  Green 
Island,  where  we  went  on  shore.  This  island,  like  most, 
if  not  all  others  in  this  part  of  the  straits,  is  of  granite, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  bass's  straits.  91 

and  like  the  majority  of  them^  it  is  low.  Its  circumference 
may  be  about  three  miles^  and  most  of  its  sur&ce  is  covered 
wilh  thick  grass,  which  is  knee-deep,  and  with  nettles, 
sow-thistles,  and  tree-mallows,  breast  high,  or  with  spread- 
ing barilla-bushes  of  three  feet.  There  are  also  upon  it  Yel- 
low Everlastings^  which  attain  to  a  large  size.  This  luxuriance 
of  vegetation  is  attributable  to  the  accumulation  of  the  dung 
of  the  Mutton-birds,  which  is  mixed  with  the  Ught  soil  that 
is  perforated  in  every  direction  by  their  burrows. 

Where  the  barilla  affords  sufficient  shelter,  these  birds  do 
not  seem  to  consider  it  necessary  to  form  holes,  but  they  de- 
posit their  single  eggs  under  the  bushes,  in  hollows  on  the 
bare  ground.  Perhaps  no  bird,  except  the  American  Migratory 
Pigeon,  is  to  be  met  with  in  flocks  equal  in  magnitude  to  those 
of  the  Mutton-bird ;  and  the  latter,  like  the  former,  lays  only 
a  single  egg.  The  Mutton-birds,  or  Sooty  Petrels,  are  about 
the  size  of  the  Wood  Pigeon  of  England ;  they  are  of  a  dark 
colour,  and  are  called  "  Yola'^  by  the  natives.  These  birds 
are  often  to  be  seen  ranging  over  the  surface  of  the  Southern 
Ocean,  far  from  land:  they  visit  several  of  the  islands  in  Bass's 
Straits,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  9th  month,  when  they 
scratch  out  their  holes :  they  leave  again  in  the  beginning  of 
the  11th  month,  and  return  to  lay  near  the  end  of  the  same. 
Each  burrow  is  occupied  by  a  single  pair :  their  egg  is  as 
lai^e  as  that  of  a  duck,  and  is  incubated  in  about  a  month. 
They  leave  the  islands  with  their  young  early  in  5th  month. 
During  the  period  of  their  resort  to  land,  they  become  the 
prey  of  men  and  of  hawks,  of  crows  and  other  ravenous  birds, 
and  of  black-snakes. 

But  notwithstanding  the  wholesale  carnage  committed 
among  the  Mutton-birds,  their  number  is  not  perceptibly 
lessened.  The  greatest  quantities  are  destroyed  for  the 
sake  of  their  feathers ;  two  tons  and  a  half  of  which  are 
said  to  have  been  sent  from  this  part  of  the  straits  in  a 
season  :  these  would  be  the  produce  of  112,000  birds,  twenty 
yielding  one  pound  of  feathers.  From  the  great  length  of 
their  wings,  these  birds  cannot  rise  from  a  level  siu*- 
face.  The  sealers  take  advantage  of  this,  and  enclose  certain 
portions  of  the  islands  at  night,   with  converging  lines  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

92  GREEN    ISLAND.  •   [10th  mO. 

bushes  terminating  at  a  pit^  6  feet  long^  4  feet  broad^  and 
3  feet  deep,  lined  with  boards  or  bark,  and  having  a  fence 
2  feet,  high  at  the  further  side,  to  prevent  the  birds  taking 
flight,  when  they  come  to  the  edge  of  the  pit.  At  sunrise, 
when  the  birds  come  out  of  their  holes,  they  are  driven 
toward  the  pit,  into  which  they  fall  till  it  is  full :  a  sail  or 
thatched  hurdle  is  then  thrown  over  them,  and  the  fences 
are  removed,  to  allow  the  remainder  of  the  birds  to  pass  oflF 
to  the  sea.  The  birds  in  the  pit  are  suffocated  in  a  few 
minutes,  and  the  native  women  are  set  to  strip  off  their 
feathers,  which  are  put  into  bags  for  exportation.  The 
feathers  have  an  unpleasant  smell,  but  they  bring  about  6d. 
per  pound,  in  Launceston. 

When  fresh^  these  birds  are  pretty  good  eating,  at  least 
as  a  substitute  for  salt  meat.  Great  numbers  of  young  ones 
are  salted  and  dried,  in  which  state  they  taste  much  like 
red-herrings.  The  eggs  are  also  collected  in  great  quantities; 
the  Aborigines  at  the  settlement  have  been  supplied  at  the 
rate  of  six  eggs  a  day,  each,  for  upwards  of  two  months 
together:  as  the  young  birds  all  leave  the  islands  at  the 
same  time,  it  is  not  probable  that  the  robbed  birds  lay  a 
second  time.  The  sealers  make  the  young  birds  disgorge 
oil,  by  pressing  their  craws :  this  they  use  for  their  lamps, 
and  for  various  other  purposes. 

We  remained  on  the  island  till  dusk,  when  the  air  seemed 
alive,  with  myriads  of  these  birds  returning  to  roost,  so  that 
in  looking  up,  we  were  reminded  of  a  shower  of  large  flakes 
of  snow.  When  once  on  the  ground,  they  tried  in  vain  to  fly 
again :  when  alarmed  they  shuffled  along,  by  the  combined 
effort  of  their  feet  and  wings,  and  tried  to  bite.  They  were 
easily  taken  by  the  point  of  the  wing,  being  unable  with 
their  beaks  to  reach  the  hand  that  held  them  by  that 
part.  It  was  difficult  to  avoid  treading  upon  theni,  and 
they  were  clucking  in  all  directions  among  the  Barilla, 
&c.  W.  J.  Darling  once  laid  down  on  his  back  when 
they  were  returning  to  roost,  and  killed  twelve  with  a 
waddy,  without  moving  from  the  spot.  Flinders  computed 
one  of  the  flocks  that  he  saw  in  these  seas,  to  be  forty 
miles  long,  and  to  contain   as  many  birds  as  would  require 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  BASSES   STRAITS.  9S 

an  area  of  sixteen  square  miles  for  their  nests,  at  a  yard 
asunder.  From  what  is  now  known  of  their  breeding 
places,  they  probably  occupy  a  much  larger  extent  of 
ground  than  sixteen  square  miles,  in  the  various  places  of 
their  resort. 

18th.  Yesterday  was  stormy,  and  the  wind  adverse :  W. 
J.  Darling  brought  four  Aborigines  on  board,  to  accompany 
him  to  the  Hunter  Islands.  The  vessel  remaining  at  anchor 
to-day,  we  went  again  upon  Green  Island,  which  has  several 
small  sandy  bays. — ^When  the  Mutton-birds  take  flight,  they 
either  rise  from  elevated  places,  or  firom  the  edge  of  the  cliff, 
or  they  run  over  the  beach  and  upon  the  water,  flapping 
their  wings,  till  at  length,  after  passing  two  or  three  con- 
siderable waves,  they  succeed  in  gaining  sufficient  elevation 
to  enable  them  to  mount  into  the  air. 

The  four  Aborigines  took  tea  with  us  in  the  cabin:  they  were 
very cheerful,andused  cups  and  saucers  with  dexterity. — ^When 
Jumbo  first  came  on  board,  she  was  shown  a  musical  box,  con- 
structed like  a  musical  snuff-box.  Having  been  brought  up 
among  Europeans,  she  did  not  feign  inattention  to  novelties, 
as  is  conomon  with  her  country  people,  but  showed  pleasure 
and  astonishment,  in  a  remarkable  degree.  Listening  with 
intensity^  her  ears  moved  like  those  of  a  dog  or  horse,  to 
catch  the  sound  (a  circumstance  that  J.  Munro,  with  whom 
she  had  lived  from  childhood,  said  he  had  not  before  noticed) 
and  at  intervals  she  laughed  immoderately. — ^When  on  the 
island  one  of  the  women  threw  some  sticks  at  J.  Thomloe, 
on  his  mentioning  her  son,  who  is  at  school  at  Newtown. 
The  mention  of  an  absent  relative  is  considered  offensive  by 
them,  and  especially  if  deceased. 

19th.  We  sailed  from  Green  Island,  and  put  J.  Munro 
on  shore  on  Preservation  Island.  The  tide-ripple,  which 
is  occasioned  by  the  meeting  of  different  currents,  is  very 
strong  in  many  parts  of  the  straits ;  it  threatened  to  swallow 
up  the  boat  in  returning  from  Preservation.  Many  voices 
called  to  the  man  who  was  in  it,  not  to  be  afraid,  saying 
there  was  no  danger,  while  the  faces  of  the  same  parties 
betrayed  their  own  fears :  he,  however,  succeeded  in  reaching 
the  vessel,  amidst  tremendous  billows,  which  were  so  high 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

94  QBORG£   TOWN.  [10th  lUO. 

that  a  green  light  shone  through  them  in  a  remarkable 
manner. — Some  Pelicans  and  a  flock  of  Cape  Barren  Oeese 
were  on  a  rock  called  Rmn  Island^  near  which  we  passed. 

20th.  The  night  was  boisterous,  and  many  scenes  occur- 
red in  it,  calculated  to  excite  laughter,  even  in  the  midst 
of  much  that  was  uncomfortable,  and  that  would  have  been 
very  trying,  but  for  hope  of  a  speedy  change.  At  day  light, 
we  stood  for  the  land,  and  soon  descried  it,  near  the  heads 
of  the  Tamar  or  Port  Dalrymple, — an  estuary  extending 
to  Launceston, — ^and  near  to  the  mouth  of  which,  Geoige 
Town  is  situated.  On  reaching  this  place  we  ^'brought  up,^^ 
to  take  in  some  stores,  and  were  kindly  received  by  the 
Port  Officer,  Matthew  Curling  Friend,  late  of  the  Norval, 
in  which  vessel  he  brought  us  some  boxes  of  clothing  and 
tracts  to  Launceston,  free  of  charge,  on  his  own  part,  as  a 
token  of  his  approval  of  the  cause  in  which  we  are  engaged. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


George  Town. — ^The  Tamar  River. — Launccston. — Meeting. — Aborigines. — 
Plants. — ^Leeches. — ^Kangaroos. — ^Middle  Ann. — Tide  Ripple. — N.  Coast. — 
Blacks  charged  with  Murder. — ^Mode  of  transferring  fire  — Black  women  res- 
cued.— Circular  Head. — ^V.  D.  Land  Company's  Establishment. — Islands. — 
Woolnorth. — Rocks. — Cape  Grim. — Bird  Islands. — Kelp. — Mutton-fish. — Na- 
tiye  Doctor. — Seeking  a  Needle. — ^Decoration. — ^Remembrance  of  absent 
Friends. — Habitations. — ^Tribes. — ^Burning  the  dead. 

George  Town  is  a  small  assemblage  of  scattered  houses^  a 
few  of  which  are  of  stone^  and  the  rest  of  weather-board. 
This  place  was  originally  intended  to  be  the  chief  port 
in  the  north  of  V.  D.  Land ;  but  Lamiceston  took  the  prece- 
dence^ having  greater  advantages^  notwithstanding  its  distance 
is  forty  miles  from  the  sea;  and  the  poUce^  and  other  estab- 
lishments were  removed  thither.  In  the  afternoon^  the  wind 
and  tide  serving,  we  proceeded  up  the  Tamar,  which  is 
devious  in  its  course,  and  opens  out  into  many  pretty  bays. 
The  shores  present  traces  of  basalt.  The  adjacent  country  is 
hiUy,  and  wooded  down  to  the  water,  except  in  places  where 
the  land  has  been  cleared;  on  which  com  and  grass  are 
verdant.  Some  of  the  habitations  of  the  settlers  look  com- 
fortable. We  completed  the  last  few  miles  of  our  voyage  in 
the  dark,  in  a  boat,  and  met  a  hearty  welcome  at  Launceston, 
from  Isaac  and  Katharine  Sherwin,  a  thoughtful  young 
couple  from  whom  we  had  retseived  a  previous  invitation. 

21st.  We  visited  a  school  that  does  not  belong  to  any 
particular  denomination  of  Christians,  but  is  supported  by 
several,  and  is  in  a  thriving  condition :  we  also  had  a  meeting 
in  a  small  court-house,  at  which  two  hundred  persons  might  be 
present.    I  went  to  this  meeting  feeling  poor  and  empty,  but 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

96  LAVNCEBTON.  [lOth  mo. 

deriving  some  comfort  from  the  expressions  of  the  apostle 
Paul:  ^^I  was  with  you  in  weakness  and  in  fear,  and  in 
much  trembling/'  In  this  state,  I  found  it  my  duty  to  attend 
to  the  injunction :  ^^  Thou,  when  thou  fastest,  anoint  thine 
head,  and  wash  thy  face,''  and  to  put  my  trust  in  the  Lord. — 
I  had  not  sat  long,  before  I  apprehended  it  to  be  right  for 
me  to  .stand  up,  and  explain  briefly  our  views  of  worship, 
and  to  point  out  the  necessity  of  sincerity,  and  of  the  sacrifice 
of  our  own  wills,  in  order  to  being  prepared  to  obtain  the 
blessings  of  the  Gospel.  I  was  led  also  to  speak  on  other 
points,  connected  with  the  glorious  plan  of  redemption 
through  faith  in  Jesus  Christ,  and  on  the  necessity  of  good 
works,  as  the  fruit  of  this  faith ;  and  on  the  benefit  of  fre- 
quent and  fervent  prayer,  as  well  as  on  communing  with  our 
own  hearts  before  the  Lord,  in  order  to  feel  our  spiritual 
necessities,  and  tp  know  what  to  pray  for,  &c.  Thus,  in 
condescending  mercy,  help  was  afforded  to  the  weak,  and  the 
grain  of  fidth  that  was  exercised,  was  strengthened.  There 
seemed  to  be  an  open  ear  in  the  congregation. 

22nd.  The  population  of  Launceston  is  about  2,000. 
The  streets  are  regularly  laid  out.  Most  of  the  houses  are 
weather-boarded,  but  there  are  a  few  substantial  ones,  of 
brick.  The  Episcopal  place  of  worship — the  only  one  here — 
is  a  neat  edifice  of  stone.  The  town  is  situated  at  the  con- 
fluence of  the  North  and  South  Esk,  which  here  discharge 
themselves  into  the  head  of  the  Tamar.  The  South  Esk 
rushes  through  a  deep,  narrow,  picturesque,  basaltic  gorge, 
called  The  Cataract,  distant  about  half  a  mile  from  the  town, 
which  is  pleasantly  situated,  and  has  anchorage  for  ships  of 
considerable  burden  near  its  quay. 

W.  J.  Darling  had  the  four  natives  that  he  brought  with  him 
from  Flinders  Island,  dressed  in  decent  clothes,  and  he  took 
them  into  the  town,  where  their  cheerful,  intelligent  appear- 
ance excited  a  favourable  impression  in  the  minds  of  many 
who  had  known  little  of  the  Aborigines  but  as  exasperated 
en^nies,  charged  with  treachery  and  implacable  cruelty. — 
We  called  on  Major  Fairtlough,  the  Commandant,  who 
received  us  politely.  At  his  house  we  learned  that  the  cutter 
was  going  to  sail  immediately;  we  therefore  proceeded  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  97 

the  jetty,  where  we  were  requested  to  take  seats  in  the  Port 
Officer's  boat.  A  dispute  arose  between  the  cockswain  and 
the  harbour-master^  both  of  whom,  we  soon  discovered,  were 
intoxicated^  and  this  proved  also  to  be  the  case  with  several 
of  the  crew.  The  harbour-master  remonstrated  against  the 
boat  proceeding,  but  the  cockswain  persisted  in  putting  off: 
he  soon  brought  us  alongside  of  a  ship  lying  at  anchor,  where 
he  took  in  two  prisoners  to  assist  in  pulling  the  boat :  they 
were  not  very  expert  hands  ;  and  when  the  cockswain 
recovered  from  the  effects  of  his  intemperance,  he  desired  to 
know  who  they  were,  and  from  whence  they  came,  and  he 
turned  them  both  on  shore !  Committing  the  steering  of  the 
boat  to  G-  W.  Walker,  and  himself  taking  an  oar  with  the 
men,  they  brought  us  in  safety  to  the  cutter,  which  had  pro- 
ceeded some  miles  down  the  Tamar. — When  the  tide  was 
spent,  we  dropped  anchor  and  went  on  shore.  The  natives  pur- 
sued some  kangaroos,  casting  off  all  their  clothes  in  the  chase. 
— ^We  supped  at  a  public-house  by  the  water-side,  where  we 
had  some  conversation  with  a  settler,  respecting  the  atrocities 
committed  by  some  reckless  individuals  upon  the  Aborigines; 
these  were  of  such  character,  as  to  remove  any  wonder  at  the 
determination  of  these  injured  people,  to  try  to  drive  from 
their  land  a  race  of  men,  among  whom  were  persons  guilty  of 
such  deeds. — In  our  ramble  this  evening,  as  well  as  in  one  at 
the  Cataract,  this  morning,  we  noticed  several  striking  shrubs 
in  blossom;  among  them  were  a  Prostanthera^  with  long 
spike-like  branches  of  beautiful,  purple  flowers.  Veronica 
formosa — a  myrde-like  bush  with  lovely,  blue  blossoms,  and 
Clematis  blanda,  with  a  profusion  of  fragrant,  white  flowers, 
an  inch  across. — ^When  out  this  evening.  Jumbo  turned  up 
her  heel,  and  with  a  laugh,  asked  what  that  was,  pointing  to 
a  leech  as  large  as  a  black  snail,  that  was  biting  her :  she 
plucked  it  off  and  threw  it  away.  One  of  the  men  pointed 
to  the  ground,  and  said  in  broken  English,  ^*Two  more 
crackne  here,^^  i.  e.  rest,  remain,  or  are  here.  One  of  the 
Blacks  got  the  Commandant's  hat  and  decorated  it  with  the 
twining  branches  of  Comesperma  volubilis,  covered  with 
bright  blue  flowers  resembling  those  of  Milkwort. 
23rd.     The  tide  not  serving  till  noon,  I  took  a  walk  alone. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

98  GEORGE   TOWN.  [10th  DIO. 

and  saw  some  Forester  Kangaroos ;  these  are  a  large  species^ 
which  is  gregarious.  The  Brush  Kangaroo^  the  commonest 
kind  in  this  island^  is  rather  solitary  in  its  habits. — In  the 
evening  we  reached  George  Town,  where  we  again  received 
much  kindness  from  M.  C.  Friend  and  his  wife,  and  from  a  man 
gistrate  named  John  Clark,  whose  guest  I  became  till  the  29th. 

In  this  interval  we  put  to  sea,  but  were  driven  back.  This 
gave  me  an  opportunity  of  speaking  to  the  inhabitants  of 
George  Town,  on  their  religious  state.  I  also  visited  some 
prisoners,  employed  in  quarrying  and  burning  lime,  up  a 
branch  of  the  Tamar,  called  Middle  Arm.  The  limestone 
is  accompanied  by  silicious  sandstone,  which,  as  well  as  the 
linestone,  contains  marine  fossils,  and  is  in  connexion  with 
micacious  veins  of  a  silvery  appearance. 

On  the  29th,  we  got  to  sea,  with  a  light  breeze.  At  the 
mouth  of  the  Tamar  there  was  a  tremendous  tide-ripple, 
that  occasioned  the  cutter  to  pitch  violently,  and  seemed 
ready  to  swamp  the  pilot's  boat ;  the  men  who  were  in  it 
cried  out  through  fear,  notwithstanding  the  boat  was  made 
fast  to  the  vessel  by  a  rope. — ^The  country  on  the  north 
coast,  between  Port  Dalrymple  and  Port  Sorell  is  moun- 
tainous, that  between  Port  Sorell  and  Port  Frederick  is  low 
toward  the  shore,  and  has  a  gentle  rise  further  inland,  where 
there  is  some  fine  pasture. — On  passing  one  part  of  the 
coast,  two  of  the  Aborigines  shewed  some  uneasiness  and 
fear.  This,  we  afterwards  found,  resulted  from  circumstances 
connected  with  the  destruction  of  two  settlers,  on  account 
of  which  one  of  these  men  had  been  in  prison,  but  had 
been  discharged.  The  other  had  actually  been  of  the  party, 
who  put  the  settlers  to  death ;  but  it  appeared,  that  their 
misconduct  had  been  such  as,  in  a  civilized  country,  would 
have  rendered  the  case  one  of  what  is  termed  in  law,  ^^  Justi- 
fiable homicide :''  but  notwithstanding  this,  and  without 
further  evidence  than  that  the  parties  had  been  killed  by 
Blacks,  a  verdict  of  wilful  murder  was  given  at  the  inquest, 
and  the  whole  Colony  was  thrown  into  excitement  through 
fear  of  the  barbarous  Aborigines,  so  that  few  people  thought 
of  going  from  home  without  guns  or  pistols.  This  occurred 
about  the  time  of  our  arrival   in  the  Colony,  when  many 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMEN8    LAND.  99 

persons  expressed   apprehension  at  our  travelling  without 

30th.  Some  person  having  suggested  that  Proper — a 
native  of  the  country  near  Circular  Head — ^would  probably 
run  away  if  we  put  in  there,  W.  J.  Darling,  who  at  the  time 
was  lying  on  a  bed  on  the  cabin  floor,  inquired  what  was 
his  intention.  Proper,  with  characteristic  cheerfulness, 
answered  this  question  by  slipping  into  bed  to  Darling,  and 
thus  assuring  him  that  he  would  not  forsake  him. — From 
this  man,  I  learned,  that  the  Aborigines  of  V.  D.  Land  had  no 
artificial  method  of  obtaining  fire,  before  their  acquaintance 
with  Europeans :  they  say,  they  obtained  it  first  from  the 
sky — ^probably  meaning  by  lightning.  They  preserved  fire 
by  carrying  ignited  sticks,  or  bark,  with  them,  and  if  these 
went  out,  they  looked  for  the  smoke  of  the  fire  of  some  other 
party,  or  of  one  of  the  fires  that  they  had  left,  as  these  often 
continued  to  bum  for  several  days. — In  the  afternoon  we 
brought  up  under  Circular-head,  where  a  whale-boat  belong- 
bg  a  sealer,  residing  on  Stack  Island,  came  along  side  the 
cutter.  Seated  at  the  stem,  was  a  native  young  woman, 
of  interesting  appearance,  neatly  dressed,  and  having  her 
hair  cut  off,  according  to  the  common  custom  among  her 
sex  in  this  Land.  Tlie  mild  expression  of  her  features  was 
beclouded  by  sadness.  When  she  spoke,  which  was  rarely, 
it  was  in  a  low  tone.  The  sealers  appeared  to  treat  her 
kindly,  but  there  was  something  in  their  manners  that  ex- 
cited suspicion.  On  being  asked,  if  she  would  like  some 
soup,  she  replied  in  the  affirmative,  and  was  requested  to 
come  on  board  for  it.  Having  finished  the  soup,  she  sat  in 
silence:  Jumbo  was  asked,  if  she  knew  the  woman.  She 
replied.  Yes,  she  is  my  country  woman.  Jumbo  was  then 
inquired  of,  why  she  did  not  talk  to  her.  She  replied.  She 
wont  speak  to  me.  W.  J.  Darling  ordered  the  two  women 
into  the  cabin,  and  desired  Jumbo  to  ask  Jackey — for  this 
was  the  name  that  the  sealers  had  given  this  woman — if 
she  would  go  to  Flinders  Island,  and  live  with  her  own 
people  there.  No,  was  her  answer.  He  then  requested, 
she  might  be  informed,  that  if  she  wished  to  go,  he  had 
power  to  take  her,  and  that  the  sealers  should  not  hurt  her. 

H  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

100  CIRCULAR    HEAD.  [lOth  mO* 

Her  countenance  at  once  lost  its  gloom^  and  with  a  burst  of 
joy,  she  said  she  would  go.  She  now  laughed  heartily^  and 
entered  freely  into  conversation  with  Jumbo^  and  said  the 
sealers  had  told  her  not  to  speak,  and  that  she  was  afiraid 
of  them. — ^Another  native  woman^  named  Maria,  was  on  the 
jetty  much  of  the  day,  growling  (as  they  term  expressing 
displeasure)  toward  the  cutter;  but  this  also  proved  to  be 
assumed  by  the  direction  of  the  sealers ;  and  she  likewise, 
with  her  baby,  was  rescued  from  them. 

On  landing  at  Circular  Head,  we  met  with  G.  A.  Robin- 
son, returning  from  a  visit  to  the  west  coast,  in  which  he 
had  prevailed  on  more  of  the  natives  to  join  those  on 
Flinders  Island.  We  walked  with  him  to  the  house  of 
Edward  Curr,  the  Superintendent  of  the  V.  D.  Land 
Company's  concerns;  where  we  were  received  with  much 
hospitality.  At  this  place^  the  large  garden,  with  a  fine 
crop  of  vegetables,  the  well  fenced  fields,  with  luxuriant 
herbage  of  rye-grass  and  white-clover,  and  the  beautiful 
cattle  and  horses,  and  almost  every  other  object  but  the 
Oum-trees,  resemble  England. 

31st.  While  W.  J.  Darling  and  myself  were  on  shore 
this  morning,  the  cutter  broke  from  her  mooring.  By  getting 
promptly  imder  sail,  those  on  board  were  able  to  beat  oS  from 
the  shore,  and  by  the  admonition  of  one  of  the  rescued 
women,  they  escaped  running  on  a  reef.  We  joined  them 
in  the  West  Bay,  where  they  brought  up  under  the  lee 
of  the  land,  and  where  the  luggage  of  6.  W.  Walker  and 
myself,  was  speedily  transferred  into  the  Company's  Cutter^ 
the  Fanny,  which  immediately  sailed  for  Woolnorth^  in 
company  with  the  Charlotte.  We  passed  northward  of 
Robbin  Island,  and  of  the  small  islands  between  it  and  Three 
Hummock,  or  the  East  Hunter  Island,  and  anchored  on  the 
west  of  Stack  Island^  upon  which  we  heard  some  dogs^  but 
saw  no  person.  We  afterwards  learned,  however,  that  a 
native  woman  was  there,  who  had  concealed  herself  by  order 
of  the  sealers,  notwithstanding  she  would  have  been  glad  to 
have  escaped  from  them :  they  subsequently  carried  her  off 
to  Kangaroo  Island. 

11th  mo.  1st.     Leaving  the  Charlotte  at  anchor,  to  take 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  101 

the  natives,  colleeted  by  G.  A.  Robinson,  from  Barren  Island, 
where  he  had  left  them,  we  proceeded  by  an  intricate  channel, 
to  Woolnorth,  where  we  became  the  guests  of  Samuel  Reeves, 
the  Superintendent  of  this  part  of  the  establishment  of  the 
V.  D.  Land  Company.  Here  we  were  welcomed  also  by 
their  surgeon,  James  Richardson,  who  studied  his  profession 
under  a  friend  of  mine  in  Leeds;  and  who  frequently 
accompanied  us  in  our  walks  in  this  neighbourhood. 

There  are  only  a  few  weather-boarded  buildings  at  Wool- 
north,  which  is  on  the  north  coast,  near  Moandas  Point, 
and  not  far  from  Cape  Orim.  Much  of  the  country  in  this 
neighbourhood  is  basaltic,  and  some  of  the  soil  is  a  fine 
red  loam.  To  the  west,  the  land  is  low  and  swampy,  but 
a  considerable,  grassy  marsh  is  under  drainage. — ^While  walk- 
ing over  this  marsh,  a  large  leech  crawled  up  my  clothes, 
and  bled  me  so  quietly,  that  I  was  unconscious  of  its  intru- 
sion until  it  droped  oiF.  These  animals  live  among  the 
roots  of  long  grass,  &c.  in  moist  ground:  their  mouths 
are  oval,  and  they  give  much  less  pain  in  biting  than  the 
leeches  of  Europe. — ^There  are  some  large  rocks  of  white 
quartz  in  this  direction;  and  on  the  coast,  the  clay-slate 
formation  emerges  in  a  form  resembling  Turkey-stone,  and 
is  useful  for  hones.  The  low  ground  near  the  coast  is  open, 
grassy  forest,  of  small  Gum-trees,  Honey-suckles,  &c.  and 
on  the  sand-banks,  there  are  large  round  bushes  of  a  re- 
markable, oval-leaved  Carroea. — Short  bushes  cover  some 
parts  of  the  interior  land,  and  the  hills  of  the  west  coast  are 
grassy.  On  these  some  Merino  sheep  are  fed,  but  the 
climate  is  rather  too  moist  for  them. 

At  Cape  Grim,  some  of  the  upper  portions  of  the  cliffs, 
are  soft  sandstone,  but  their  most  striking  portions  are 
basalt,  some  of  which  is  columnar.  In  these  cliffs  there 
are  caves,  formed  of  slender  columns  of  basalt,  of  a  bluish 
colour,  converging  to  a  sort  of  keel  above  and  below. — ^At 
the  foot  of  the  cliff,  there  is  a  rugged  flat,  over  which  the 
sea  breaks  furiously,  when  the  wind  lays  strong  on  the  shore, 
which  is  often  the  case.  The  whole  scenery  is  in  harmony 
with  the  name  of  the  place. 

The    Islands    at    this    extremity    of    Bass's   Straits    are 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

102  wooLNORTH.  [llthmo. 

numerous,  but  I  only  visited  two,  named  Trefoil  Island,  and 
Pelican  Island,  both  of  which  are  small.  The  V.  D.  Land 
Company  have  some  fine  Merino  sheep  upon  the  former, 
on  which  there  are  breeding  places  of  the  Mutton-bird. 
Pelicans  are  said  to  breed  on  the  latter,  as  well  as  some 
smaller  birds.  The  Stormy  Petrel  and  the  Blue  Petrel, 
colonize  the  Petrel  Islands,  and  the  Wandering  Albatross 
rears  its  young  on  Albatross  Island,  where  it  sits  on  its 
eggs  till  knocked  down  by  the  sealers  for  the  sake  of  its 
feathers,  which  are  sold  for  about  9d.  a  pomid.  A  single  bird 
will  yield  about  a  pound  of  feathers.  Nearly  1,000  Albatrosses 
are  said  to  have  been  killed  on  this  island,  last  year.  Some- 
times the  birds  are  stunned,  plucked,  and  cruelly  left  to 
linger;  but  often,  the  skin  of  the  neck  is  taken,  as  well  as  the 
feathers ;  the  down  on  this  part  being  nearly  equal  to  that 
of  the  swan.  The  colonization  of  many  of  the  Islands  in 
Bass's  Straits,  by  different  kinds  of  sea-fowl,  is  a  curious 
subject,  probably  dependent  upon  circumstances  of  peculiar 
character.  One  of  these,  is  the  absence  of  the  carnivorous 
quadrupeds  of  the  larger  islands,  which,  though  not  destruc- 
tive to  man,  are  so  to  birds.  Another  is  the  structure  of 
the  coast.  The  Albatross  and  Mutton-bird  requiring  a 
cUff,  or  sudden  rise,  to  fly  from,  cannot  take  up  with  a 
low,  sloping  shore.  The  Penguin,  which  cannot  fly,  requires 
an  easy  ascent  from  the  beach.  Perhaps  some  of  the  other 
species  take  up  with  islands  that  are  imoccupied  by  the 
myriads  of  those  already  named,  merely  because  these  Islands 
are  left  vacant. 

Some  of  the  kelp  or  sea-weed,  Tiv'ashed  up  on  this  shore,  is 
of  gigantic  magnitude ;  a  palmate  species  has  a  stem  thicker 
than  a  man's  arm,  and  proportionately  long.  The  flat  portion 
between  the  stem  and  the  ribbon-like  appendages,  is  so  large 
as  to  be  converted  by  the  Blacks,  into  vessels  for  carrying 
water.  For  this  purpose,  they  either  open  an  oblong  piece, 
so  as  to  form  a  flat  bag,  or  run  a  string  through  holes  in  the 
margin  of  a  circular  piece,  so  as  to  form  a  round  one.  There 
is  also  much  kelp  of  smaller  dimensions,  near  the  shore: 
among  this,  there  are  shells,  in  considerable  variety ;  and  ad- 
hering to  the  rocks,  Haliotis  tuberculata  and  leviffatOy  called  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBMEN8    LAND.  103 

this  country  Mutton-fish,  are  met  with  abundantly.  These 
are  often  taken  in  deep  water  by  the  native  women,  who  dive 
for  them,  and  force  them  from  the  rocks  by  means  of  a 
wooden  chisel.  They  put  them  into  an  oval  bag,  and  bring 
them  up  suspended  round  their  necks. 

While  we  were  at  Woolnorth,  a  party  of  the  domesticated 
Blacks,  who  had  been  with  6.  A.  Robinson,  on  the  west 
coast,  arrived  from  Barren  Island,  under  charge  of  Anthony 
Ck>ttrell,  G.  A.  Robinson's  assistant.  A  woman  of  this  party 
was  the  sole  relick  of  a  tribe  that  inhabited  the  western  side 
of  the  Huon  River,  on  the  south  coast  I  enquired  of  her  what 
became  of  the  people  of  her  country.  She  answered.  They 
all  died.  I  then  asked  what  killed  them.  An  aged  man  of 
the  Bruny  Island  tribe,  who  is  one  of  their  doctors,  and  was 
sitting  by,  replied.  The  Devil.  I  desired  to  know  how  he 
managed.  The  woman  began  to  cough  violently,  to  show 
me  how  they  were  aiFected,  and  she  said,  that  when  the  rest 
were  all  dead,  she  made  a  ^^  catamoran,'^  a  sort  of  raft,  and 
crossed  IKEntrecasteaux  Channel  to  Bruny  Island,  and 
joined  a  tribe  there. 

The  old  Doctor  was  smeared  and  streaked  with  red  ochre 
and  grease,  with  which  his  beard  was  also  dressed:  he  is 
affected  with  fits  of  spasmodic  contraction  of  the  muscles  of 
one  breast,  which  he  attributes,  as  they  do  all  other  diseases, 
to  the  devil;  and  he  is  cunning  enough  to  avail  himself  of 
the  singular  effect  produced  upon  him  by  this  malady,  to 
impose  upon  his  country  people,  under  the  idea  of  satanic 
inspiration.  When  it  comes  on,  he  seizes  a  stick  out  of  the 
fire,  and  brandishes  it  about  him,  in  the  manner  that  is 
common  under  circumstances  of  rage  among  this  people. 
The  Doctor  had  his  instruments  lying  by  him,  consisting  of 
pieces  of  broken  glass,  picked  up  on  the  shore ;  with  these 
he  cuts  deep  gashes  in  any  part  affected  with  pain. 

One  day,  when  sitting  by  the  fire  of  the  natives,  watching 
a  woman  making  the  oval  bags  of  open  work,  used  in  fish- 
ing, &c.  of  the  leaves  of  a  sedgy  plant,  which  she  split 
with  great  dexterity,  and  after  having  divided  them  into 
strips  of  proper  width,  softened  by  drawing  through  the  fire, 
I  observed  another  woman  looking  carefully  about  among  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

104  WOOLNORTH.  [llth  lUO. 

grass^  and  enquired  what  she  was  seeking.  Her  companions 
replied^  to  my  surprise^  A  needle.  To  this  I  answered^  that 
I  had  often  heard  hopeless  search  compared  to  '^  seeking  a 
needle  in  a  bottle  of  hay/'  and  A.  Cottrell,  who  sat  by,  said. 
You  will  see  she  will  find  it :  you  have  no  idea  how  keen 
sighted  and  persevering  they  are ;  and  after  some  time  she 
picked  up  her  needle,  which  was  one  of  English  manufacture, 
and  not  of  large  size  ! 

These  people  not  only  smear  their  bodies  with  red  ochre 
and  grease,  but  sometimes  rouge  the  prominent  parts  tastefully 
with  the  former  article,  and  they  draw  lines,  that  by  no  means 
improve  their  appearance,  with  a  black,  glittering,  mineral, 
probably  an  ore  of  antimony,  above  and  below  their  eyes. — 
One  day  we  noticed  a  woman  arranging  several  stones  that 
were  flat,  oval,  and  about  two  inches  wide,  and  marked  in 
various  directions  with  black  and  red  lines.  These  we  learned 
represented  absent  friends,  and  one  larger  than  the  rest,  a 
corpulent  woman  on  Flinders  Island,  known  by  the  name  of 
Mother  Brown. — ^The  arithmetic  of  the  Aborigines  is  very 
limited,  amounting  only  to  one,  two,  plenty.  As  they  cannot 
state  in  numbers  the  amount  of  persons  present  on  any 
occasion,  they  give  their  names. — ^The  west  coast  being  very 
humid,  those  inhabiting  it  make  huts  for  winter  habitations, 
by  clearing  a  circular  area  in  a  thicket  of  slender,  young,  Tea- 
tree,  and  drawing  the  tops  of  the  surrounding  bushes  toge- 
ther, and  thatching  these  with  branches  and  grass.  Some- 
times for  temporary  shelter,  they  use  large  slabs  of  bark, 
from  some  of  the  Gum-trees. 

Each  tribe  of  the  Aborigines  is  divided  into  several  fami- 
lies, and  each  family,  consisting  of  a  few  individuals,  occupies 
its  own  fire.  Though  they  rarely  remain  two  days  in  a  place, 
they  seldom  travel  far  at  a  time.  Each  tribe  keeps  much  to 
its  own  district — a  circumstance  that  may  in  some  measure 
account  for  the  variety  of  dialect.  The  tribe  called  by  the 
settlers,  the  Ben  Lomond  tribe,  occupied  the  north-east  por- 
tion of  V.  D.  Land ;  that  called,  the  Oyster  Bay  tribe,  the 
south-east ;  the  Stony  Creek  tribe,  the  middle  portion  of  the 
country;  and  the  Western  tribe,  the  west  coast.  Besides 
these,  there  were  also  a  few  smaller  sections.     Those  on  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  105 

west  coast  differed  from  those  on  the  east,  in  some  of  their 
customs.  The  former  did  not  mark  their  bodies  with  the 
same  regularity  as  the  latter:  the  scars  upon  those  of  the 
west  coast  appeared  to  have  proceeded  from  irregular  surgical 
cuts,  and  were  principally  upon  the  chest,  which  is  very 
liable  to  be  affected  by  inflanmiation,  that  often  speedily 
issues  in  death.  A  large  proportion  of  these  people  died  from 
this  cause,  in  the  course  of  the  late  inclement  season. 

Lately,  several  of  these  people  were  sick  upon  the  West 
Hunter  or  Barren  Island,  and  one  of  the  women  died.  The 
men  formed  a  pile  of  logs,  and  at,  placed  the  body  of 
the  woman  upon  it,  supported  by  small  wood,  which  con- 
cealed her,  and  formed  a  pyramid.  They  then  placed  their 
sick  people  aroimd  the  pile,  at  a  short  distance.  On  A. 
Cottrel,  our  informant,  enquiring  the  reason  of  this,  they 
told  him  that  the  dead  woman  would  come  in  the  night  and 
take  the  devil  out  of  them.  At  daybreak  the  pile  was  set  on 
fire,  and  fresh  wood  added  as  any  part  of  the  body  became 
exposed,  till  the  whole  was  consumed.  The  ashes  of  the 
dead  were  collected  in  a  piece  of  Kangaroo-skin,  and  every 
morning,  before  sunrise,  till  they  were  consumed,  a  portion  of 
them  was  smeared  over  the  faces  of  the  survivors,  and  a 
death  song  sung,  with  great  emotion,  tears  clearing  away 
lines  among  the  ashes.  The  store  of  ashes,  in  the  mean 
time,  was  suspended  about  one  of  their  necks.  The  child  of 
the  deceased  was  carefully  nursed. 

A  few  days  after  the  decease  of  this  woman,  a  man,  who 
was  ill  at  the  time,  stated,  that  he  should  die  when  the  sun 
went  down,  and  requested  the  other  men  would  bring  wood 
and  form  a  pile.  While  the  work  was  going  forward,  he 
rested  against  some  logs  that  were  to  form  part  of  it,  to  see 
them  execute  the  work :  he  became  worse  as  the  day  pro- 
gressed, and  died  before  night. 

The  practice  of  burning  the  dead,  is  said  to  have  extended 
to  the  natives  of  Bruny  Island;  but  those  of  the  east  coast 
put  the  deceased  into  hollow  trees,  and  fenced  them  in  with 
bushes. — ^They  do  not  consider  a  person  completely  dead 
till  the  sun  goes  down  ! 

The  chiefs  among  these  tribes  are  merely  heads  of  families 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

106  CIRCULAR    HEAD.  [11th  mO. 

of  extraordinary  prowess.  One  of  these  now  here,  belongin^- 
an  eastern  tribe,  has  not  the  flattened  nose  common  to  hii 
countrymen,  but  is  much  more  like  a  European  in  features. 

In  the  course  of  our  tarriance  at  Woolnorth,  we  twice  had 
meetings  with  such  of  the  people  as  could  be  assembled. 
These,  with  a  few  Aborigines,  amounted  to  forty-five,  on  one 
occasion,  and  to  fifty-eight  on  another.  The  company  were 
reverent  in  their  deportment,  while  we  read  to  them  from 
the  Scriptures,  and  spoke  to  them  respecting  the  way  of 
salvation.  This  was  strikingly  the  case  with  a  few  of  the 
natives  who  could  understand  a  Uttle  English.  The  solemn 
feeling  that  pervaded  the  mind,  especially  during  intervals  of 
silence,  was  very  comforting.  The  state  of  the  people  at 
this  settlement  was  such  as  greatly  needed  religious  instruc- 

We  returned  to  Circular  Head  on  the  13th  of  11th  mo. 
by  the  Fanny,  which  had  on  board  forty-eight  young  Merino 
Rams,  designed  for  sale  at  Launceston,  and  which  had  been 
fed  upon  Trefoil  Island. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Circular  Head. — Anchorage. — Higbfield  Plain. — ^Work  People. — Indentured  Ser- 
rants. —Flagellation. — Eagles. — Sponges. — Shells. — Crabs. — ^Weather. — ^Ants. 
— Journey. — Rivers. — Grass-trees. — Blandfordia. — Banksia  serratifolia. — Hu- 
man Bones. — Scrub  and  Fern. — Fossil  Shells. — Table  Cape. — Trees,  &c. — Emu 
Bay. — Magnificent  Forest. — Oigantic  Trees. — Tree-ferns. — Plains. — Aborigi- 
nes.— Boad. — ^Arriral  at  the  Hampshire  Hills. 

On  arriving  at  Circular  Head^  we  found  the  Conch,  bound 
for  the  Isle  of  France  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  lying 
at  the  jetty,  where  she  had  taken  shelter  from  adverse  winds. 
On  landing,  a  young  man  was  waiting  with  assistants,  to 
convey  our  luggage  to  a  small  cottage,  which  Edward  Curr 
had  kindly  appropriated  to  our  use,  his  large  family  fully 
occupying  his  own  house :  he  received  us  kindly,  and  invited 
us  to  take  our  meals  at  his  table  during  our  stay  here. 

Circular  Head  is  a  basaltic  peninsula,  on  a  flat  part  of  the 
coast :  it  takes  its  name  from  a  large  circular  bluff,  facing 
the  east,  and  at  the  south  side  of  which  is  the  anchorage. 
Portions  of  the  peninsula,  which  contains  about  4,000  acres, 
are  hilly  and  clothed  with  wood :  much  of  the  soil  is  good, 
and  notwithstanding  some  of  it  is  light,  it  is  very  productive. 
On  the  main  land,  the  coast  is  sandy,  or  swampy,  and  further 
in,  the  forest  is  dense  and  lofty. 

The  whole  grant  of  the  V.  D.  Land  Company  here,  is 
20,000  acres.  The  dwellings  of  persons  in  their  employ- 
ment, are  chiefly  on  the  portion  of  the  peninsula  called  High- 
field  Plain,  which  lies  to  the  north-west  of  the  bluff.  We 
had  several  meetings  with  the  work-people  at  this  place, 
generally  in  the  carpenter^s  shop.  Their  remote  situation 
excited  our  sympathy,  and  we  endeavoured  to  direct  them 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

108  CIRCULAR   HEAD.  [11th  mo. 

to  Christ,  the  Shepherd  and  Bishop  of  souls. — Many  of  the 
people  who  emigrated  hither  under  the  auspices  of  the  V.  D. 
Land  Company,  came  out  as  their  indentured  servants ;  but 
these,  finding  they  had  agreed  for  less  wages  than  they  could 
readily  obtain  in  the  Colony,  took  every  opportunity  to  run 
away ;  and  the  Company  having  in  but  few  instances,  agreed 
specifically  what  rations  the  people  should  receive,  in  addi- 
tion to  wages,  this  also  became  a  fruitful  source  of  dis- 
satisfaction, so  that,  at  present,  they  have  few  indentured 
servants  left. 

The  people  here  have  the  advantage  of  being  generally 
secluded  from  strong  drink,  but  a  Colonial  vessel  putting  in 
at  the  jetty,  a  few  of  the  prisoners,  in  defiance  of  admoni- 
tion, obtained  some.  I  was  present  when  two  of  these  re- 
ceived flagellation,  to  the  amount  of  twenty-five  lashes  each^ 
for  this  offence.  Witnessing  this  punishment  tended  to 
confirm  me  in  its  inefficiency  compared  with  solitary  con- 

Pelicans  and  other  wild-fowl,  resort  to  the  bays  adjacent 
to  Circular  Head.  Eagles  also  are  common  here,  as  well  as 
in  other  parts  of  the  Island.  One  day,  I  saw  a  large  Eagle 
sallying  over  my  companion,  while  he  was  busily  occupied 
in  picking  up  shells.  It  approached  nearer  every  time  it 
swept  over  him,  until,  being  afraid  he  should  receive  a  stroke 
from  its  talons,  I  called  to  him,  and  on  his  resuming  an 
erect  posture,  it  flew  away. — On  the  western  shore  of  Cir- 
cular Head,  there  is  a  remarkable  bank  of  sponges,  of  several 
hundred  yards  long,  and  more  than  a  yard  thick.  There 
are  also  some  others  of  smaller  dimensions.  The  species 
are  numerous  and  curious.  Sponges,  as  we  see  them  in 
England,  are  merely  skeletons.  In  their  living  state,  those 
of  this  coast  are  filled  with  a  scarlet,  crimson,  or  bright 
yellow  pulp,  and  covered  with  a  thin  skin  ;  they  are  of  great 
beauty,  when  seen  in  clear  water. 

Shells  are  also  numerous  here,  we  picked  up  more  than  a 
hundred  species.  The  sand  north  of  the  bluff,  was  some- 
times covered  with  myriads  of  globular  crabs,  about  the 
size  of  a  hazel-nut.  On  going  among  them,  they  made  a 
noise  Uke  a  shower  of  rain,  and  by  a  rotatory  motion,  in  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  109 

few  seconds^  buried  themselves  in  the  sand^  the  surface  of 
which  they  left  covered  with  pellicles  like  peas. 

Seals  are  not  now  frequent  on  this  part  of  the  coast ;  one 
of  large  size  was  killed  on  the  beach  during  our  stay ;  in  the 
course  of  which  the  weather  was  occasionally  inclement  for 
a  few  days  at  a  time.  Rain  was  often  attended  by  thunder : 
previous  to  it,  the  Ants  were  busy  raising  mounds  around 
their  holes,  to  prevent  inundation. 

12th  mo.  13th.     Accompanied  by  Edward  Curr,  and  three 
assigned    servants  of  the   Company,    we   set  out   for    the 
Hampshire  HiUs :   the  weather  previously  had  rendered  the 
rivers   on   the  way   impassable.      We   travelled   on   horse- 
back, and  were  each  equipped  with  a  long  bundle,  formed 
by  a  blanket,  containing  sundry  needful  articles,  and  with 
a  tin   pot,    and  a   tether-rope,    attached  to  the   fore  part 
of  the  saddle.     We  crossed  a  muddy  bay,  and  rode  eight 
miles    along   a   sandy   beach,    to    the   Black   River,   which 
we  forded  without  difiBculty,  the  tide  being  low. — On  this 
river,  there  is  blue  slate,  of  good  quality,   limestone,   and 
quartz-rock.     Continuing  on  the  beach   five   miles  further, 
we  crossed  Crayfish   River,  and  in  four  miles  more,  came 
to    the    Detention   River,    which    we   also   passed   on   the 
bar.      Here  we    halted,    on   a  grassy  place,    where   there 
was  a  small  spring,  and  made  tea,  while  the  horses  grazed ; 
they  being  relieved  from  their   burdens,   and   tethered  to 
the   bushes.      When  the  horses  were   a   little   rested,  we 
ascended   the   white   quartz   hills,   of  Rocky   Cape,  which 
were   but  thinly   covered  with   sandy  peat.     A  species  of 
Xanihorrhcea,  or  Grass-tree,  is  scattered  over  them,  having 
a  root-stock  of  a  few  inches  high,   supporting  a  crest  of 
stiff  spreading  rushy  leaves,  from  the  centre  of  which  rises 
a  stem  from  2  to  5  feet  high,  thickly  covered,  excepting  a 
few  inches  at  the  base,  with  rough  buds,  and  with  flowers 
resembling  little  white  stars.    A  beautiful  Blandfordia  was 
also  scattered  in  this   district :    its  stems  were  1^  ft.  high, 
and  supported  crests  of  from  10  to  20  pendulous,  red  blos- 
soms, maigined  with  yellow,  1^  inch  long,  and  |  inch  wide, 
at  the  mouth. 
Beyond  these  hills  is  a  level,  upon  which,  and  on  some 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

110  TABLE    CAPE.  [11th  mo. 

contiguous  hills^  Bankria  serratifolia  is  the  prevailing  tree. 
This,  so  far  as  I  know,  is  its  only  locality  in  V.  D.  Land. 
It  is  equal  to  a  Pear-tree  in  size,  has  leaves  3  or  4  inches 
long,  and  f  broad,  and  strongly  toothed :  its  heads  of  flowers 
are  6  inches  long,  and  12  round ;  and  the  seeds  are  as  large 
as  almonds. 

The  ascent  of  some  of  the  hills  was  as  steep  as  a  horse 
could  climb,  and  in  some  places,  little  but  bare  rocks.  Some 
whitening,  human  bones  lay  by  the  side  of  one  of  the  paths 
through  this  dreadful  country,  in  a  situation  likely  for  a 
person  exhausted  by  fatigue,  to  sink  down  and  die. — Some- 
times, we  had  to  lay  hold  of  the  manes  of  the  horses,  to  retain 
our  seats,  sometimes  to  leap  over  logs,  in  awkward  situations, 
and  sometimes  it  was  impracticable  to  ride.  In  some  places, 
the  scrub,  of  Acacia  verticellata,  was  so  thick  that  we  could 
not  see  each  other,  and  when  we  came  upon  Table  Cape,  a 
fern,  Pteris  esctdenia,  was  so  deep  as  to  obscure  us  from 
the  view  of  each  other. 

In  the  evening,  we  descended  a  steep  place,  at  the  foot 
of  which,  on  the  coast,  there  was  a  grassy  level,  watered  by 
a  clear  spring.  Here  we  took  up  our  abode  for  the  night, 
and  formed  beds  of  dry  fern  and  branches,  under  the  shelter 
of  a  tarpawling,  and  a  Honey-suckle-tree ;  and  after  another 
meal,  of  which  tea  formed  a  refreshing  part,  retired  to  rest, 
two  of  our  attendants  having  previously  returned  to  Circular 
Head  with  some  cattle. 

14th.  Early  in  the  morning  we  mended  our  fire,  and 
supplied  ourselves  with  water  for  breakfast,  from  the  roof 
of  a  cave,  in  compact  silicious  rock,  imbedding  a  variety  of 
shells,  of  similar  species  to  the  recent  ones  on  the  strand 
below.  We  made  a  hasty  meal  of  tea  with  beef-pasties, 
which  we  took  while  walking  about  in  the  rwn,  and  listening 
to  loud  peals  of  thunder.  Lottis  atistralis,  a  bushy  plant 
with  pretty,  pink,  pea-flowers,  which  also  occurs  at  Cape 
Grim,  was  growing  here. — ^The  bones  of  a  person  supposed 
to  have  been  a  soldier,  and  some  of  his  fishing  tackle,  &c. 
were  some  time  since,  found  among  the  fern,  by  the  sea  side, 
at  this  place,  by  one  of  the  Company's  servants. 

After  ascending  to  the  top  of  Table  Cape,  we  passed  over- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBHEN8    LAND.  Ill 

some  rich^  red  loam,  clothed  with  luxuriant  vegetation.  Fern, 
Prickly  Acacia,  and  Musky  Aster,  were  so  thick  as  to  be 
passed  with  difficulty.  Tree-ferns  were  numerous,  and  many 
lofty  shrubs  were  overrun  with  Macquarie  Harbour  Vine  and 
White  Clematis.  Above  the  shrubs,  rose  stately  Stringy- 
barks  and  White  Gums,  attaining  to  about  200  feet  in 
height.  Here  and  there,'  a  tree  had  fallen  across  the  path, 
which  was  but  indistinctly  traced  in  places,  and  when  left 
was  not  easy  to  find  again. — ^Leaving  Table  Cape,  we  crossed 
the  Inglis  and  Camm  Rivers,  upon  the  beach,  on  which  we 
rode  most  of  the  way  to  Emu  Bay;  where  the  Company 
have  a  store,  for  the  supply  of  their  establishment,  at  the 
Hampshire  and  Surrey  Hills.  Goods  are  landed  at  this 
place,  on  the  basaltic  rocks,  which  rise  perpendicularly 
out  of  the  sea  in  pentagonal  columns. 

After  a  short  rest,  we  set  out  for  the  Hampshire  Hills, 
distant  20^  miles,  through  one  of  the  most  magnificent  of 
forests.  For  a  few  miles  from  the  sea,  it  consists  chiefly 
of  White  Gum  and  Stringy-bark,  of  about  200  feet  in  height, 
with  straight  trunks,  clear  of  branches  for  from  100  to  150 
feet;  and  resembling  an  assemblage  of  elegant  columns,  so 
irregularly  placed  as  to  intercept  the  view,  at  the  distance 
of  a  few  hundred  yards.  These  are  elegantly  crowned  with 
branching  tops,  of  light,  willow-like  foliage,  but  at  an  eleva- 
tion too  great  to  allow  the  form  of  the  leaves  to  be  dis- 
tinguished, yet  throwing  a  gentle  shade  on  the  ground  below, 
which  is  covered  with  splendid  tree-ferns  and  large  shrubs, 
and  carpeted  with  smaller  ferns.  Some  of  the  larger  Stringy- 
barks  exceed  200  feet,  and  rise  nearly  as  high  as  "the 
Monument''  before  branching.  Their  trunks  also  will  bear 
a  comparison  with  that  stately  column,  both  in  circumference 
and  straightness. — ^The  bark  of  these  trees  is  brown  and 
cracked :  that  of  the  White  Gums  is  french-grey,  and  smooth. 

The  prostrate  trunks  of  these  sylvan  giants,  in  various 
stages  of  decay,  add  greatly  to  the  interest  of  the  scene. 
Some  of  them,  lately  fallen,  have  vast  masses  of  the  rich 
red  earth  in  which  they  grew,  still  clinging  to  their  roots ; 
others,  that  have  been  in  a  state  of  decay  before  they 
fell,  present  singular  ruins  of  shattered  limbs  and  broken 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

112  EMU    BAY    FOREST.  [llthmo. 

boughs ;  others,  that  seem  to  have  been  in  a  state  of  decom- 
position for  ages,  have  become  overgrowTi  with  various  ferns 
and  shrubs. 

As  the  distance  from  the  sea  increases,  the  Australian 
Myrtle  and  Sasafras,  of  dark  dense  foliage,  become  the 
prevaiUng  trees.  In  these  denser  forests,  tree-ferns  form 
nearly  the  sole  undergrowth,  except  thes  mall,  starry  ferns, 
of  low  stature,  of  the  genus  Lomaria,  that  cover  the  ground 
thinly.  Some  of  the  tree-ferns  have  trunks  20  feet  high. 
Their  leaves  are  from  8  to  12  feet  long,  and  the  new  ones^ 
now  forming,  rise  in  the  centre  like  elegant  croziers. 

This  forest  is  an  ascending,  undulating  ground,  and  is 
interrupted  by  a  very  few,  small,  grassy  plains.  One  of  these 
had  recently  been  burnt  by  a  few  Aborigines  still  remaining 
in  this  neighbourhood.  They  bum  oflF  the  old  grass,  in 
order  that  the  Kangaroos  may  resort  to  that  which  springs 
up  green  and  tender. 

The  road  which  has  been  cut  throng  this  forest,  is  so 
much  shaded  as  to  be  kept  constantly  moist.  It  is  impas- 
sable, except  for  pack-horses,  for  several  months  in  the 
year;  and  many  parts  of  it  may  be  termed  sloughs  filled 
with  tangled  roots.  Several  brooks  that  pass  through  it,  are 
crossed  on  bridges,  formed  of  poles  laid  closely  together,  so 
as  to  make  a  compact  platform. 

On  arriving  at  the  Hampshire  Hills,  we  received  a  warm 
greeting  from  6.  W.  Walker's  relations,  George  and  Mary 
Robson ;  who  were  rejoiced  to  see  their  relative  in  this  se- 
questered spot,  so  far  from  their  native  land. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hampshire  Hills. — Plants. — ^Boming  the  Qtwu,  &c.-^iirrey  HDls. — St  Marys 
Plain. — Shmbs. — Ezcortion  to  Emu  Bay.^Rocks. — Gigantic  Trees. — Man 
lost. — ^Dense  Forest — Aborigines. — St.  Valentines  Peak. — ^Animals.^ — ^Hostile 
NatiTcs. — Edible  Fungi.— Native  Potato.  —  Measurement  of  Trees. — ^Ex- 
ploratory Ramble. — Skill  of  Aborigines. — ^Myrtle  Forest. — ^Animals. — Com* 
pass.— Attack  upon  the  Aborigines.^-Leeches. — Dense  Forest. — Cataracts- 
Free  Servants. — Reckless  Drunkenness. — Quantity  of  Rain. — Snow. — ^Bur- 
leigh.—Black  Bluff.— Vale  of  Belvoir.— Epping  Forest. — Snakes. — "Great 
Western  Road." — Forth  and  Mersey  Rivers. — Circular  Pond  Marshes. — 
Burning  Forest. — Caverns.— Dairy  Plains.— Westbury. — ^Depravity. — ^Arrival 
at  Launceston. 

The  setdement  of  the  Van  Diemens  Land  Company^  at  the 
Hampshire  Hills^  consisted  of  a  few  houses  for  the  officers 
and  servants^  built  of  weather-board^  upon  a  gentle  eminence^ 
among  grassy  and  ferny  hills^  interspersed  with  forest^  and 
watered  by  clear  brooks,  bordered  with  beautiful  shrubs. — 
Here  we  remained  seven  weeks,  using  such  opportunities  as 
occurred  for  communicating  religious  instruction  to  the 
people.  While  my  companion  enjoyed  the  society  of  his 
relations,  I  often  made  excursions  into  the  surrounding 
coimtry ;  in  company  with  Joseph  Milligan,  the  surgeon  of 
the  Company's  estabUshment  at  this  place. 

12th  mo.  15th.  In  the  course  of  a  walk,  we  met  with  the 
V.  D.  Land  Tulip-tree,  Telopea  truncata,  a  laurel-like  shrub, 
bearing  heads  four  inches  across,  of  brilliant,  scarlet,  wiry, 
flowers ;  we  also  saw  by  the  side  of  a  brook,  a  large  upright 
Phebalium,  a  shrub  with  silvery  leaves  and  small  white 
blossoms,  and  a  white  flowered  Wood  Sorrel,  OxtaUs  Laciea, 
resembling  the  Wood  Sorrel  of  England. 

I7th.  When  in  the  forest,  a  large  Black  Snake  ap- 
prized me  of  its  proximity  by  a  loud  hiss :  I  struck  it,  but 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

114  HAMPSHIRE    HILLS.  [12th  mO. 

my  stick  breakings  it  escaped.  We  set  fire  to  some  dead 
grass  and  fern,  which  burnt  rapidly,  and  ignited  some  of  the 
dead  logs  with  which  the  ground  was  encumbered.  In  this 
way,  the  land  is  often  advantageously  cleared  of  unproductive 
vegetable  matter ;  but  it  requires  many  burnings  to  destroy 
the  logs,  many  of  which,  either  partially  consumed,  or 
entire,  are  scattered  in  all  directions  over  this  Island. 
In  the  afternoon  we  accompanied  E.  Curr  and  G.  Robson 
to  Chilton,  a  farm  house  on  the  Surrey  Hills,  19  miles  dis- 
tant. Three  miles  of  the  road  is  through  dark  Myrtle-forest, 
the  rest  over  grassy  hills,  on  which  Stringy  Bark  trees  are 
thinly  scattererd.  The  numerous  brooks  of  this  part  of  the 
country  are  margined  with  Tea-tree,  Sassafras,  Blackwood, 
and  Telopea ;  the  flowers  of  the  last  abound  in  honey,  which 
we  found  easy  to  extract  by  means  of  the  slender  tubular 
stems  of  grass. 

19th.  After  visiting  a  pretty  little  opening  in  the  forest, 
we  returned  to  the  Hampshire  Hills,  by  a  place  called  Long 
Lea,  where  there  is  a  single  hut. 

20th.  In  company  with  E.  Curr  and  G.  Robson  we 
visited  an  open  place  in  the  forest,  called  St.  Marys  Plain  ; 
not  because  of  being  level,  but  because  it  is  clear  of  wood, 
except  a  few  clumps  of  Silver  Wattle,  on  the  hills,  and  lines 
of  Tea  Tree,  on  the  margins  of  the  brooks  by  which  it  is 
intersected.  It  is  bounded  by  a  lofty  forest,  and  is  a  spot 
of  great  beauty.  One  of  the  brooks  tumbles  over  a  basaltic 
rock,  and  forms  a  very  pretty  waterfall,  about  forty  feet 
high,  and  thirty  wide.  It  is  decorated  with  Tea  Tree,  at 
the  top  and  sides;  and  at  the  bottom,  a  shrubby  Aster, 
with  toothed  leaves,  is  loaded  so  profusely  with  pure  white 
H^lossoms  as  to  bend  gracefully  in  all  directions.  The  grassy 
hills  are  besprinkled  with  Buttercups,  Blue  Speedwell,  Flax, 
Stylidium,  and  httle  white  flowers  resembling  English  Dai- 
sies. Several  Brush  Kangaroos  sprang  from  their  hiding- 
places  as  we  approached  them. — ^The  road  to  this  place  is 
through  a  succession  of  Myrtle  and  Stringy-bark  forest. 
The  track  up  an  ascending  portion  of  the  former,  may  be 
compared  to  a  staircase  of  wreathed  roots. 

21st.     Edward    Curr    returning   to    Circular    Head,  J. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIBHBNS    LAND.  115 

Milligan  and  I  accompanied  him  as  for  as  Emu  Bay. — On 
an  old  road  called  the  Lopham-road^  a  few  miles  from 
the  Bay,  we  measured  some  Stringy-bark  trees,  taking 
their  circumference  at  about  5  feet  from  the  ground.  One 
of  these,  which  was  rather  hollow  at  the  bottom,  and  broken 
at  the  top,  was  49  feet  round ;  another  that  was  solid,  and 
supposed  to  be  200  feet  high,  was  41  feet  round ;  and  a 
third,  supposed  to  be  250  feet  high,  was  55^  feet  round.  As 
this  tree  spread  much  at  the  base,  it  would  be  nearly  70  feet 
in  circumference  at  the  surface  of  the  ground.  My  compan- 
ions spoke  to  each  other,  when  at  the  opposite  side  of  this 
tree  to  myself,  and  their  voices  sounded  so  distant  that  I 
concluded  they  had  inadvertantly  left  me,  to  see  some  other 
object,  and  immediately  called  to  them.  They,  in  answer, 
remarked  the  distant  sound  of  my  voice,  and  inquired  if  I 
were  behind  the  tree ! — When  the  road  through  this  forest 
was  forming,  a  man  who  had  only  about  200  yards  to  go, 
from  one  company  of  the  work-people  to  another,  lost  himself: 
he  called,  and  was  repeatedly  answered ;  but  getting  further 
astray,  his  voice  became  more  indistinct,  till  it  ceased  to  be 
heard,  and  he  perished.  The  largest  trees  do  not  always 
carry  up  their  width  in  proportion  to  their  height,  but  many 
that  are  mere  spars,  are  200  feet  high. 

The  following  measurement  and  eniuneration  of  trees 
growing  on  two  separate  acres  of  ground  in  the  Emu  Bay 
forest,  made  by  the  late  Henry  Hellyer,  thfe  Surveyor  to  the 
V.  D.  Land  Company,  may  give  some  idea  of  its  density. 


500  Trees  under 

12  inches 

I  in  girth 

992     do.     . . 

1  to    2  feet 

do.       . 

716     do.     . . 

2  to    3  do. 


56     do.     . . 

3  to    6  do. 


20    do.     .. 

6  to  12  do. 


12     do.     . . 

12  to  21  do. 


4     do.     .. 

30  do. 


84  Tree  Ferns. 

2,384  Total. 

I  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

116  EMU  BAY.  [12th  mo 

EMU    BAY. 



704  Trees  under 

12  inches 

1  in  ^rth. 

880    do.     .. 

1  to    2  feet 


148     do.     . . 

2  to    3  do. 


56     do.     . . 

3  to    6  do. 


32     do.     . . 

6  to  12  do. 


28     do.     . . 

12  to  21  do. 


8     do.     . . 

21  to  30  do. 


8     do.     . . 

30  feet  and  upward; 

112  Tree  Ferns. 

1,976  Total. 

22nd.  We  spent  the  day  with  a  young  man  who  had  chai^ 
of  the  Emu  Bay  Stores. — In  walking  on  a  hill  in  the  forest, 
we  fell  in  with  the  trunk  of  a  White  Gum,  nearly  100  feet 
long,  and  of  such  even  circumference  that  it  was  not  easy 
to  determine  which  end  had  grown  uppermost:  it  was 
rather  the  thickest  in  the  middle.  It  had  been  broken  off 
at  about  15  feet  from  its  base,  and  precipitated  upon  its 
top,  which  had  been  broken  to  shivers,  and  the  trunk 
making  a  somerset,  and  shooting  forward  down  the  hill,  had 
made  a  vista  through  the  scrub. — In  the  forest  here,  we 
found  a  curious  epiphyte  of  the  orchis  tribe,  afterwards 
named  Gunnia  australis.  Epiphytes  are  so  called  because 
they  grow  upon  other  trees,  without  becoming  incorporated 
with  them.  This  was  growing  upon  the  branches  of  the 
larger  shrubs,  especially  upon  Coprosma  spinosa,  which  last 
has  small,  red  and  rather  insipid  berries,  that  are  some- 
limes  preserved,  under  the  name  of  Native  Currants. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Emu  Bay,  there  are  rocks  of 
felspar,  or  of  quartz,  of  a  reddish  colour,  and  there  are 
traces  of  granite  in  this  vicinity,  as  well  as  at  the  Harnp^ 
shire  Hills,  but  the  country  is  chiefly  basaltic. — Sometimes^ 
when  large  trees  are  blown  over,  they  bring  up  portions 
of  slender,  basaltic  columns  with  their  roots.  Much  of  the 
earth  in  the  forests  is  rich,  red,  basaltic  loam. 

23rd.  We  assembled  the  assigned  servants,  to  whom 
J.  Milligan   read  a  portion    of    Scripture,  after  which   I 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1832.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  Il7 

spoke  to  them  on  the  importance  of  securing  the  salva- 
tion of  their  souls. — This  proved  an  awakening  time  to  a 
poor  prisoner^  who  died  some  years  after  at  Launceston, 
in  a  hopeful  state  of  mind. 

While  here,  we  saw  some  fires,  at  a  distance,  to  the  east- 
ward, along  the  coast,  which  were  sup))osed  to  be  those  of 
lime-burners ;  but  I  felt  no  mental  attraction  toward  them, 
at  which  I  was  surprised.  On  afterwards  ascertaining 
that  they  were  the  fires  of  a  few  natives,  who  showed  hos- 
tility, by  spearing  one  of  the  servants  of  the  Company,  I 
could  not  but  regard  this  as  a  mercy  from  Him,  who  can 
keep  his  dependent  children  out  of  danger,  as  well  as  pre- 
serve them  when  in  it. 

24th.  We  returned  to  the  Hampshire  Hills.  On  the 
way  I  ascended  the  trunk  of  a  prostrate  Stringy-bark,  by 
climbing  a  small  Black-wood  tree.  .  The  Stringy-bark 
having  laid  long  on  the  ground,  was  covered  with  moss 
and  ferns:  it  measured  200  feet,  to  the  first  branches^ 
where  the  trunk  was  about  12  feet  in  circumference. 
It  was  amusing  to  look  down  from  the  butt  of  this  tree^ 
upon  my  friend,  who  was  on  horseback  below.  We  also 
measured  some  White  Gums,  supposed  to  be  180  feet 
high,  which  varied  from  30  to  35  feet  in  circumference. 
While  taking  tea,  our  attention  was  arrested  by  a  noise  like 
a  peal  of  thimder,  which  proved  to  have  been  occasioned 
by  the  fall  of  a  lofty  tree,  at  the  distance  of  half  a  mile ! 

28th.  We  came  to  Chilton  last  night,  and  this  morning 
ascended  the  mountain  called  St.  Valentines  Peak,  which 
is  probably  4,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  the  Surrey 
Hills,  from  which  it  rises,  being  upwards  of  2,000.  It  is 
of  whitish,  silicious  conglomerate.  The  imbedded  pebbles 
are  small  and  rounded :  some  are  translucent,  and  of  various 
appearance,  from  that  of  semi-opal  to  flint;  others  are  opaque, 
and  white,  red,  or  scarlet.  The  Myrtle  forest  extends  part  of 
the  way  up  one  side  of  the  mountain,  and  is  so  thick  and  dif- 
ficult to  pass  through,  that  though  the  distance  is  only  six  miles 
from  the  Hampshire  Hills,  the  road  taken  to  reach  it,  is  sixteen. 
In  the  line  between  these  places  there  are  some  scrubs,  so 
tangled  that  to  cross  them,  a  person  must  travel  among  their 

I  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

118  HAMPSHIRE    HILLS.  [18S2. 

branches  at  many  feet  above  the  ground.  The  sides  of  the 
Peak  are  clothed  with  shrubs^  among  which  are,  a  low  dense 
species  of  Bichea  and  Cystanihe  sprengellaides.  The  upper 
part  is  scantily  covered  with  herbage,  and  is  rocky :  it  com- 
mands a  very  extensive  and  remarkable  view.  The  north 
coast  is  visible  near  Port  Sorell.  The  Cradle  Mountain^ 
Bam  BlufF,  and  lower  parts  of  the  Western  Tier,  bound  the 
prospect  on  the  east.  Numerous  mountains  are  visible  to 
the  south ;  and,  on  the  west,  the  sea  is  seen,  through  a  few 
openings  among  the  hills.  The  whole,  except  the  sea,  the 
projecting  rocks,  and  a  few  small,  open  tracts  of  land,  such 
as  the  Hampshire  Hills,  Goderich  Plains,  &c.  is  one  vast 
sombre  forest ;  the  open  parts  of  which,  having  from  10  to 
30  trees  per  acre,  are  not  distinguishable  from  those  that 
are  denser,  except  in  colour. — The  dogs  belonging  to  some  of 
the  company,  killed  a  Black  Opossum,  and  we  destroyed  two 
small  snakes,  with  minute,  venom-fangs.  Two  Wedge-tailed 
Eagles,  called  in  the  colony  Eagle  Hawks,  shewed  a  dis- 
position to  carry  off  a  little  dog;  but  he  kept  dose  to  us 
for  safety.  In  approaching  the  Peak,  we  crossed  some  wet 
land,  covered  with  Bog  Moss,  Sphagnum,  of  the  same  kind 
that  occurs  in  England. 

29th.  Notwithstanding  it  is  now  midsummer,  the  weather 
is  cold  with  hail  and  sleet.  The  climate  here  is  much  colder 
than  that  of  the  coast.  We  rode  to  a  plain  called.  The  Race 
Course ;  on  which  there  is  a  hut,  from  whence  one  of  the  native 
Blacks  was  shot  last  year,  by  a  young  man  who,  when  alone^ 
observed  one  of  them  approaching  slyly  and  beckoning  to 
his  fellows  in  the  adjacent  wood.  A  hut  in  the  neighbour- 
hood had  been  attacked  by  them  a  few  days  before,  and  a 
man  kUled;  several  others  had  also  been  speared.  The 
young  man  that  shot  the  Black  became  depressed,  almost  to 
derangement,  at  the  idea  of  having  prematurely  terminated 
the  existence  of  a  fellow-creature. 

30th.  We  remained  at  Chilton  till  to-day,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  having  a  meeting  with  the  few  servants  of  the 
Company.  In  the  afternoon,  we  had  also  a  religious  inter- 
view widi  three  men  at  a  place  named  Wey-bridge ;  after 
which  we  returned  to  the  Hampshire  HiUs. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIBMBNS    LAND.  119 

1st  mo.  1st.  1833.  I  measured  a  Tea  Tree^  Lepiospef" 
warn  lamgerum,  7  feet  in  circmnference,  and  about  70  feet 
high.  This  is  usually  a  shrub  of  about  10  feet  in  height. 
I  afterwards  met  with  one  of  these  trees  80  feet  high.  A 
Silver  Wattle^  Acacia  mollis?  was  11  feet  2  inches  round : 
the  area  of  its  branches  and  its  height  60  feet.  A  Sasafras 
was  6  feet  round  and  140  feet  high. — On  a  Myrtle,  we  met 
with  a  large  fungus,  such  as  is  eaten  by  the  natives  in  cases 
of  extremity.  It  is  known  in  the  colony  by  the  name  of 
Punk,  and  is  white  and  spongy ;  when  dried  it  is  commonly 
used  instead  of  tinder.  Another  edible  fungus  grows  upon 
the  Myrtle,  in  these  forests:  it  is  produced  in  clusters, 
from  swollen  portions  of  the  branches,  and  varies  from  the 
size  of  a  marble  to  that  of  a  walnut.  When  young,  its 
colour  is  pale,  and  it  is  covered  with  a  thin  sldn  that  is 
easily  taken  off.  Its  taste,  in  this  state,  is  like  cold  cow-heel. 
When  matured,  the  skin  splits,  and  exhibits  a  net-work  of 
a  yellowish  colour.  It  may  be  considered  the  best  native 
esculent  in  V.  D.  Land. 

A  White  Hawk,  and  some  other  birds  of  the  Falcon  tribe 
were  observed  here. — ^Among  the  few  singing  birds  of  this 
country  there  is  one  with  a  slender  note,  like  that  of  a  Red- 
breast; another  has  a  protracted  whistle,  repeated  at  inter- 
vals.— ^The  shrill  chirp  of  the  Mole-cricket  has  been  heard 
during  the  two  last  days,  and  the  harsh  creaking  note  of  a 
small  Tetagoma  ?  a  kind  of  fly,  called  the  Croaker,  is  every 
where   to  be  heard  among  the  grass  and  bushes. 

2nd.  Showery  with  thunder.  I  dug  up  a  Gastrodium 
sesamoideSy  a  plant  of  the  orchis  tribe,  which  is  brown,  leaf- 
less, and  \\  feet  high,  with  dingy,  whitish,  ^tubular  flowers. 
It  grows  among  decaying  vegetable  matter,  and  has  a  root 
like  a  series  of  kidney  potatoes,  terminating  in  a  branched^ 
thick  mass  of  coral-like  fibres.  It  is  eaten  by  the  Abo- 
rigines, and  is  sometimes  called  Native  Potato;  but  the 
tubers  are  watery  and  insipid. 

3rd.  In  company  with  J.  Milligan  and  Henry  Stephen- 
son, a  servant  of  the  Company,  from  near  Richmond  in 
Yorkshire,  we  visited  a  place  in  the  forest,  remarkable  for 
an  assemblage  of  gigantic  Stringy  Barks,  and  not  far  from 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

120  HAMPSHIRE    HILL0.  [Ist  HIO. 

the  junction  of  the  Emu  River  with  the  Loudwater;  the 
latter  of  which  takes  its  name  from  three  falls  over  basaltic 
rockj  at  short  intervals,  the  highest  of  which  is  17  feet, — 
Within  half  a  mile  we  measured  standing  trees  as  follows, 
at  4  feet  from  the  ground.  Several  of  them  had  one  large 
excrescence  at  the  base,  and  one  or  more  far  up  the  trunk. 

No.  1^-45  feet  in.  circumference,  supposed  height  180  feet, 
the  top  was  broken,  as  is  the  case  with  most  large-trunked 
trees ;  the  trunk  was  a  little  injured  by  decay,  but  not  hollow. 
This  tree  had  an  excresence  at  the  base,  12  feet  across,  and 
6  feet  high,  protruding  about  3  feet. 

No.  2 — 374  f®®t  in  circumference,  tubercled. 

No.  3 — 35  feet  in  circumference ;  distant  frt)m  No.  2 
about  80  yards.* 

No.  4 — 38  feet  in  circumference ;  distant  from  No.  3 
about  fifty  yards.* 

No.  5 — 28  feet  in  circumference. 

No.  6 — ^30  feet  in  circumference. 

No.  7 — ^32  feet  in  circumference. 

No.  8 — 55  feet  in  circumference ;  supposed  to  be  upwards 
of  200  feet  high ;  very  little  injured  by  decay ;  it  carried  up  its 
breadth  much  better  than  the  large  tree  on  the  Lopham 
Road,  and  did  not  spread  so  much  at  the  base. 

No.  9^-40^  feet  in  circumference  ;  sound  and  tall. 

No.  10—48  feet  in  circumference;  tubercled,  taU,  with  some 
cavities  at  the  base,  and  much  of  the  top  gone.  A  prostrate 
tree  near  to  No.  1,  was  35  feet  in  circumference  at  the  base, 
22  feet,  at  66  feet  up,  19  feet,  at  110  feet  up ;  there  were  two 
large  branches  at  120  feet;  the  general  head  branched  off  at 
150  feet;  the  elevation  of  the  tree,  traceable  by  the  branches 
on  the  ground,  was  213  feet.  We  ascended  this  tree  on 
an  inclined  plane,  formed  by  one  of  its  limbs,  and  walked 
four  a  breast,  with  ease,  upon  its  trunk  1  In  its  Ml,  it  had 
overturned  another,  168  feet  high,  which  had  brought  up 
with  its  roots,  a  ball  of  earth,  20  feet  across.  It  was  so  much 
imbedded  in  the  earth  that  I  could  not  get  a  string  round  it 

*  These  were  fine  sound  trees,  upwards  of  200  feet  high ;  they  had  large» 
single  excrescences  at  the  base. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  121 

to  measure  its  girth.  This  is  often  the  case  with  fallen  trees. 
On  our  return,  I  measured  two  Stringy-barks,  near  the  houses 
at  the  Hampshire  Hills,  that  had  been  felled  for  splitting 
into  rails,  each  180  feet  long.  Near  to  these,  is  a  tree  that 
has  been  felled,  which  is  so  large  that  it  could  not  be  cut 
into  lengths  for  splitting,  and  a  shed  has  been  erected  against 
it;  the  tree  serving  for  the  back  ! 

7th.  I  accompanied  J.  Milligan  in  a  visit  to  an  open 
plain^  previously  unexplored,  which  we  had  seen  firom  an 
eminence,  and  taken  the  bearing  of,  by  the  compass.  We  set 
out  early  and  reached  the  place  about  noon.  It  was  covered 
with  long  grass  and  tall  fern,  to  which  we  set  fire.  As  evening 
drew  on,  we  made  "a  break-wind*'  of  boughs,  and  thatched 
it  with  fern,  &c,  of  which  we  also  prepared  a  bed.  Toward 
night,  rain  fell,  but  not  so  as  to  extinguish  our  fire,  though 
it  stopped  the  burning  of  the  grass  and  fern.  We  were 
amused  with  the  note  of  a  little  bird,  in  the  wood  near  which 
we  had  formed  our  shelter,  that  in  a  shrill  whistle,  seemed 
to  involve  the  words,  "  Who  are  you  ?  who  are  you  ?  Are 
you  wet  ?  are  you?*'—  In  passing  through  a  woody  hollow, 
we  saw  many  of  the  tree-ferns,  with  the  upper  portion  of 
the  trunk  spht,  and  one  half  turned  back.  This  had 
evidently  been  done  by  the  Aborigines,  to  obtain  the  heart 
for  food,  but  how  the  process  was  effected,  I  could  not  dis- 
cover; it  must  certainly  have  required  considerable  skill. 
Many  small  branches  of  the  bushes  were  broken  and  left 
hanging :  by  this  means  these  people  had  marked  their  way 
through  the  untracked  thicket. 

8th.  The  morning  being  wet,  we  concluded  to  return 
to  the  Hampshire  Hills,  and  having  to  pass  over  the  burnt 
ground  on  which  the  charred  stems  of  the  fern  were 
standing,  we  were  blackened  by  them  in  a  high  degree ; 
but  afterwards,  on  coming  among  wet  scrub,  we  were  as  effec- 
tually washed.  We  then  passed  4^  hours  in  traversing  a 
dreary  Myrtle-forest,  making  frequent  use  of  the  compass, 
and  sometimes  losing  sight  of  each  other,  by  the  intervention 
of  tree-ferns.  We  were  much  impeded  by  roots  of  trees 
projecting  above  the  grassless  surface  of  the  earth,  and  by 
fallen  and  decaying  timber.     In  crossing  some  of  the  latter. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

122  HAMPSHIRE    HILLS.  [1st  lUO. 

of  large  dimensions,  a  crack  would  sometimes  inspire  the 
idea  of  danger  of  incarceration,  in  the  trunk  of  a  rotten  tree. 
The  silence  of  the  forest  was  only  disturbed  by  a  solitary 
Black  Cockatoo  and  a  parrot,  and  by  the  occasional  creak- 
ing of  boughs  rubbing  one  against  another.  Near  the  Guide 
River,  I  measured  two  Myrtles  of  32  and  45  feet  round : 
these  and  many  others  appeared  to  be  aT>out  150  feet  high. 
Few  Myrtles  exceed  30  feet  in  circumference,  and  they  often 
diminish  suddenly  at  about  10  feet  from  the  ground,  losing 
nearly  as  much  in  circumference. 

12th.  Part  of  the  day  was  occupied  in  Natural  History 
observations. — In  the  borders  of  the  forest,  which  has  here 
several  trees  from  35  to  40  feet  in  circumference,  there  are 
tree-ferns  of  unusual  vigour:  some  of  them  have  32  old, 
and  26  new  fronds,  of  9  feet  long :  the  most  common  num- 
ber is  8  old  and  4  new,  exclusive  of  the  dead  ones.  In 
some  of  the  denser  parts  of  the  forest,  the  Celery-topped 
Pine  occurs,  and  attains  a  stature  adapted  for  masts:  its 
fruit  is  somewhat  like  that  of  the  Yew. — A  laurel-like  shrub 
of  great  beauty,  with  clusters  of  white  blossoms,  half  an 
inch  across,  Anopterus  glandvloms,  grows  by  the  sides  of 
the  Emu  River,  in  shady  places. 

The  Brush  Kangaroo  is  common  here,  as  well  as  in  other 
parts  of  the  Island :  it  is  easily  domesticated :  one  at  the 
Hampshire  Hills  that  is  half-grown,  embraces  the  hand 
that  rubs  its  breast ;  it  rambles  away  and  returns  at  pleasure, 
feeds  chiefly  in  the  evening,  and  has  a  voice  like  a  deer,  but 
more  complaining. — Dogs  that  have  become  wild,  have  mul- 
tiplied greatly  in  this  part  of  the  Island,  and  are  very  de- 
structive to  sheep.  The  animal,  called  in  this  country 
the  Pyena  and  the  Tiger,  but  which  differs  greatly  from 
both,  also  kills  sheep:  it  is  the  size  of  a  large  dog,  has 
a  wolf-like  head,  is  striped  across  the  back,  and  carries  its 
young  in  a  pouch.  This  animal  is  said  sometimes  to  have 
carried  off  the  children  of  the  natives,  when  left  alone  by  the 
fire.  One  is  said  to  have  faced  a  man  on  horseback,  on  the 
Emu  Bay  Road,  probably  having  had  its  young  ones  in  the 
bush,  too  large  for  its  pouch.  Another  animal  of  the  same 
tribe,  but  black,  with  a  few  irregular  white  spots,  having 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMBN8    LAND.  123 

short  legs,  and  being  about  the  size  of  a  terrier,  is  com- 
monly known  by  the  name  of,  the  Devil,  or  the  Bush-Devil: 
it  is  very  destructive  to  lambs.  Smaller  species  of  an  allied 
genus,  but  more  resembling  the  Pole-cat  in  form,  are  known 
by  the  names  of  Tiger-cat  and  Native-cat.  These  are  de- 
structive to  poultry.  The  whole  group  eats  insects,  parti- 
cularly Grass-hoppers,  which  are  extremely  abundant  in 
some  parts  of  the  Island.  Some  of  the  Owls  also  eat  in* 
sects :  a  number  were  taken  from  the  stomach  of  a  small 
round-headed  species,  shot  a  few  evenings  ago.  There  is 
likewise  here  a  beautiful  owl,  nearly  allied  to  the  Bam-Owl 
of  England.  The  Land-lobster,  noticed  at  Port  Davey, 
throws  up  its  chimneys  also  in  wet  ground  at  the  Hamp- 
shire HiUs. 

14th.  I  walked  with  J.  Milligan  to  some  wet  plains, 
covered  with  rushy  herbage,  and  passed  through  some  forest 
where  a  dense,  wiry  scrub  of  a  white  flowered  Bauera 
greatly  impeded  our  progress.  We  got  turned  round  in  it, 
and  the  day  being  cloudy,  we  could  not  correct  our  course 
by  the  sun.  On  discovering  that  the  compass  pointed  the 
contrary  way  to  what  we  expected,  we  had  to  summon  all 
our  resolution,  to  follow  its  guidance,  especially  as  we  had 
heard  many  tales  of  its  being  attracted  by  ironstone,  in  this 
country ;  but  we  had  cause  for  thankfulness  in  being  enabled 
to  resolve  to  prove  it,  for  an  error  here  might  have  placed 
our  lives  in  imminent  peril.  Though  the  compass,  in  some 
instances,  may  possibly  have  been  attracted,  so  as  not  to 
point  accurately,  I  suspect,  that  in  a  majority  of  cases  in 
which  this  is  alleged  to  have  taken  place,  it  was  not  so, 
but  that  the  parties  who  had  become  bewildered,  having 
lost  their  confidence  in  this  useful  instrument,  had  wan- 
dered at  random,  till  by  some  accident,  they  discovered 
where  they  were;  and  then,  without  proving  whether  the 
compass  was  wrong  or  not,  laid  the  blame  upon  it,  rather 
than  acknowledge  that  themselves  had  missed  the  way. 

Q.  W.  Walker  and  two  of  his  nephews,  felled  a  Stringy- 
bark,  that  had  been  burnt  hollow,  and  on  this  account  had 
been  left  by  the  sawyers :  it  was  10  feet  9  inches  in  circum- 
ference, at  3  feet  up,  and  4  feet  3  inches  round,  at  the  first 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

124  HAMPSHIRE    HILL8.  [ist  mO. 

branchy  which  was  143  feet  from  the  ground.  The  extreme 
height  was  215  feet.  They  brought  down  another,  that  was 
12  feet  6  inches,  at  3  feet  from  the  ground;  4  feet,  at  116 
feet  up,  where  the  first  branch  was  inserted;  at  164  feet 
from  the  ground,  the  line  of  the  trunk  branched  off,  and  the 
highest  portions  of  the  head  were  216  feet. 

18th.  I  again  accompanied  J.  MiUigan  on  an  explora- 
tory excursion.  We  visited  the  remains  of  a  bark  hut,  in 
which  a  man  who  had  been  a  prisoner,  and  was  employed 
by  the  Aborigines  Committee,  to  capture  the  natives,  fired 
upon  a  party  of  them  as  they  sat  around  their  fire,  with  the 
recklessness  that  characterizes  cowardice.  One  woman  was 
killed,  and  others  were  made  prisoners.  There  is  reason 
to  believe  that  this  outrage,  for  which  the  man  was  dis- 
charged from  his  employment,  led  to  increased  animosity 
toward  the  white  population,  that  resulted  in  loss  of  life 
on  both  sides.  The  Aborigines  had  robbed  a  hut  on  Three- 
brook  Plain,  two  miles  from  the  settlement  at  the  Hampshire 
Hills,  a  short  time  before. — ^We  were  annoyed  by  leeches, 
when  stopping  to  take  our  meals :  they  seem  to  have  the 
power  of  perceiving  persons  at  a  distance,  and  may  be  seen 
making  their  way  through  the  grass  toward  them,  two  or 
three  yards  off;  we  took  about  a  dozen  from  our  clothes, 
but  more  than  that  number  eluded  our  vigilance,  and  ob- 
tained firm  hold  before  being  discovered. 

19th.  We  slept  near  a  brook  last  night,  having  previously 
burnt  off  the  grass,  and  swept  the  place  to  clear  it  of  leeches; 
early  this  morning,  we  proceeded  further  into  the  forest,  which 
became  extremely  thick.  On  the  slope  of  a  hill  J.  MiUigan 
felled  a  small  tree,  to  make  an  opening,  to  see  through,  and 
we  climbed  about  30  feet,  up  the  tnmk  of  a  Musky  Aster, 
which  had  here  become  arboreous ;  but  nothing  was  visible 
except  tree  tops  spreading  over  hills  and  valleys.  We  be- 
came perplexed  by  missing  a  river  that  we  expected  to  have 
come  upon,  but  having  confidence  in  our  map  and  compass, 
pursued  our  way  with  more  comfort  than  our  prisoner  atten- 
dant, who  looked  downcast,  and  said,  it  would  be  a  bad  set, 
if  we  did  not  get  out  of  the  bush  to-morrow.  When  greatly 
fatigued,  we  heard  the  sound  of  a  cataract,  and  determined 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMENS   LAND.  125 

to  visit  it.  The  water  of  what  proved  to  be  the  union  of 
oar  lost  river  with  another^  rushed  down  a  rugged^  basaltic 
channel^  fsdling  at  intervals  for  about  300  yards ;  the  whole 
elevation  being  about  lOO.-r-We  had  had  some  wine  with 
us^  and  had  taken  it  mixed  with  water;  but  it  was  exhausted 
some  time  before  reaching  this  spot;  and  I  was  greatly 
surprised^  on  eating  a  morsel  of  food  and  drinking  a  draught 
of  tmadulterated  water^  to  find  my  strength  restored,  in  such 
a  degree  as  to  enable  me,  with  comparative  ease,  to  ascend  a 
hill  covered  with  forest,  so  thick  as  to  resemble  hop-poles, 
which  often  required  to  be  pushed  aside,  to  make  a  passage. 
After  sunset,  we  discovered  some  Black-wood  trees,  and  soon 
a  few  blades  of  grass;  these  were  cheering  as  indications  of 
the  margin  of  the  forest;  and  shortly  after,  to  our  great 
satisfaction,  we  emerged  upon  Three-brook  Plain.  The 
Myrtle  forest  was  excessively  dark,  and  the  road  through  it 
so  miry,  that  we  had  to  use  sticks  to  support  ourselves,  while 
feeling  with  our  feet  for  roots  to  step  upon ;  but  patience 
and  perseverance  brought  us  safely  to  the  Hampshire  Hills 
by  bed  time.  Some  dogs  that  accompanied  us,  killed  a 
Kangaroo  and  a  Wombat,  both  of  which  supplied  us  with 
food.  The  latter  is  sometimes  met  with  in  the  deepest 
recesses  of  the  forest. 

20th.  We  assembled  for  religious  purposes,  with  the 
Officers  and  Prisoner-servants  of  the  establishment.  G. 
W.  Walker  read  the  Epistle  to  the  Colossians,  and  I  made 
a  few  remarks  on  the  efficacy  of  Divine  grace,  and  of  faith 
in  the  Son  of  God,  as  shown  in  the  conversion  of  Onesimus, 
whom  the  Apostle  commends  to  the  Colossian  church,  and 
in  another  epistle,  also  to  Philemon,  his  master,  from  whom 
he  had  run  away.  I  pressed  upon  the  audience  the  necessity 
of  seeking  to  know  the  same  transforming  power  to  operate 
in  themselves,  and  to  bring  them  from  under  the  dominion 
of  Satan,  and  into  communion  with  God. — Few  of  the  free 
servants  have  chosen  to  be  present  on  such  occasions : 
several  of  them  were  at  work  this  afternoon,  contrary  to 
orders.  Many  of  them  are  very  reckless,  and  have  little 
command  over  themselves.  One  of  them,  a  short  time 
since,  set  out  with  the  overseer  of  the  establishment,  for 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

126  HAMPSHIRE    HILLS.  [Ist  mO. 

Launceston^  to  buy  himself  a  saw,  and  obtain  a  work-mate, 
but  he  stopped  at  the  first  public-house  he  came  to, 
spent  £18  that  he  had  saved,  and  ran  into  debt  several 
pounds  more.  The  overseer  found  him  at  this  place,  on  his 
return,  and  brought  him  back  without  saw  or  mate;  and 
from  the  effect  of  continued  inebriation,  he  was  in  danger 
of  perishing  from  cold  which  they  had  to  endure  on  the 
way. — Cases  similar  to  this  are  not  uncommon  in  the  Aus- 
tralian Colonies. 

22nd.  We  took  leave  of  our  kind  friends  at  the 
Hampshire  Hills,  and  accompanied  by  O.  Robson  and  J. 
Milligan,  proceeded  to  Chilton. — ^Heavy  ndn  fell,  and  the 
cold  became  so  great,  that  we  were  glad  to  retire  to  bed 
early,  for  protection  from  the  piercing  wind. — By  a  register 
kept  by  my  friend  Joseph  Milligan,  of  the  quantity  of  rain 
that  fell  at  the  Hampshire  Hills,  from  1835,  to  1839,  the 
mean  annual  quantity  appeared  to  be  upwards  of  67  inches. 
In  1837,  it  exceeded  80  inches.  The  greatest  fall  in  one 
day  in  the  five  years,  was  upwards  of  4  inches. 

23rd.  George  Robson  returned,  and  the  rest  of  our  com- 
pany proceeded  to  Burleigh,  another  of  the  Company's 
stations.  Notwithstanding  it  was  summer,  and  large  patches 
of  ground  were  white  with  the  blossoms  of  Diplarhcena 
Morcea — ^an  Iris-like  plant,  common  in  the  colony,  the  Bam 
Bluff  and  other  mountains  adjacent,  were  covered  with  fresh 
snow,  and  the  tops  of  the  potatoes  at  Chilton  were  touched 
with  frost  The  land  here  is  high,  with  marshy  flats  and 
grassy  forest.  The  trees  of  the  open  ground  are  chiefly 
Stringy-bark  20  to  30  feet  in  circumference,  and  70  to  100 
feet  high.  The  country  of  the  Hampshire  and  Surrey  Hills, 
has  proved  unfavourable  for  sheep,  but  seems  adapted  for 
homed  cattle. 

24th.  We  crossed  the  Leven  River,  travelled  through 
some  open  forest,  and  over  the  swampy  Black  Bluff  Moim- 
tains,  which  are  3,381  feet  high,  and  crossed  a  fine  open 
country,  called  The  Vale  of  Belvoir,  in  which  there  is  a  sheet 
of  water  named  Patterdale-lake.  This  vale  has  numerous 
pits  of  water  and  streams,  even  with  the  grass,  dividing  and 
again  uniting,  so  as  to  make  travelling  difiicult.    There  are 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  127 

also  deep  fissures  in  the  earth,  destitute  of  water. — We  pro- 
ceeded over  the  Middlesex  Plains,  one  of  the  grants  of  the 
V.  D.  Land  Company,  which  is  at  present  unoccupied,  and 
crossed  the  Iris  River  three  times :  we  then  entered  an  open 
forest  of  White  and  Common  Gum,  that  continued  till  we 
reached  Epping  Forest,  which  is  of  Stringy-bark,  where, 
near  a  vacant  stock  yard,  we  encamped  for  the  night. — 
When  crossing  one  of  the  brooks  on  the  Vale  of  Belvoir,  a 
snake  went  into  the  water  from  the  bank,  and  passed  before 
my  horse,  which  became  so  much  alarmed,  that  he  was  very 
reluctant  to  leap  over,  or  to  cross  any  of  the  other  brooks  that 
we  came  to,  in  the  course  of  the  day.  The  route  we  travelled 
was  upon  what  has  been  designated,  The  Great  Western 
Road ;  but  in  many  places  in  the  plains  it  was  quite  lost, 
and  could  only  be  found  again  in  the  margins  of  the  forest, 
by  seeking  for  the  marked  trees. 

25th.  The  track  was  more  distinct.  On  the  descent 
to  the  Forth,  which,  is  about  2,000  feet,  there  are  some 
beautiful  views  of  woody  and  mountain  scenery.  The  ri- 
ver is  wide  and  rapid,  and  the  sound  of  the  great  faU, 
called  The  Forths  Gateway,  is  very  distinguishable  from 
the  road.  Grads  Hill  lies  between  this  river  and  the 
Mersey:  it  is  2,588  feet  high,  very  steep,  and  cloth- 
ed with  lofty  forest,  in  which  several  of  the  larger 
shrubs  become  small  trees. — In  ascending  this  hill,  a  large 
Black  Snake  crossed  the  path,  and  I  could  not  induce  my 
horse  to  pass  the  place  where  it  had  been  without  leading 
him.  On  the  top  of  the  hill  there  are  some  pretty,  grassy 
openings,  called  the  Emu  Plains;  to  which,  after  resting,  we 
set  fire,  in  order  that  the  next  travellers  this  way,  might 
have  fresh  grass. — ^The  descent  of  Gads  HiU  is  almost  too 
steep  for  horses :  oxen  have  sometimes  fallen  over  the  side 
of  the  path,  and  have  been  lost  in  the  forest  below. 

On  arriving  at  the  Mersey  we  found  it  considerably 
flooded.  Here  J.  Milligan  had  some  provisions  deposited 
in  a  hoUow  tree,  for  himself  and  his  prisoner  attendant 
to  return  to. — After  resting  a  little,  we  crossed  this  river, 
which  is  also  wide,  and  so  deep  that  three  out  of  four  of  our 
horses,  swam  a  short  distance ;  but  by  keeping  their  heads  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

128  CIRCULAR    POND    MARSHES.  [ist  mO. 

little  up  the  stream^  they  got  footing  again  before  reaching 
the  dangerous  rapids^  towards  which  the  stream  impelled 
them.  Passing  over  a  few  more  hills,  we  came  to  some 
small,  limestone  plains,  called  the  Circular  Pond  Marshes, 
from  a  number  of  circular  basons,  that  seem  to  have  been 
formed  by  the  draining  oflF  of  the  waters,  with  which  the 
whole  are  sometimes  covered,  into  subterraneous  channels. 
Some  of  these  ponds  are  full  of  water,  the  outlets  below 
being  choked  with  mud,  others  are  empty,  and  grassy  to  the 
perforated  bottoms.  There  are  also  some  cavernous  places. — 
We  fixed  our  quarters  for  the  night  under  the  shelter  of  a 
wood,  and  by  the  side  of  a  place  resembling  the  bed  of  a 
deep  river,  that  commenced  and  terminated  abruptly :  the 
water,  which  at  some  seasons  flows  through  it,  evidently 
finds  ingress  and  egress  through  a  bed  of  loose  gravel. 

After  burning  off  the  grass,  and  sweeping  the  place,  a  fire 
was  kindled  against  a  log,  that  proved  to  be  rotten  inside,  and 
became  ignited ;  the  fire  spread,  and  catching  the  grass,  soon 
extended  into  the  forest,  which  was  full  of  brushwood,  that 
did  not  appear  to  have  been  burnt  for  many  years.  The 
conflagration  was  exceedingly  grand ;  it  brought  down  some 
considerable  trees  that  had  been  nearly  burnt  through  by 
former  fires :  such  as  were  hollow,  burnt  out  at  the  top  like 
furnaces.  This  magnificent  spectacle  cost  us,  however,  some 
labour,  in  beating  out  the  fire  of  the  grass,  which  we  burnt  oflF 
before  us,  to  keep  the  fire  of  the  forest  from  igniting  it  and 
coming  round  upon  us  in  the  night.  We  had  also  some 
anxiety  from  the  tottering  state  of  a  tree  that  burnt  furiously, 
and  was  not  far  enough  from  our  encampment  to  clear  us,  if 
it  fell  in  that  direction.  From  this  we  were  relieved,  by  its 
fall,  before  going  to  sleep;  but  our  rest  was  nevertheless 
disturbed  by  the  crash  of  others  falling  during  the  night. 

26th.  We  explored  a  few  of  the  caverns,  the  entrances  of 
some  of  which  resemble  doorways,  and  open  into  a  grassy 
hollow.  At  the  end  of  a  long  subteraneous  passage,  into 
which  I  descended  with  a  torch  of  burning  bark,  there  was 
a  fine,  clear  stream  of  water,  three  feet  wide  and  equally 
deep,  emerging  from  one  rock  and  passing  away  under 
another.    The  limestone  was  of  a  bluish  colour,  imbedding 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  129 

iron  pjrrites. — Between  the  Circular-pond  Marshes  and  the 
Moleside  Marshes^  some  elevated  land  occurs.    The  latter 
takes  its  name  from  the  Moleside  River^  which  also  becomes 
subterraneous  in  some  places. — ^When  we  had  passed  this 
place,  we  began  to  see  herds  of  cattle,  and  a  few  houses  of 
settlers. — After  taking  a  meal  by   the    Lobster    Rivulet, 
so  caUed  troia  producing  a  fresh-water  lobster,  six  to  twelve 
inches  long,  we  parted  from  our  kind  guide  and  companion 
J.  Milligan,  who   had  devoted  much   time   and  labour  to 
promote    our    comfort   and   accommodation :     he   and  his 
prisoner  attendant  returned  with  three  horses  to  the  Hamp- 
shire Hills,  and  we  pursued  our  route  to  Westbury,  with 
one  belonging  to   the   Government,  which  we  had  under- 
taken  to   convey  to    Launceston.     At   a   location   on  the 
Meander,  we  met  with  Ronald  Campbell  Gunn,  the  most 
industrious  botanist  in  Van  Diemens  Land,  who  wished  us 
to  join  him  in  a  botanical  excursion.    This  we  declined,  not 
for  want  of  inclination,  but  because  the  way  was  now  open 
for  us  to  proceed  with  more  important  business,   and  we 
were  desirous  of  having  a  meeting  with  the  people  of  West- 
bury  on  the  morrow. — We  crossed  the  Meander  or  Western 
River,  at  Deloraine  Bridge,  near  the  first  public-house  in 
this  direction,  to  which  allusion  has  already  been  made. — 
Some   of  the   country,   passed    through   to-day,   is  named 
Dairy  Plains,  and  is   open  grassy  forest.     Toward  West- 
bury,  where  we  arrived  in  the  evening,  the  trees  were  all 
dead  from  some  natural  cause,  for  an  extent  of  several  miles. 
In   cases  of  this  kind,  the  trees  may  possibly  have  died 
from  drought ;  the  long  grass  or  scrub  amongst  which  they 
grow,  having  been  burnt  off,  and  kept  from  growing  again 
by  the  browsing  of  cattle,  and  the  roots  having  thus  become 
more  than  formerly  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  sun.     Had 
the  trees  died  from  frost  or  from  fire,  the  roots  would  have 
pushed  up  fresh  shoots,  but  this  Lb  not  the  case ;  and  the 
surrounding  trees,  not  absolutely  on  the  level  ground,  and 
consequently,  not  having  been  originally  accustomed  to  much 
moisture,  are  still  living. 

27th.     Westbury  consists  of  a  small  number  of  weather- 
board houses,  two  of  which  are  inns :  the  others  belong  to  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

130  WESTBURY.  [1st  mo. 

military  establishment.  In  one  of  these  we  founds  as  tem- 
porary residents,  the  family  of  George  P.  Ball,  an  officer 
lately  returned  from  service  in  India,  with  whom  we  had 
previously  become  acquainted,  and  by  whose  assistance, 
several  of  the  inhabitants  were  collected  at  the  military 
barracks,  where  I  preached  to  them  the  Gospel  of  peace 
through  Jesus  Christ,  and  pointed  out  the  necessity  of 
repentance,  and  the  danger  of  impenitence. — Having  been 
long  in  a  part  of  the  Island  where  there  are  no  public- 
houses,  and  where  the  evils  arising  from  strong  drink  are 
little  seen,  we  were  forcibly  struck  with  their  exhibition  at 
Westbury,  where  intoxication,  profeme  language,  and  de- 
pravity of  countenance,  bespoke  in  an  appalling  manner, 
man  led  captive  of  the  devil  at  his  will. 

28th.  Our  kind  friend  6.  P.  Ball  accompanied  us  as 
hr  as  the  settlement  of  P.  Ashbumer,  a  respectable  magis- 
trate, also  returned  from  India,  to  whose  family  we  psid 
a  pleasant  visit. — Some  of  the  locations  of  settlers  in 
this  neighbourhood  are  upwards  of  20,000  acres. — ^Wc 
crossed  the  South  Esk  at  Entally  Ford,  and  when  it 
became  dark,  got  involved  among  unfinished,  post  and 
rail  fences,  which  perplexed  us  greatly.  This  is  a  trial  of 
patience  not  unfrequent  in  a  country  in  which  enclosure 
is  commencing,  and  one  which  we  generally  avoided  by 
travelling  on  foot.  It  was  late  before  we  reached  the  town, 
notwithstanding  we  had  been  long  in  sight  of  it.  We  found 
comfortable  accommodation  for  the  night,  at  the  Launceston 
Hotel. — ^The  distance  from  the  Hampshire  Hills  to  Laun- 
ceston is  113  miles. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Laimceeton. — ^Foolish  Washerwoman. — lisard  and  Orasshopper. — ^Beligiout 
Meetmgs.~Perth.--Korfo]k  Plains.— Wheat  Crops.— Rioter.— Lake  and  Hae- 
qaarie  Rivers. — Summer  Snow. — Hammocky  Hills. — Profanity. — Campbell 

'  Town  and  Ross. — Salt  Pan  Plains. — Oatlands. — Jericho. —  The  Jordan. — 
Cross  Marsh. — Green  Ponds. — Constitution  Hill.— Bagdad.— Blistered  Feet. 
—Rate  of  Walking.— Hobart  Town. 

On  calling  upon  our  friends  Isaac  and  Katharine  Sherwin^ 
they  pressed  us  again  to  take  up  our  quarters  at  their  house, 
to  which  we  consented :  we  continued  their  guests  till  the 
21st  of  3rd  mo.,  making  in  the  interval  an  excursion  into 
the  country,  to  the  southward. 

2nd  mo.  1st.  Washing  is  an  expensive  item  in  new  colo- 
nies :  here  we  are  charged  5s.  per  doaen  articles.  To-day^ 
our  washerwoman  laid  out  j£3  in  a  coral  necklace  for 
herself,  and  a  watchchain  for  her  husband!  forgetting,  I  sup- 
pose, that  this  foolish  indulgence  of  pride  would  not  alter 
her  station  in  society. 

2nd.  The  climate  here  is  much  warmer  and  drier  than 
that  to  the  westward;  the  harvest  is  ripe,  and  under  the 
sickle,  and  the  grass  dry  and  brown  upon  the  ground. 
Large  Grasshoppers,  with  yellow  underwings,  mai^ned  with 
black,  are  very  numerous,  as  are  also  several  species  of 
Lizard.  In  my  walk  this  morning,  I  saw  a  lizard  run  into 
a  hole  with  one  of  the  grasshoppers  in  its  mouth,  and  was 
induced  to  watch  another,  catching  its  more  active  prey. 
The  lizard  waited  till  a  grasshopper  alighted  near  it,  and 
seized  the  insect  with  agility :  it  then  broke  off  the  wings, 
which  it  took  up  and  eat;  it  afterwards  laid  hold  of  the 
grasshopper  again,  transversely,  and  by  a  few  movements  of 
the  jaws,  brought  the  head  of  the  insect  into  its  mouth,  and 

K  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

132  LAUNCE8TON.  [2nd  mo. 

by  continued  efforts  it  swallowed  the  whole  grasshopper* 
T^e  lizard  was  8  inches  long :  it  did  not  use  its  feet  in 
capturing  the  grasshopper^  which  was  two  inches  long,  nor 
in  arranging  it  in  its  mouth. 

drd.  Our  kind  friend  I.  Sherwin  invited  a  few  persons^ 
whom  he  knew  to  be  piously  inclined,  to  meet  us  for  wor- 
ship at  his  house.  After  spending  a  considerable  time  with 
them  in  silence,  I  called  their  attention  to  the  greater  pro- 
fitableness of  feeling  our  own  necessity  before  the  Lord,  in 
this  state^  and  of  putting  up  our  petitions  to  him  in  secret, 
according  to  our  feeling  of  need,  than  of  haying  the  time 
occupied  continually  in  hearing.  I  stated  that  I  did  not 
despise  true,  gospel  ministry,  but  wished  people  to  learn 
the  way  to  the  fountain  set  open  in  the  blood  of  Jesus,  for 
themselves^  and  not  to  lean  unduly  upon  their  fellow  men. — 
In  the  evening,  we  met  a  little  company,  in  a  very  humble 
cottage :  they  were  persons  professing  with  the  Wesleyans, 
who  at  that  time  had  no  congregation  in  Launceston.  We 
recommended  them  to  meet  regularly  for  worship,  though 
they  might  be  without  a  preacher,  and  to  seek  to  know  the 
Lord  to  teach  them  himself. 

5th.  On  the  way  to  Perth,  we  visited  a  company  of  pri- 
soners, who  were  very  destitute  of  religious  instruction. — 
The  road  to  this  place  is  through  open  forest,  except  where 
there  are  habitations  of  settlers.  The  town  of  Perth  con- 
sists of  ten  houses,  two  of  which  are  inns ;  it  is  prettily 
situated  on  the  high  banks  of  the  South  Esk  River,  which 
is  about  60  yards  across,  at  the  ferry. 

From  the  6th  to  the  14  th,  we  visited  the  settlers  in  the 
vicinity  of  Perth,  as  well  as  on  Norfolk  Plains^  and  on  the 
Macquarie  and  Lake  Rivers^  and  held  some  meetings  among 
tiiem.  Many  of  these  people  are  in  good  circumstances^ 
and  are  living  in  substantial,  brick  houses. — ^Norfolk  Plains 
is  a  fine  agricultural  district :  the  wheat  crops  are  often  self- 
sown,  and  continue  for  several  years  in  succession,  till  the 
land  becomes  almost  overrun  with  Wild  Oats;  but  these 
form  useful  hay  in  this  dry  country.  The  average  yearly 
crops  of  wheats  are  estimated  at  from  twelve  to  fifteen 
bushels  per  acre ;  but  this  is  perhaps  from  mismanagement^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  133 

and  there  are  places  that  yield  much  more  abundantly. — 
Many  of  the  original  settlers  on  Norfolk  Plains,  resided 
previously  on  Norfolk  Island :  being  generally  intemperate^ 
many  of  them  killed  themselves,  or  came  to  ruin,  and  their 
property  has  passed  into  other  hands. — Some  of  the  finest 
land,  on  the  Lake  River,  belongs  to  various  branches  of  a 
family  of  the  name  of  Archer,  who  have  been  very  success- 
ful, both  in  agriculture  and  sheep-farming. 

At  the  house  of  Rowland  R.  Davies,  the  Episcopal  Chap- 
lain of  Norfolk  Plains,  we  met  with  a  man  who  was  trans- 
ported from  Wiltshire  for  rioting  :  he  said  that  he  was 
tlioughtful  on  religious  subjects  before  he  left  home ;  that  his 
wife  kept  a  little  shop,  and  that  he  was  a  carrier ;  that  he  was 
about  his  lawful  concerns  when  a  mob  passed  his  residence^ 
and  compelled  him  to  accompany  them ;  that  he  was  seen 
among  them  by  some  one  who  knew  him,  and  who  appeared 
against  him  on  his  trial :  he  did  not  however  say  that  he 
was  altogether  clear  of  blame ;  but  he  thought  he  saw  the 
hand  of  the  Lord  in  permitting  him  to  be  apprehended; 
for  in  calling  at  public-houses,  &c.  in  connexion  with  his 
business,  he  had  been  gradually  sliding  into  habits  of  in- 
temperance, which  he  thought  might  have  proved  his  ruin. 
By  means  of  his  apprehension,  this  snare  had  been  broken  ; 
and  he  now  enjoyed  more  comfort  in  his  bondage,  as  the 
Lord^s  free  man,  than  he  did  when  free  in  body,  but 
Satan's  bond  servant.  He  said  also,  that  he  was  educated 
in  a  Sabbath-school,  and  that  he  now  found  the  benefit  of  such 
an  education,  and  was,  with  his  master's  leave,  doing  what 
he  could  in  assisting  in  the  Sabbath-schools  at  Perth  and 
Norfolk  Plains.  Himself  and  a  few  others  in  the  lower 
walks  of  life,  meet  occasionally  for  mutual  edification.  A 
short  time  ago  this  man  was  ill,  and  appeared  as  if  near  his 
end^  and  his  master  told  us  that  he  often  visited  him,  not 
so  much  to  give  him  counsel,  as  to  be  edified  by  his  pious 
remarks,  to  which  it  was  delightful  to  him  to  listen. 

The  country  along  the  Lake  and  Macquarie  Rivers,  is 
generally  open  forest,  except  where  it  has  been  cleared. 
To  the  west,  it  is  bounded  by  a  high  mountain  range,  called 
the  Western  Tier. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

134  LAUNCE8TON.  [2nd  mo. 

14th.  We  returned  to  Launceston^  where  we  visited  the 
prisoners  in  the  jul^  and  penitentiary ;  the  latter  are  about 
170  in  number;  we  also  held  a  meeting  for  worship  in 
the  Court  House,  and  distributed  a  considerable  number  of 

17th.  This  morning  the  mountains  visible  from  Laun- 
ceston,  to  the  north-east,  were  covered  with  snow.  This 
was  also  the  case  in  the  south  of  the  Island,  down  to  1,000 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  Snow  is  unusual  in  summer 
in  this  country,  notwithstanding  summer  frosts  are  by  no 
means  of  rare  occurrence. 

21st.  We  set  out  for  Hobart  Town,  and  had  a  religious 
opportunity  with  Nottmans  Road-party,  consisting  of  130 
prisoners,  several  of  whom  work  in  chains.  They  ar^  lodged 
in  huts  of  the  humblest  character;  twenty-one  to  twenty- 
eight  in  each  hut.  They  were  very  still  and  attentive  while 
we  revived  among  them  the  invitation,  *'Let  the  wicked 
forsake  his  way,  and  the  unrighteous  man  his  thoughts, 
and  let  him  return  unto  the  Lord  and  he  will  have  mercy 
upon  him ;  and  to  our  God  for  he  will  abundantly  pardon.'* 
We  became  the  guests  of  Theodore  B.  Hartley,  of  Kerry 
Lodge,  a  pious  man,  who  had  previously  invited  us  to  resort 
to  his  house  when  in  the  neighbourhood. 

22nd.  On  the  way  to  the  Eagle  Inn,  a  solitary  house  in 
the  forest,  we  passed  through  Perth,  and  round  one  end  of 
the  Hummocky  Hills,  which  form  the  only  striking  ex- 
ception to  low  country,  in  this  part  of  the  extensive  vale  of 
the  South];Esk  and  Macquarie  Rivers. 

23rd.  We  proceeded  to  breakfast  to  an  inn,  by  the  side 
of  a  rushy  lagoon  or  pool,  such  as  is  common  in  this  part 
of  the  Island,  and  were  grieved  on  entering  it,  to  hear  a 
man  cursing  and  using  blasphemous  language,  because  one 
of  his  horses  had  strayed,  as  they  often  do  in  a  country  so 
sparingly  intersected  by  fences. — The  conduct  of  a  poor 
black  native,  who  cut  tiie  feet  of  seven  women,  whom  he 
attacked  as  they  slept,  because  his  wife  had  broken  a  bottle 
that  he  valued,  has  been  referred  to  as  a  proof  of  savage 
character  and  want  of  intellect ;  but  what  is  it  when  com- 
pared with  the  conduct  of  persons,  who,  because  offended 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMEN8    LAND.  135 

by  a  feUow-moTtal,  or  perplexed  by  the  straying  of  a  beast, 
^dll  insult  the  Majesty  of  Heaven? — ^After  breakfieust  we 
pursued  our  route  over  a  second  Epping  Forest,  a  sandy 
track  more  thickly  timbered  than  the  generality  of  this  part 
of  the  country ;  and  emerging  from  it  near  a  good  looking 
house  called  Wanstead^  soon  arrived  at  the  dwelling  of  John 
Mc.  Leodj  a  hospitable  Scotchman,  residing  upon  the  Eliza- 
beth River,  near  Campbell  Town. 

24th.  In  lihe  forenoon,  we  had  a  meeting  with  about  two 
hundred  persons  in  the  Court  House  at  Campbell  Town,  a 
place  consisting  of  a  Court-house,  a  small  wooden  jail,  and 
about  a  score  of  houses,  some  of  which  are  of  brick.  Being 
helped  on  our  way  by  J.  Mc.  Leod,  who  provided  us  with 
horses,  we  had  a  meeting  in  the  evening  at  Ross,  eight  miles 
further  from  Launceston :  this,  like  the  one  at  Campbell  Town, 
was  a  general  assembly  of  the  neighbouring  settlers  and  their 
servants,  to  whom  the  Grospel  was  freely  proclaimed. — We 
lodged  at  the  house  of  George  Parramore,  a  venerable  and 
pious  settler,  whom  we  considered  it  a  privilege  to  visit. 

25th.  We  breakfasted  at  Mona  Vale,  with  William  Ker- 
mode,  an  opulent  sheep-fEirmer,  who  accompanied  us  across 
Salt  Pan  Plains,  an  open  grassy  district,  over  which  a  low, 
drooping  species  of  Ghim-tree  is  thinly  scattered.  Upon 
W.  Kermode's  estate,  near  the  junction  of  the  Blackman 
River  with  the  Macquarie,  there  is  a  piece  of  ground  tihat 
yields  about  forty  bushels  of  wheat  per  acre,  but  it  is  of  small 
extent.— Salt  Pan  Plains  are  more  valued  as  sheep  pasture, 
than  for  agriculture.  These  plains  are  terminated  south- 
ward by  woody  hills,  among  which  is  an  opening  called  St. 
Peter's  Pass,  through  which  lies  the  road  to  Oatlands,  a 
town  of  about  twenty  houses  of  freestone,  adjoining  a  rushy 
lagoon,  called  Lake  Frederick. — ^About  eight  miles  further 
is  a  little  scattered  settlement  named  Jeridio,  upon  a  small 
periodical  stream,  designated  The  Jordan.  Here  we  found 
comfortable  accommodation  at  a  respectable  inn. 

26th.  We  proceeded  by  another  little  settlement  called  The 
Lovely  Banks,  and  by  the  Cross  Marsh,  to  Green  Ponds.  The 
Cross  Marsh  is  a  rich  flat,  intersected  by  the  Jordan,  which 
in  the  drier  seasons  of  the  year,  is  reduced  to  a  chain  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

136  GREEN  PONDS.  [2nd  mo. 

pools.  On  the  mai^n  of  this  river^  there  is  an  elegant 
willow-like  Eucalyptm,  called  the  Black  6um^  forming  a 
tree  of  moderate  size.  Green  Ponds  is  a  scattered  village^ 
with  an  Episcopal  place  of  worship^  and  a  good  inn. — In 
the  evening  we  continued  our  walk^  by  moonlight^  along  a 
winding  woody  pass  to  Constitution  Hill,  where  we  lodged 
at  an  inn. 

27th.  Early  in  the  morning,  we  visited  a  road-party  of 
120  men,  and  then  pursued  our  route  along  the  vale  of 
Bagdad,  much  of  which  is  enclosed  with  post  and  rail  fences^, 
and  in  which  there  are  several  decent  houses,  and  a  good  inn. 
Soon  after  leaving  this  vale,  the  road  crosses  the  Jordan^ 
by  a  handsome  wooden  bridge,  on  stone  pillars,  over  a  deep 
ravine ;  it  then  continues  over  low  woody  hills  till  it  reaches 
the  Derwent,  opposite  to  Bridgewater. — ^We  crossed  the  Der- 
went  in  a  small  boat,  to  the  Black  Snake  Inn,  where,  being 
very  foot  sore,  we  tried  the  experiment  of  drawing  a  double, 
unbleached,  linen  thread  through  the  blisters,  by  means  of 
a  needle,  and  cutting  off  the  thread  so  as  to  leave  it  pro- 
truding at  each  side.  This  allowed  the  water  to  pass  out 
when  the  blister  pressed  the  ground,  by  which  means  the 
pain  was  greatly  alleviated,  and  the  thread  produced  no  in* 
convenience  by  remaining  tiU  the  blister  was  healed.  Some* 
times  a  thread  of  white  worsted  is  used  for  the  purpose. 
Probably,  so  long  as  it  is  imdyed,  the  material  is  not 
of  much  consequence,  but  the  relief  to  foot-sore  pedestrians 
is  very  great.  We  subsequently  walked  ten  miles  to  Hobart 
Town,  at  the  rate  of  a  mile  in  sixteen  and  a  half  minutes. — 
On  the  way,  we'  met  several  persons  with  whom  we  were 
acquainted,  and  passed  two  good  stage  coaches  going  to  New 
Norfolk,  which  had  an  enlivening  effect  at  the  conclusion 
of  this  long  journey. — ^There  was  at  this  time  no  coach  to 
Launceston;  but  an  open  four-wheeled  carriage  performed 
the  journey  of  120  miles,  in  two  days,  not  running  at  night: 
the  fare  was  £5, — On  reaching  Hobart  Town  we  found  our 
friends  T.  J.  and  S.  Crouch  in  a  larger  house,  in  Bathurst- 
street,  where  they  willingly  allowed  us  again  to  become 
their  lodgers. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hobart  Town. — Lientenant^OoTemor. — Penal  Discipline. — Reformed  Prisonerv* 
— Intemperance  and  Indiscretion. — Sheriff's  Writs. — Timber-fellers.— Meeting" 
room  Engaged. — Meeting. — Journey. — ^Anxiety  for  liberty. — Infidel  Prison^ 
ers. — Brushy  Plain. — ^Prisoner's  View  of  Transportation. — Prossers  River. — 
Spring  Bay. — Kangaroo  Grass. — Swan  Port. — Cultivated  Land. — Oyster  Bay 
Fine. — ^Road. — ^Kelvedon. — ^Waterloo  Foint.-^unnia  austraUs. — ^Ministry  of 
F.  C. — ^Character  of  the  Land.— Shrubs. — Black  Swans. — Boomer  Kangaroo. 
—St.  Patrick's  Head.— DweDing.— Timber.— Whales.— Mountains.— Tea.— 
Break  o'day  Plains. — "  Dead  Mens  Oraves."- Buffalo  Plains.  -Kindness  of 
Aborigines. — Launceston. — Flinders  Blacks. — Road  Party. — Flagellation. — 
Weather. — ^Diseases. — ^Death  of  a  Prisoner. — Intemperance. — ^Music. — Spring. 
— ^Ben  Lomond. — Gums. — Fossil  Tree. — Salt  Springs. — Eagles. — ^Trees,  &c. 

Soon  after  returning  to  Hobart  Town,  where  we  remained 
nine  weeks,  we  spent  an  evening  with  the  Lieut.  Governor 
and  his  family,  and  renewed  the  Christian  intercourse  which 
we  had  often  enjoyed  in  their  company.  It  was  gratifying  to 
see  the  anxiety  exhibited  by  Colonel  Arthur,  to  rule  on 
Christian  principles,  and  to  prosecute  the  work  of  reforma- 
tion among  the  prisoners,  according  to  the  same  unerring 
standard. — Mankind  have  too  long  striven  to  prevent  crime 
by  visiting  it  with  vengeance,  imder  the  delusive  hope  that 
vengeance  upon  the  criminal  would  deter  others.  The  effect 
of  this  system  was  unsuccessful,  as  the  means  is  unauthorized 
by  the  Gospel,  which  says,  "Vengeance  is  mine,  I  will 
repay,  saith  the  Lord ;  therefore  if  thine  enemy  hunger,  feed 
him;  if  he  thirst,  give  him  drink;  for,  in  so  doing,  thou 
shalt  heap  coals  of  fire  upon  his  head.  Be  not  overcome  of 
evil,  but  overcome  evil  with  good.''  (Rom.  xii.  19 — 21.)  No 
doubt  but  these  principles,  if  acted  upon,  would  promote 
reformation  and  reduce  crime,  more  than  any  others,  whether 
by   individuals   or  by   governments;    and  they   would   not 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

138  HOBART  TOWN.  [3rd  mo. 

prevent  a  salutary  restraint  being  placed  upon  transgressors, 
till  these  kindly  principles  could  be  made  to  bear  elBBcaci- 
ously  upon  them. 

Several  persons  called  upon  us  to  obtain  tracts :  some  of 
these  were  reformed  prisoners,  who  were  diligent  in  distri- 
buting them,  sticking  up  in  cottages  the  broad  sheets  con- 
taining the  Ten  Commandments^  &c.  and  in  other  ways 
endeavouring  to  do  good. — One  of  them  said  he  had  reason 
to  bless  God,  day  and  night,  for  having  caused  him  to  be  sent 
to  this  colony ;  for  by  this  means  he  had  been  broken  off 
from  his  evil  associates:  he  attributed  his  change  to  the 
labours  of  Benjamin  Carvosso,  a  Wesleyan  minister,  whom 
he  heard  preaching  to  condemned  criminals  in  Hobart  Town 
Jail ;  and  he  said  he  was  much  confirmed  by  reading  reli- 
gious tracts. — ^Another  told  us  that  he  was  distinguished  as  an 
audacious  sinner,  and  a  pugilist ;  he  was  awakened  to  a  sense  of 
his  undone  state  about  a  year  and  a  half  ago;  he  is  now  distin- 
guished among  theWesleyans  for  his  great  fervency  in  prayer. 

Intemperance,  and  a  disposition  to  embark  in  business 
beyond  the  capital  of  the  parties  engaging  in  it,  are  prevail- 
ing evils  in  V.  D.  Land.  The  consequences  are  such  as 
might  naturally  be  expected.  In  addition  to  premature 
death,  and  other  awful  effects  of  intemperance,  distress  and 
ruin  in  temporal  concerns,  are  of  frequent  occurrence.  Up- 
wards of  four  hundred  writs  have  passed  through  the  Sheriffs 
Office  within  the  last  three  months. 

In  a  walk  in  the  forest  embosoming  Mount  Wellington,  I 
was  attracted  to  a  timber-feller's  hut,  by  the  singing  of  two 
men,  the  father  of  one  of  whom  was  a  Wesleyan  class-leader. 
This  young  man  said  he  was  sure  they  were  not  singing 
because  they  were  comfortable,  but  because,  having  finished 
their  work,  they  had  nothing  to  do ;  they  had  no  books,  and 
he  assured  me  that  he  was  very  uncomfortable  in  his  mind  ; 
he  said  he  had  been  thinking  in  the  night,  how  easily  one  of 
the  trees,  such  as  they  are  surrounded  by,  might  have  fallen 
upon  their  hut,  and  crushed  them  to  death,  and  he  was  sure 
he  was  not  prepared  to  die.  The  scrub  was  burning  near 
to  the  place :  their  little  bark  hovel  had  narrowly  escaped 
the  flames,  which  had  communicated  to  the  lofty  Stringy- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIBMENS    LAND.  139 

bark  trees,  and  charred  them  to  the  top.  The  fire  had  also 
burnt  into  the  butts  of  some  of  them,  and  had  loosened 
them,  and  in  some  instances,  brought  them  down.  The 
young  man  repeatedly  pointed  to  these  trees,  which  were  a 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  high,  and  some  of  them  nearly  thirty 
feet  in  circumference,  and  said,  '^  You  see,  sir,  we  cannot 
tell  but  at  any  hour  of  the  day  or  night,  one  of  these  great 
trees  may  fall  upon  us,  and  crush  us ;  but  we  are  prisoners, 
sent  here  to  work,  and  cannot  help  it  ^^  he  did  not  complain 
of  this  as  an  undue  hardship,  but  spoke  of  it  as  giving  a 
sense  of  the  necessity  of  being  prepared  for  death.  He  told 
me  that  he  had  slighted  the  counsel  of  his  father,  but  said 
^  Now  I  begin  to  think  of  what  my  father  used  to  say  to 
me.'^  Sometimes  his  emotion  almost  choked  his  utterance. 
I  encouraged  him  to  cherish  these  feelings,  and  to  be  willing 
to  understand  his  errors ;  to  attend  to  the  convictions  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,  by  which  he  was  given  to  see  his  unfitness  to 
die,  assuring  him,  that  if  he  kept  under  this  holy  influence, 
he  would  be  led  to- repentance  toward  God  and  feith  toward 
the  Lord  Jesus,  by  which  he  would  know  his  sin  to  be  blotted 
out,  and  ability  to  be  given,  to  walk  in  holiness  before  the 

Our  meetings  for  worship  at  Hobart  Town,  were  often  fe- 
voured  with  a  solemn  sense  of  divine  influence,  bowing  our 
hearts  before  the  Lord ;  and  sometimes  raising  a  vocal  testi- 
mony to  his  goodness,  both  from  ourselves  and  from  pious  per- 
sons who  were  casually  present.  The  number  who  r^ularly 
met,  became  a  little  augmented.  Among  these  were  two  per- 
sons from  England,  members  of  the  Society  of  Friends ;  one 
of  whom  had  been  several  years  in  the  Colony.  A  man 
also  became  one  of  our  congregation,  who  had  had  his  educa- 
tion among  Friends,  but  had  committed  a  crime  for  which 
he  was  transported  wlien  young,  and  who  in  his  old  age  had 
been  stirred  up  to  seek  the  Lord  in  earnest.  With  these 
we  had  a  conference,  on  the  subject  of  continuing  to  assem- 
ble regularly  for  worship  when  we  were  absent  from  the 
town ;  and  they  being  desirous  to  do  so,  a  room  in  a  private 
house  was  hired  for  the  purpose,  as  they  united  with  us 
in  the  judgment,  that  they  were  not  in  a  state  to  open  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

140  HOBART  TOWN.  [4th  mo. 

house  for  public  worship,  notwithstanding  it  might  be  to 
their  edification  to  meet  more  retiredly.  The  room,  hired  for 
this  purpose  was  in  the  upper  part  of  Macquarie  Street.  The 
first  meeting  was  held  in  it  on  the  7th  of  the  4th  month. 
The  congregation  consisted  of  fifteen  persons,  including  some 
children.  On  this  occasion  I  had  much  to  express  in 
doctrine  and  exhortation;  and  especially  to  point  out  the 
necessity  of  the  superstructure  of  a  religious  profession, 
being  raised  upon  the  solid  foundation  of  repentance  towards 
God  and  faith  toward  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ. — In  con- 
sequence of  several  of  the  children  having  had  but  little 
religious  instruction,  it  was  determined,  temporarily  to  hold 
a  meeting  for  religious  reading  in  the  afternoons ;  and  on 
this  day  a  chapter  of  *^Tuke*s  Principles  of  Friends,^'  a 
part  of  ^^Chalkley's  Observations  on  Christ's  Sermon  on 
the  Moimt,''  and  a  portion  of  Scripture  were  read. 

4th  mo.  8th.  We  set  out  on  another  long  journey  among 
the  settlers. — Crossing  the  Derwent  to  Kangaroo  Point,  we 
proceeded  over  a  woody  steep  called  Breakneck  Hill,  to 
Richmond,  where  we  were  again  kindly  welcomed  by  W.  T. 
Parramore  and  J.  H.  Butcher. 

9th.  W.  T.  Parramore,  furnished  us  with  a  guide,  who 
took  us  through  among  the  woody  hills,  by  a  narrow  winding 
track,  called  Black  Charleys  Opening,  to  the  Brushy  Plains ; 
where  the  path  joined  the  cart  track  from  Sorell  Town. 
Here  we  parted  from  our  guide,  who  was  a  prisoner  in  the 
field-police,  and  was  anxiously  looking  forward  toward 
restoration  to  liberty.  This  is  indeed  universally  the  case, 
except  with  such  prisoners  as  are  sentenced  for  life,  or  have 
become  reckless.  Our  guide  assured  us  that  many  of  the 
latter  class  were  infidels,  and  of  this  we  afterwards  had  much 
proof. — Brushy  Plains  is  an  extensive  flat  of  open  forest, 
bearing  grass  and  sedgy  herbage,  intermingled  with  scrub, 
and  joining  some  swampy  land,  called  The  White  Marsh. 
Here,  we  found  a  young  prisoner,  in  charge  of  a  settler's  hut, 
who  said  he  had  seen  it  asserted  in  an  English  newspaper, 
that  transportation  was  no  punishment ;  but  that  he  felt  it 
to  be  a  very  severe  one;  that  the  best  of  his  days  were  wast- 
ing, and  he  doing  nothing  for  himself;    that  being  sent  out 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIBMBNS    LAND.  141 

for  life,  it  made  him  dull  to  think  of  liberty,  as  the  time 
would  be  long  before  he  could  even  obtain  any  such  a  miti- 
gation of  Sentence,  as  in  this  country  is  called  Indulgence; 
and  that  transportation  had  taught  him  a  lesson,  which 
would  make  him  use  his  liberty  very  differently  to  what  he 
had  formerly  done,  if  ever  he  had  it  again. — A  track  over  a 
series  of  open,  forest  hills,  brought  us  to  Prossers  Plains,  an 
extensive  grassy  opening  with  a  few  settlers  houses ;  in  one 
of  which,  occupied  by  a  person  named  Richard  Crocker,  we 
found  a  hospitable  reception. 

10th.  We  crossed  the  Thumbs  Marsh,  a  grassy  opening 
xmder  the  Three  Thumbs  Mountain,  and  met  our  friend 
Francis  Cotton,  who  proved  a  most  welcome  guide  in  passing 
through  the  rugged,  woody,  ravine  of  the  Prossers  River, 
which  is  ironically  called  Paradise.  We  forded  the  River, 
at  a  rocky  place,  and  travelled  along  the  side  of  some 
very  rough,  steep  hills,  called  the  Devils  Royals,  to  the 
sandy  beach  of  Prossers  Bay,  on  which  there  were  the  skele- 
tbns  of  two  whales.  On  again  entering  the  forest,  the  path 
lay  by  the  side  of  a  rushy  lagoon,  near  which  was  a  bushy 
species  of  Conospermum,  a  shrub  with  narrow,  strap-shaped 
leaves,  and  small  white  flowers.  This  was  the  only  place  in 
which  I  met  with  a  plant  of  this  genus  in  V.  D.  Land* 
Passing  a  few  grassy  hills  of  open  forest,  we  reached  the 
habitation  of  Patrick  McLean,  at  Spring  Bay,  by  whom  we 
were  kindly  received,  and  on  whose  land  we  viewed  with 
satisfaction,  the  agricultural  progress  of  one  who  had  beaten 
his  sword  into  a  ploughshare. 

1 1th.  The  country  which  we  passed  through  was  a  continued 
series  of  open  forest,  abounding  with  Kangaroo-grass,  Anthis- 
tvria  australis,  which  affords  the  best  pasturage  of  any  of  the 
native  grasses  of  this  island,  and  is  less  affected  by  drought 
than  those  from  Europe ;  but  as  there  is  a  tinge  of  brown 
upon  it,  even  while  growing,  the  grass  lands  of  Tasmania  do 
not,  at  any  season  of  the  year,  present  a  lovely  green  like 
English  pastures  and  meadows.  There  are  a  few  settlers  on 
the  best  pieces  of  land  near  Spring  Bay,  and  we  were  hos- 
pitably entertained  by  one  named  John  Hawkins,  in  Little 
Swan  Port,  who  had  also  been  brought  up  to  a  military  life. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

142  LITTLB    AND    GREAT  SWAN    PORT.  [4th  OlO. 

12th.  We  visited  a  few  huts  on  the  side  of  the  inlet  open- 
ing into  Oyster  Bay,  and  called  The  Little  Swan  Port,  which 
is  also  the  name  of  the  district.  Upon  this  inlet  there  were 
more  than  a  dozen  Pelicans.  We  also  walked  over  the  culti- 
vated land  of  J.  Hawkins.  The  ground  adapted  for  cultiva- 
tion is  of  limited  extent,  compared  with  the  estate.  This  is 
generally  the  case  throughout  the  Colony.  On  the  first 
settlement  of  this  place,  the  Aborigines  killed  one  of  the  men 
near  the  house.  Many  other  persons  lost  their  lives  by 
them,  in  the  Oyster  Bay  or  Swan  Port  district. 

13th.  We  visited  a  free  man,  living  in  a  miserable  hut 
near  the  Little  Swan  Port,  who  had  been  notorious  for  the 
use  of  pro&ne  language  and  for  cursing  his  eyes ;  and  he 
had  become  nearly  blind,  but  seemed  far  from  having  pro- 
fited by  this  judgment.  We  then  pursued  our  way  through 
the  forest,  and  reached  Kelvedon,  the  residence  of  Francis 
and  Anna  Maria  Cotton,  and  their  large  family,  in  which 
George  Fordyce  Story,  M.D.,  who  fills  the  office  of  District 
Surgeon,  is  an  inmate.  The  road,  which  is  impassable  for 
carriages  from  Prossers  Plains,  lies  along  a  soft  salt-marsh  at 
the  head  of  the  Little  Swan  Port,  and  past  the  habitations  of  a 
few  distantly  scattered  settlers,  and  over  the  Rocky  Hills — a 
series  of  basaltic  blufiFs  divided  by  deep  ravines,  and  separat- 
ing the  districts  of  Little  and  Great  Swan  Port.  The  forest 
of  this  part  of  the  country  is  distinguishable  from  that  of 
most  others,  by  the  prevalence  of  The  Oyster  Bay  Pine, 
CalHtris  pyramidalisy  a  cypress-like  tree,  attaining  to  seventy 
feet  in  height,  and  afibrding  narrow  plank  and  small  timber, 
which  is  useful  in  building,  but  not  easy  to  work,  being 
liable  to  splinter :  it  has  an  aromatic  smell  resembling  that 
of  the  Red  Cedar  of  America.  The  other  trees  of  these 
forests,  are  the  Blue,  the  White,  and  the  Black-butted  Gum, 
the  Silver  and  the  Black  Wattle,  and  the  She-Oak.  The 
country  is  favourable  for  sheep  and  homed  cattle,  as  well  as 
for  agriculture ;  the  proximity  of  the  sea  preventing  summer 
frosts ;  but  it  often  suffers  from  drought. 

The  annexed  etching,  from  a  sketch  by  my  friend  George 
Washington  Walker,  represents  the  dwelling  of  the  femily  at 
Kelvedon,  which  is  more  commodious  than  the  houses  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

•'  r 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMBN8    LAND.  143 

most  settlers  in  this  colony.  It  is  fronted  by  a  good  garden, 
separated  from  a  field  adjoining  the  sea  bank,  by  a  lagoon. 
On  this  bank  there  are  grass,  bushes,  and  small  trees.  One 
of  the  trees,  a  She-Oak,  in  a  state  of  decay,  is  depicted 
standing  by  a  post  and  rail  fence,  such  as  is  common  in  this 
country.  The  woody,  basaltic  hills  in  the  back  ground  form 
a  general  feature  in  a  Tasmanian  landscape.  The  sandstone 
of  the  coal  formation  occurs  here  between  the  hills  and 
the  sea. 

In  a  guUy  among  the  Rocky  Hills  behind  Kelvedon, 
Chmnia  australis  was  growing  upon  a  variety  of  trees  and 
shrubs.  This  is  the  most  southerly  locality  in  which  I  have 
met  with  an  epiphyte  of  the  orchis  tribe,  growing  upon  the 
trunks  of  trees.  Gastrodium  sesamoideSi  supposed  to  grow 
from  the  decaying  roots  of  Stringy-bark  trees,  is  found  near 
Hobart  Town. 

We  remained  at  Kelvedon  till  the  26th,  having,  in  the 
mean  time,  religious  interviews  with  the  family  and  assigned 
servants,  and  with  some  of  the  neighbouring  settlers,  and  a 
meeting  at  Waterloo  Point,  a  village  where  there  are  a  jail, 
military  barracks,  and  a  few  cottages. 

We  set  out  on  the  26th,  to  visit  the  settlers  at  the 
head  of  Great  Swan  Port. — In  a  religious  opportunity  with 
the  family  of  one  of  these,  Francis  Cotton,  who  accom- 
panied us,  made  some  observations,  under  much  feeling: 
this  proved  the  commencement  of  his  ministerial  labours^ 
which  were  very  comforting  to  us,  and  helpful  in  promoting 
the  great  object  for  which  we  left  our  native  land, — that  of 
spreading  the  knowledge  of  Christ  and  of  his  Gospel. 

Several  of  the  estates  in  this  part  of  the  country,  con- 
tain above  an  average  quantity  of  good  land,  nevertheless  a 
settler  does  not  find  it  easy  to  obtain  much  return  for  his 
labour  in  less  than  four  years. — On  receding  firom  the  sea, 
the  wheat  becomes  liable  to  be  blighted  by  summer  firost. — 
Some  of  the  best  native  pasture  will  keep  more  than  an 
average  of  one  sheep  to  an  acre ;  but  in  many  parts  of  the 
island  that  is  esteemed  good  land  which  will  maintain  one 
sheep  to  three  acres,  throughout  the  year.  This  does  not, 
however,  arise  altogether  firom  defect  in  the  quality  of  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

144  GREAT   SWAN    PORT.  [4th  mO. 

land,  but  in  a  considerable  measure,  from  the  scarcity  of 
jain  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Colony. 

On  the  banks  of  the  Swan  River,  the  beautiful,  blue, 
shrubby,  Veronica  formoaa,  and  the  gay,  pink,  Bauera  rubuB- 
folia^  were  very  abundant,  along  with  some  species  of  Pomader^ 
m,  Melaleiica,  Hakea,  Hovea,  Westringiay  and  other  interesting 
shrubs :  here  is  also  another  species  of  CaUitrig,  resembling  a 
Red  Cedar,  and  seldom  attaining  to  ten  feet  in  height. — On  a 
branch  of  an  inlet  called  Moulting  Bay,  Black  Swans  were 
very  numerous ;  I  counted  nearly  eighty,  swimming  in  pairs. 
The  large  species  of  Kangaroo,  called  the  Boomer,  which, 
when  it  stretches  itself  upon  its  hind  feet,  is  almost  as  tall 
as  a  man  on  horseback,  has  become  scarce,  but  we  saw  one 
in  passing  through  a  bush.  Though  harmless  when  immo- 
lested,  it  is  said  to  be  formidable  when  hunted,  taking  to 
the  water,  and  endeavouring  to  drown  its  antagonists. 
The  stroke  of  the  hind  daws,  both  of  this  and  some 
other  species,  is  destructive,  and  not  unfrequently  fatal 
to  dogs. 

On  the  30th,  we  set  out  early  from  the  house  of  William 
Lyne,  who,  with  his  sons,  guided  us  through  the  forest  for 
about  ten  miles,  before  the  sim  rose:  his  wife  loaded  us 
with  provisions,  lest  we  should  suffer  from  hunger  on  the 
way,  with  a  liberality,  such  as  we  often  experienced  in  the 
Australian  Colonies.  We  came  upon  the  coast  at  a  place 
to  the  north  of  a  series  of  grey,  granite  hills,  where  a 
low  species  of  Xanthorrhaa  was  plentiful.  We  then  pro- 
ceeded along  the  shore  for  eighteen  miles,  occasionally  cross- 
ing points  of  land.  Upon  one  part  of  the  beach,  sandstone 
and  coal  were  visible ;  and  in  several  places,  we  saw  the  foot- 
prints of  the  Tasmanian  Tiger,  and  the  Bush  Devil,  which 
had  been  in  search  of  fish  cast  up  by  the  sea.  The  mouths 
of  the  rivers  were  choked  with  sand,  so  that  they  did  not 
impede  our  progress  ;  sometimes  they  are  dangerous  to  cross. 
A  line  of  high,  woody  hills  continued  parallel  with  the  shore, 
at  a  little  distance  inland,  until  it  ran  out  upon  the  beach, 
toward  the  point,  called  St.  Patricks  Head.  We  travelled  over 
these  hills  for  about  twelve  miles  further  than  this  point,  to 
Falmouth,  a  small  settlement  where  one  of  our  friends,  named 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMEXS    LAND.  145 

Dayid  Steady  was  overseer^  on  an  estate  belonging  to  a  gen* 
tleman  in  India. 

The  dwelling  occupied  by  D.  Stead  was  superior  to  many  of 
those  in  out-stations,  but  inferior  to  the  houses  of  the  gene- 
rality of  settlers:  it  was  built  of  upright  split  timber,  plastered 
inside,  and  divided  to  the  height  of  the  walls,  into  four  apart^ 
ments,  a  sitting-room,  bed-room,  kitchen,  and  store-room* 
The  last  only,  was  secured  by  a  lock.  The  outer  doors  had  no 
other  fastenings  than  wooden  latches,  and  the  windows  were 
of  canvass  stretched  in  firames  in  square  openings.  The 
kitchen  was  also  the  sleeping-place  of  the  prisoner-servants. 
A  hammock  formed  the  sleeping  accommodation  of  our 
friend.  A  wooden  sofa  in  the  parlour  served  a  passing 
guest ;  and  in  case  of  more  travellers  having  to  be  accom- 
modated, the  hospitality  of  a  neighbour  was  claimed. 

The  timber  on  a  piece  of  low  ground  here,  was  remarkably 
tall  and  slender.  Trees  had  been  felled,  140  feet  of  which 
were  adapted  to  being  cut  into  lengths  for  log-fencing: 
many  of  them  were  200  feet  high,  and  of  very  even  thick- 
ness.— ^From  Whales  occasionally  cast  upon  these  shores, 
the  settlers  supply  themselves  with  oil.  This  is  not  unfre- 
quent  on  other  parts  of  the  coast.  They  are  probably  fish 
that  escape  after  being  struck  by  the  people  from  the  whaling 
vessels  which  are  stationed  in  some  of  the  bays,  and  which 
cruise  about  the  Island. 

After  a  meeting  here,  some  of  the  people  noticed,  that 
it  was  the  first  time  the  Gospel  had  been  preached  at  this 
place.  While  ^'  neither  is  he  that  planteth  anything,  neither 
he  that  watereth,  but  Grod  that  giveth  the  increase  ;*'  it  is, 
nevertheless,  an  honour  to  bear  his  message  of  mercy  t}irough 
Christ  Jesus,  though  it  be  but  to  a  few,  remotely  scattered. 

5th  mo.  2nd.  We  crossed  a  series  of  lofty  hills,  to  Break- 
o'-day  Plains.  The  first  of  these  are  granite,  and  the  suc- 
ceeding ones,  are  argillaceous,  and  red  sandstone.  On  the 
granite '  is  a  species  of  Eucalypttis,  not  frequent  in  Tas- 
mania, called  Iron-bark,  which  name  is  given  to  more  than 
one  species  of  this  genus  in  N.  S.  Wales,  on  account  of  the 
bark  being  exceedingly  coarse,  hard,  and  iron-like.  On  the 
argillaceous  hills,  the  Peppermint-tree  atUdns  a  considerable 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

146  BRBAK-0*DAY   PLAINS.  [5th  mO. 

size :  one  on  the  ground  was  147  feet  long,  another,  stand- 
ing was  26^  feet  round.  Daviesia  lat^foUa^  a  low  shrub 
with  bluish  leaves,  and  axillary  spikes  of  small,  handsome, 
pea-like  flowers,  of  yellow,  shaded  into  orange  in  the  middle, 
abounds  on  these  hills.  This  kind  of  colouring  is  frequent 
in  the  numerous  little  pea-flowered  shrubs  that  decorate  the 
^'scrubs,"  or  bushy  places  of  this  land. 

Open,  grassy  lands,  watered  by  rivulets  from  the  moun- 
tains, and  thinly  settled,  succeed  to  these  hills,  and  are 
bounded  on  the  north,  by  those  of  the  Ben  Lomond  range, 
and  on  the  south,  by  those  called  the  St.  Pauls  Tier,  on 
account  of  the  dome-like  appearance  of  one  of  them,  which 
also  bears  the  name  of  Tasmans  Peak, — At  the  farm  of 
Michael  Bates  we  were  kindly  welcomed,  and  enjoyed  a 
meal  of  boiled  mutton  and  tea,  notwithstanding,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  distance  from  a  shop,  the  latter  had  to  be  made 
in  a  canister,  and  when  the  party  became  enlarged,  in  the 
tea-kettle,  which  very  generally  supersedes  the  tear-pot  in 
this  country.  As  tea  is  cheap,  the  chest,  which  often  stands 
under  the  table,  is  frequently  resorted  to  in  {dace  of  a  tea- 
caddy  ;  and  the  refreshing  beverage  is  sweetened  with  coarse 
Mauritian  sugar,  conveyed  from  the  bag  into  the  kettle 
with  an  iron  spoon. 

3rd.  We  proceeded  down  the  Break-oMay  Plains,  and  past 
the  township  of  Fingal,  which  is  marked  only  by  barracks, 
occupied  by  five  soldiers.  We  reached  the  house  of  a  set- 
tler, by  moonlight,  and  were  glad  of  a  shelter  from  the 

4th.  We  continued  our  journey  through  a  pass  between 
the  hills,  to  Avoca,  a  small  settlement  at  the  confluence  of 
the  Break-o'day  and  St.  Pauls  Rivers  with  the  South  ELsk. 
Here  we  became  the  guests  of  Major  Grey,  a  retired  military 
man,  who  was  formerly,  for  some  time,  in  Western  Africa. 

In  the  course  of  the  three  following  days  we  visited  the 
settlers  on  St  Pauls  Plains,  another  series  of  grassy  vales,  run- 
ning to  the  east. — In  one  part  of  this  district,  where  the  soil  is 
sandy,  Stenanthera  pinifoUa,  a  pretty  heath-like  shrub,  is 
found :  it  is  common  in  N.  S.  Wales,  but  this  is  the  only 
place  in  which  we   saw  it  in  V.  D.  Land.     In  another  part, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  147 

the  soil  is  strongs  and  stands  in  remarkable  ridges^  called  in 
this  country,  "  Dead-mens-graves.^'  These  occur,  also,  on 
the  Macquarie  River  and  in  other  places,  and  are,  beyond 
doubt,  of  natural  origin ;  nevertheless,  the  manner  in  which 
they  have  been  formed  is  not  easy  to  determine. 

On  the  8th,  we  reached  John  Batman's,  on  Bufialo  Plains, 
under  Ben  Lomond.  These  plains  are  so  named  from  homed 
cattle,  imported  from  India,  which  obtained  the  name  of 
Buffidoes  in  V.  D.  Land,  and  were  fed  here.  J.  Batman  was 
formerly  employed  by  the  Government  to  take  the  Aborigines, 
by  capture,  if  practicable,  but  by  destruction,  where  they  could 
not  be  captured !  This  was  at  a  time  when  they  had  killed 
many  white  people.  Under  these  instructions,  about  thirty 
were  destroyed,  and  eleven  captured!  Those  captured  be- 
came reconciled,  and  highly  useful  in  the  peaceable  arrange- 
ments, successfully  made  of  latter  time,  by  George  Augustus 
Robinson  and  Anthony  Cottrell.  The  last  time  A.  Cottrell 
passed  down  the  west  coast,  he  had  a  friendly  interview 
with  a  tribe,  near  the  Arthur  River,  that  a  few  months  prior, 
attempted  the  destruction  of  G.  A.  Robinson. 

Previously  to  this,  two  white  men,  of  A.  Cottrell's  party, 
were  lost  in  crossing  a  river  on  a  raft,  before  the  tide  was 
out.  When  some  of  the  native  women  saw  them  in  danger, 
they  swam  to  the  raft,  and  begged  the  men  to  get  upon 
their  backs,  and  they  would  convey  them  to  the  shore ;  but 
the  poor  men  refused,  being  overcome  by  fear.  These  kind- 
hearted  women  were  greatly  affected  by  this  accident. 

9th.  When  walking  with  J.  Batman,  in  his  garden,  he 
pointed  out  the  grave  of  a  child  of  one  of  the  Blacks,  that 
died  at  his  house.  When  it  expired,  the  mother  and  other 
native  women  made  great  lamentation,  and  the  morning 
after  it  was  buried,  happening  to  walk  round  his  garden 
before  sun-rise,  he  found  its  mother  weeping  over  its  grave: 
yet  it  is  asserted  by  some,  that  these  people  are  without 
natural  affection. 

10th.  We  visited  John  Glover,  a  celebrated  painter, 
who  came  to  this  country  when  advanced  in  life,  to  depict 
the  novel  scenery :  his  aged  wife  has  been  so  tried  with 
the  convict,  female  servants,  that  she  has  herself  undertaken 

L  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

148  LAUNCE8TOX.  [5th  mo. 

the  house-work.  We  generally  find  that  females  prefer 
England  to  Tasmania^  on  account  of  this  annoyance. 

13th.  We  reached  Liaunceston^  after  visiting  a  few  setders 
on  the  Nile^  and  on  the  South  Esk^  into  which  the  fornix 

At  Launceston,  we  found  an  interesting  letter  from  W.  J. 
Darling,  from  Flinders  Island,  dated  Establishment  for  the 
Aborigines,  formerly  Pea- Jacket,  now  Wybalenna,  6th  April, 
1833.    The  following  are  extracts  from  it: — 

''We  have  been  removed  since  the  1st  February,  down 
to  this  place,  which  is  a  paradise  compared  with  the  other, 
and  which  I  have  named  Wybalenna,  or  Black  Man's 
Houses,  in  honest  English.  We  have  abundance  of  water, 
an  excellent  garden,  and  every  comfort  a  rational  man  can 
want.  If  you  were  gratified  with  the  establishment  before, 
you  would  be  doubly  so  now,  and  would  find  a  vast  im* 
provement  among  the  people  since  your  last  visit:  their 
habitations  are  in  progress,  four  of  them  being  nearly  com- 
pleted. I  think  you  would  approve  of  them.  They  consist 
of  low  cottages,  twenty-eight  feet  by  fourteen,  with  a  double 
fire-place  in  the  centre,  and  a  partition;  each  apartment 
calculated  to  contain  six  persons.  They  are  built  of  wattles, 
plastered  and  whitewashed ;  the  wattles  and  grass  for  thatch* 
ing, — of  which  a  great  quantity  is  required  for  each  buildings 
— have  been  brought  in  entirely  by  the  natives,  and  the 
delight  they  show  in  the  anticipation  of  their  new  houses, 
is  highly  gratifying.  They  are  of  course  to  be  furnished 
with  bed-places,  tables,  stools,  &c.  and  each  house  will  have 
a  good-sized  garden  in  front  of  it.  By  next  spring  there  will 
not  be  a  prettier,  or  more  interesting  place  in  the  colony 
of  V.  D.  Land.  The  women  now  wash  their  own  clothes 
and  those  of  their  husbands,  as  well  as  any  white  women 
would  do.  We  are  not  now  half  so  naked  as  when  you  were 
last  here,  but  have  neat  and  substantial  clothing.'^ — In  a 
letter  of  later  date,  after  the  Aborigines  had  got  into  their 
houses,  W.  J.  Darling  says,  ''Their  houses  are  swept  out 
every  morning,  their  things  all  hung  up  and  in  order,  and 
this  is  without  a  word  being  spoken  to  them.  They  all 
know,  and  make  a  distinction  on  the  Sunday;   the  women 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  149 

having  washed  their  clothes  on  the  Saturday;  this  too 
springs  entirely  from  themselves.  The  men  dress  every 
Sunday  morning  in  clean,  duck  frocks  and  trowsers,  and 
every  one  of  them  washes  himself.  ^^ 

We  remained  in  Launceston  a  month ;  in  the  course  of 
which  we  held  some  religious  meetings  with  the  inhabitants, 
and  with  the  prisoners  in  the  Penitentiary,  and  had  also  a 
meeting  for  the  promotion  of  temperance.  We  likewise  visited 
the  inhabitants  of  Patersons  Plains,  an  open  grassy  district, 
on  the  North  Esk,  to  the  eastward  of  Launceston. 

During  this  period,  the  weather  was  frosty  at  night,  the 
thermometer  frequently  falling  to  25°.  From  the  adjacent 
hills,  the  town,  in  a  morning,  often  appeared  as  if  it  were 
based  on  clouds,  as  the  fog,  to  which  it  is  liable,  dispersed. 
The  days  were  generally  clear  and  warm. 

On  the  11th  of  6th  month,  we  set  out  on  a  more  extended 
visit  than  the  former,  to  the  settlers  on  Norfolk  Plains  and 
the  Macquarie  River,  which  occupied  us  tiU  the  1st  of  7th 
month,  when  we  returned  again  to  Launceston. 

In  the  course  of  this  journey,  we  visited  an  interesting 
boarding-school  for  girls,  at  Ellenthorpe  Hall ;  and  one  for 
boys,  on  Norfolk  Plains;  and  also  inspected  one  of  four 
Government  day-schools,  under  the  care  of  R.  R.  Davies, 
the  Episcopal  chaplain  at  Longford. 

While  in  Launceston,  we  joined  several  other  persons 
in  organizing  a  Temperance  Society,  which  was  attended 
with  good  results,  notwithstanding,  several  who  originally 
imited  in  it,  relapsed  into  drinking  practices,  and  one  of 
them  fell  into  the  commission  of  a  crime,  through  the  influ- 
ence of  strong  drink,  for  which  he  forfeited  his  life. — ^We 
also  paid  some  attention  to  the  state  of  the  prisoners  in  the 
Penitentiary,  and  other  places  where  they  were  under  the 
charge  of  the  Government.  On  one  occasion,  I  saw  four- 
teen men  sent  into  the  Penitentiary,  from  Nottmans  Road 
Party,  to  be  flogged,  for  not  executing  their  full  quota  of 

We  left  Launceston  again  on  the  13th  of  7th  month,  and 
went  by  Patersons  Plains,  the  Cocked  Hat  Hill,  Perth,  the 
South  Esk,  Campbell  Town,  Ross,  Oatlands,  Jericho,  the 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

150  CAMPBELL   TOWN.  [/th  IDO. 

Lovely  Banks^  Bothwell,  Hamilton^  the  Dee  River^  and  New 
Norfolk  to  Hobart  Town;  where  we  arrived  on  the  9th 
of  8th  month ;  having  held  religious  meetings,  and  meetings 
for  the  promotion  of  temperance  at  the  several  towns ;  and 
religious  meetings  almost  every  evening,  at  the  houses  of 
the  settlers,  who  kindly  allowed  us  to  invite  the  neighbouring 
fiamilies  to  their  dwellings. 

The  weather  at  this  period  was  tolerably  mild,  and  gen- 
erally remarkably  fine  for  the  season;  we  had  seldom  to 
use  umbrellas  as  a  defence  against  rain,  and  the  tracked 
roads  were  but  little  cut  up.  The  tops  of  the  mountains, 
adjacent  to  the  low  country  in  which  we  were  travelling, 
were  often  covered  with  snow,  and  there,  the  weather  seemed 
to  be  wild  and  stormy.  We  felt  that  we  had  cause,  grate- 
fully to  acknowledge  the  merciful  guidance  of  the  good  Spirit 
of  our  Lord  and  Master,  by  which  we  were  led  to  visit  the 
interior  this  winter,  during  which  it  was  pleasant  travelling 
on  foot,  and  to  go  to  places  accessible  by  sea,  last  winter, 
when  the  wet  would  have  rendered  travelling  in  the  inte- 
rior very  unpleasant. 

We  found  some  fiamilies  affected  with  a  low  fever,  which 
occasionally  occurs  in  this  country,  but  is  seldom  fiatal.  The 
most  direful  diseases  in  the  Colony,  are  the  result  of  the 
free  use  of  intoxicating  liquors.  Delirium  tremens,  under 
its  varied  forms  of  horror,  is  one  of  these.  Apoplexy  is 
also  common:  an  instance  of  it  occurred  in  one  of  the 
prisoners,  that  came  out  in  the  Science,  who  died  lately  in 
a  public-house  at  New  Norfolk,  in  an  awfully  hopeless  state. 
He  fell  lifeless  from  his  seat,  as  he  declared,  with  a  horrid 
imprecation,  that  he  would  never  forgive  the  landlady,  be- 
cause she  refused  to  supply  him  with  more  rum,  when  his 
money  was  spent. 

tVhile  waiting  in  the  Police  Office  at  Campbell  Town,  for 
a  person,  temporarily  acting  as  Police  or  Paid  Magistrate, 
who  kindly  accompanied  us  in  calling  upon  the  neighbouring 
settiers,  some  pensioners  made  application  for  the  office  of 
constable,  stating  themselves  to  be  from  forty  to  fifty  years  of 
age ;  but  their  appearance  was  more  like  that  of  men  of  from 
sixty  to  seventy.    This  was  attributable,  in,  great  degree,  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

!    >        .1 

<    , 

1      .  r .   t . 

>i.       .Il 

•       .   .  .    vtS,    i       •  •     .  •    '    .      .. 

.        I      .V 



.  I       ..    IS    |>,  *,;-.J.. 
■     •    it    is      "!i      ' 

.        t    ■ . 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


•~*    1 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  VAN    DIBMEN8    LAND.  151 

the  use  of  strong  drink. — ^The  police  clerk  spoke  to  us 
courteously:  we  were  about  to  invite  the  people  of  the 
neighbourhood  to  a  temperance  meeting,  and  when  we  re- 
tumed,  he  was  ill,  from  the  practice  of  dram  drinking :  he 
died  in  the  night,  and  was  a  corpse  upon  the  premises  at  the 
time  the  meeting  was  held  ! 

In  the  houses  of  most  of  the  prosperous  settlers,  from  what- 
ever rank  they  may  have  risen,  piano-fortes  are  to  be  seen. 
Next  to  drinking  and  smoking,  they  seem  to  be  resorted  to, 
to  relieve  the  mind  from  that  sense  of  vacuity,  which  ought 
to  lead  it  to  seek  to  be  filled  with  heavenly  good ;  and  thus 
these  instruments  of  music  are  made  a  means  of  truly 
injurious  dissipation. 

Spring  commences  early  in  Tasmania,  and  is  marked  by 
the  opening  of  many  pretty  flowers,  and  the  blossoming  of 
the  trees  and  shrubs ;  but  as  the  latter  are  universally  ever- 
greens, it  is  not  marked  by  the  change  so  strildng  in 
England,  except  in  gardens,  in  which  the  fruit-trees  from 
Europe,  rest  more  regularly  than  in  Oreat  Britain,  and  do 
not  appear  to  be  disposed  to  grow  till  spring  is  fully  set  in. 
The  advance  of  spring  was,  however,  very  pleasant  on  our 
journey ;  in  which  we  had  now  and  then,  fine  and  extended 
views,  that  were  rendered  the  more  interesting  by  the  con- 
tinuity of  the  forest,  generally  limiting  observation  to  a  small 
space.  One  of  the  objects  occasionally  visible,  from  the 
South  Esk  to  St.  Peters  Pass,  was  Ben  Lomond,  which 
presents  a  remarkably  castellated  bluff  to  the  south,  and  is 
represented  in  the  annexed  sketch,  taken  near  the  residence 
of  James  Crear,  on  the  South  Esk.  This  mountain  is  said 
to  be  volcanic,  and  to  have  a  lake,  in  an  extinguished  crater, 
at  the  top. 

Considerable  quantities  of  gum  have  been  exported  from 
V.  D.  Land.  One  kind  resembling  Kino,  is  the  produce  of 
various  species  of  Eucalypttts ;  the  best  is  from  the  White 
Gum,  which  is  probably  E,  remiifera :  it  is  collected  for  a 
shilling  a  pound  in  the  colony.  A  species  of  Acacia,  called 
the  Black  Wattle,  probably  Acacia  affiniSy  produces,  a  gum  in- 
ferior to  Gum  Arabic,  but  which  is  said  to  be  used  in  sizing 
silk  goods :  it  is  collected  for  three-pence  a  pound.     Some- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

152  MACQUARIE    AND   SALT    PAN   PLAINS.       [8th  mO. 

times  we  found  the  gum  of  the  Acacia  serviceable  in  allaying^ 

When  at  Macquarie  Plains^  upon  the  Derwent,  we  visited 
a  fossil  tree^  which  is  imbedded  in  basalt,  in  the  point  of  a 
hill^  near  a  cascade^  in  a  creek  that  empties  itself  into  the 
river.  The  tree  is  erects  and  may  possibly  prove  to  be 
standing  where  it  has  grown.  About  ten  feet  of  its  height 
are  laid  bare  by  removing  the  basalt,  which  is  here  porous  and 
cracked.  The  tree  is  about  ten  feet  in  circumference  at  the 
lowest  part  that  is  bare.  Some  of  the  exterior  portion  has 
become  like  horn-coloured  flint :  much  of  the  internal  part 
is  opaque^  white^  and  fibrous:  some  portions  of  it  split 
like  laths^  others  into  pieces  like  matches,  and  others  are 
reducible  to  a  substance  resembling  fibrous  asbestos.  The 
grain  of  the  wood  and  of  the  bark  is  very  distinguishable. 
Fragments  of  limbs  of  the  same  kind,  have  been  found  con- 
tiguous to  the  tree ;  and  pieces  of  petrified  wood  of  similar 
appearance  are  abundantly  scattered  over  the  neighbourhood, 
llie  structure  of  this  tree  is  such  as  is  considered  to  belong  to 
coniferous  trees ;  the  only  one  of  which,  now  found  in  this 
Island,  of  size  equal  to  this  petrefaction,  is  the  Huon  Pine. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Ross,  as  well  as  near  Bothwell, 
there  are  salt  springs ;  and  in  some  of  these  places  there  is 
fresh  water,  nearer  the  surface  than  the  salt.  On  Salt  Pan 
Plains,  there  is  a  small,  salt  lagoon,  that  dries  up  in  sum- 
mer, when  the  salt  is  collected,  by  the  shepherds  in  the 
vicinity,  and  sold  for  about  a  hal^nny  a  pound.  Several 
tnarine  plants  grow  around  this  lagoon.  When  visiting  it, 
we  saw  4ve  Eagles  soaring  over  some  flocks  pf  sheep.  We 
also  fell  in  with  a  young  lamb  that  had  had  its  eyes  picked 
out  by  a  crow.  This  is  a  circumstance  of  common  occur- 
rence, and  the  eagles  carry  off  the  lambs  that  have  been 
killed  by  this  means,  as  well  as  living  ones.  Probably 
similar  circumstances  occurring  in  Palestine,  might  give  rise 
to  the  denunciation  in  the  book  of  Proverbs,  ^'The  eye  that 
mocketh  at  his  father,  and  despiseth  to  obey  his  mother, 
the  ravens  of  the  valley  shall  pick  it  out,  and  the  young 
eagles  shall  eat  it.'^ 

On    speaking   to    one  of  our   acquaintance,   from    near 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  "  VAN    DIBMBN8    LAND.  153 

Hamilton,  of  the  ferocity  of  the  Tasmanian  eagles,  she  in- 
formed us,  that  she  was  once  chased  by  one  of  these  birds  for 
some  distance,  and  obliged  to  run  to  her  house  for  shelter. 
A  similar  occurrence  also  happened  to  a  person  on  Mac- 
quarie  Plains,  and  the  wife  of  a  settler  told  us,  that  she 
one  day  observed  a  horse  galloping  backward  and  forward, 
whilst  two  eagles  were  chasing  it ;  one  of  which  was  driving  it 
in  one  direction,  and  the  other  in  the  other.  At  length  the 
horse  fell,  and  one  of  them  pounced  upon  its  head ;  she  then 
called  some  of  the  men,  who  immediately  drove  off  the 
ravenous  birds :  the  poor  beast  soon  regained  its  feet,  and 
was  thus  delivered  from  its  destroyers.  The  horse  being 
in  an  enclosure,  had  not  the  opportunity  of  escaping. 

Many  shrubs  and  plants  were  in  flower  on  the  banks 
of  the  Derwent  and  the  adjacent  hills.  The  most  striking 
were  Acacia  moOis,  veriicillata  and  MelanowyUm,  Aster  den- 
taius,  Banksia  australis,  Pomaderris  elliptica,  Goodema  cvata. 
Indigofera  australiSy  PimeUa  incanuy  Tetratheca  glandido8a, 
Euphrasia  speciosa,  and  Kermedia  prostrata, 

A  single  Lemon  tree  exists  in  a  garden  at  New  Nor- 
folk, and  another  at  O^Briens  Bridge,  but  the  climate  is 
not  warm  enough  for  them,  and  they  are  protected  dur- 
ing the  winter.  Cape  Pelargoniums  (the  Geraniums  of 
English  Greenhouses)  endure  the  winter  at  Hobart  Town, 
but  they  are  killed  by  frost  at  New  Norfolk,  and  at  other 
places  in  the  Interior. 

During  this  journey,  of  two  months,  our  wants  were  so 
hospitably  supplied  by  the  settlers,  that  we  only  spent 
twenty-five  shillings,  which  were  chiefly  laid  out  in  washing 
and  postage. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Meeting  for  Discipline  Eetabliihed* — ^Meetings  for  Worship. — ^Tempersnce  Iise- 
ture. — Flagellation. — Causes  of  Crime. — Judicial  Oaths.  —  Peculiarities  of 
Friends. — Chain  Gang. — Unsteady  Emigrant. — Ascent  of  Mount  Wellington. 
— ^Notice  of  a  Pious  Prisoner. 

On  retuming  to  Hobart  Tovn^  we  found  the  little  congre* 
gation  with  which  we  had  become  associated^  in  a  state 
requiring  care:  a  conference  was  therefore  held  with  the 
two  persons^  who^  with  ourselves^  were  members  of  the 
Society  of  Friends  in  England^  and  it  was  concluded  to  or- 
ganize a  meeting  for  discipline^  for  the  purpose  of  preserving 
good  order^  keeping  records^  discharging  r^^ularly  the  ex- 
penses attendant  upon  the  occupation  of  the  room  in  which 
the  meetings  for  worship  were  held^  and  maintaining  a 
general  care  respecting  such  other  matters^  as  might  be  con- 
nected with  the  welfare  of  those  professing  with  the  Society 
of  Friends,  in  this  Colony, 

At  the  first  of  these  meetings,  which  was  held  on  the 
20th  of  9th  month,  1833,  the  certificates  of  George  Washing- 
ton Walker  and  tnyself,  sanctioning  our  visit  to  the  Southern 
Hemisphere,  were  read. — ^Appendix  A. — ^A  certificate  of 
the  membership  of  another  individual,  who  had  brought 
this  document  with  him  from  England,  was  also  read,  and 
a  record  was  made  of  the  membership  of  two  other  Friends, 
with  a  notice  of  the  respective  Monthly  Meetings  in  England, 
to  which  they  belonged.  A  list  of  the  names  of  other  per- 
sons attending  the  meetings  of  Friends  in  Hobart  Town, 
and  of  those  professing  an  attachment  to  the  principles  of 
the  Society  in  other  parts  of  the  Island,  was  likewise  entered 
on  minute. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  VAN    DIEMBNS    LAND.  155 

We  continued  in  Hobart  Town  at  this  time  for  twelve 
weeks,  in  the  course  of  which,  a  few  more  meetings  for 
discipline  were  held,  two  persons  were  admitted  into  mem- 
bership, and  it  was  concluded  to  hold  one  of  these  meet- 
ings monthly,  under  the  appellation  of  ^^  Hobart  Town 
Monthly  Meeting  of  Friends/^ 

Meetings  for  worship  continued  to  be  regularly  held  on 
First  day  mornings,  and  reading  meetings  in  the  afternoons. 
A  meeting  for  worship  was  also  settled  on  Fifth-day  even- 
ings, not  because  the  evening  was  preferred,  for  the  meetings 
held  at  that  time  were  often  heavy,  from  the  exhausted  state  of 
those  who  composed  them,  but  because  we  could  only  have 
the  use  of  the  room  in  which  we  met,  in  an  evening,  as  it 
was  used  for  a  school,  in  the  day-time,  on  week-days. 

We  also  invited  the  inhabitants  of  Hobart  Town  to  a 
meeting  for  Public  Worship,  and  to  another  for  the  pro- 
motion of  Temperance ;  both  of  these  were  held  in  the 
Court  House,  the  use  of  which  was  kindly  granted  for 
these  purposes,  on  various  occasions.  On  going  to  the 
former  of  these  meetings  I  felt  a  perfect  blank,  as  regarded 
anything  to  communicate,  but  was  preserved  quiet,  trusting 
in  the  Lord,  in  whose  counsel,  I  apprehended,  I  had  re- 
quested the  meeting  to  be  convened.  The  passage  of  Scrip- 
ture, ^' It  is  a  fearful  thing  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the 
living  God,'^  impressed  my  mind  soon  after  sitting  down, 
along  with  the  belief  that  it  was  my  duty  to  rise,  and  quote 
it,  and  to  make  some  comments  upon  the  cause  of  this  fear- 
fulness,  as  well  as  upon  the  plan  of  salvation  by  Jesus  Christ; 
inviting  all  to  come  unto  God  by  him,  and  to  abide  in  him, 
and  to  prove  this  abiding,  by  walking  as  he  also  walked. 
The  congregation  was  attentive,  and  a  preciously  solemn 
feeling  pervaded  the  meeting  toward  the  close,  in  which 
prayer  was  put  up  for  an  increase  in  the  knowledge  of  the 
tilings  belonging  to  salvation,  and  of  a  disposition  to  practice 

The  Lieutenant  Governor  and  several  other  persons  of 
note  attended  the  Temperance  Lecture;  in  which,  after 
explaining  the  origin  and  progress  of  Temperance  Societies, 
and  conveying  much  general  information,  I  invited  a  more 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

156  HOBART  TOWN.  [10th  mo* 

extensive  co-operation  with  them.  I  was  induced  to  give 
this  lecture  from  a  sense  of  duty ;  and  I  had  great  occasion 
to  render  God  hearty  thanks,  for  enabling  me  to  unfold 
to  the  company  something  of  the  working  of  the  mystery 
of  iniquity,  as  connected  with  the  use  of  strong  drink,  and 
to  do  it  in  such  a  way  as  to  keep  hold  of  their  kindly 
feelings,  whilst  attacking  unsparingly  the  habits  and  in- 
dulgences of  many  present. 

10th  mo.  4th.  I  read,  "Three  Months  in  Jamaica, ^^  by 
Henry  Whitely.  What  a  picture  does  it  present  of  colonial 
slavery,  and  human  depravity !  Severe  as  is  the  discipline 
of  the  prisoners  in  this  colony,  it  is  not  to  be  compared  with 
the  tyrannical  barbarity  exercised  upon  the  poor  Negroes ; 
yet  I  think  the  vengeful  part  of  the  former,  both  degrading 
and  demoralizing.  A  Magistrate  who  formerly  thought  the 
flagellation  of  prisoners  necessary,  said,  a  short  time  ago, 
when  conversing  with  us  on  the  subject,  that  he  was  now 
convinced  that  it  was  an  ineffectual  punishment,  universally 
degrading  in  its  consequences.  This  is  an  increasing  con- 
viction among  men  who  have  gained  some  degree  of  victory 
over  themselves:  those  who  are  in  bondage  to  their  own 
evil  passions  are  attached  to  the  system,  by  which  a  man 
may  receive  far  beyond  "forty  stripes  save  one,^' — ^upon 
complaint  before  a  magistrate.  It  may,  however,  generally 
be  observed,  that  those  who  plead  for  flogging,  practice 
swearing,  whether  magistrates  or  others :  and  their  own 
overbearing  manner  is  often  the  exciting  cause  of  the  inso- 
lence in  the.  prisoner,  which  occasions  him  to  be  brought 
before  a  magistrate  and  to  receive  flagellation. 

Had  justice  toward  offenders  been  more  duly  considered  the 
legislature  would  probably,  long  ere  this,  have  been  induced 
to  inquire  more  seriously  than  it  has  done,  into  the  causes 
of  crime,  with  a  view  to  remedying  them.  This  considera- 
tion is  especially  due  to  prisoners,  when  it  appears,  that  the 
use  of  ardent  spirits  is  the  chief  cause  of  crime,  and  that, 
by  legalizing  the  sale  of  this  article,  and  by  the  countenance 
given  to  its  use  by  the  community,  they  and  the  Government 
are  the  chief  patrons  of  crime. 

Want  of  education  being  another  fertile  source  of  vice, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMEN8    ]>AND.  15/ 

consideration  ought  to  be  had  for  those  who  are  ignoranl^ 
and  through  this  cause  go  astraj^.  It  is  not  genendly  with 
themselves  that  the  fault  of  the  want  of  better  education 
Ues.  Again^  the  immoral  example  of  persons  of  the  upper 
and  middle  classes,  and  often  of  the  professed  teachers  of 
religion,  has,  beyond  a  doubt,  a  great  place  in  the  en- 
couragement of  crime.  By  far  the  greater  proportion  of 
prisoners  is  from  the  lower  class  ;  and  it  wiU  be  found,  that 
most  of  the  crimes  which  they  have  committed,  were  com- 
mitted under  the  excitement  of  ardent  spirits;  and  that, 
apart  from  this  excitement,  they  are  not  commonly  more 
depraved  than  the  generality  of  their  countrymen.  Also, 
that  most  of  their  robberies  were  committed  to  enable  them 
to  obtain  money  to  pay  for  indulgence  in  vice ;  and  that  the 
example  of  similar  indulgence  by  persons  above  them  in  cir- 
cumstances, was  a  great  means  of  destroying  in  their  minds 
the  barrier  of  that  moral  principle,  which  would  have  made 
them  fear  such  indulgence.  Those  who  expect  the  punishment 
of  crime  to  prevent  its  commission,  whilst  such  fertile  sources 
of  its  propagation  remain,  will  certainly  be  disappointed.  The 
removal  of  persons  who  have  become  contaminated,  will  no 
doubt,  prevent  crime  increasing  as  it  would  do,  were  their 
influence  continued  on  the  British  population;  but  unless 
the  incentives  to  crime  be  removed,  punishing  it  will  only 
be  like  trying  to  pump  out  a  river  that  threatens  inunds^ 
tion  to  a  country,  whilst  the  remedy  of  stopping  the  springs 
that  supply  it,  is  neglected. 

About  this  time  I  wrote  a  small  tract,  entitlec^  ^^  A  Concise 
Apology  for  the  Peculiarities  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  com- 
monly called  Quakers,  in  their  Language,  Costume,  and  Man- 
ners.^' These  peculiarities  having  often  been  the  subjects  of 
so  much  inquiry  and  objection,  as  to  limit  our  opportunities 
of  explaining  our  views  of  the  Oospel  in  regard  to  more 
fundamental  points,  and  especially,  to  that  immediate  teach- 
ing of  the  Divine  Spirit,  which,  when  fully  followed,  we 
believe,  leads  into  the  practice  we  have  adopted. — ^Appen- 
dix B. 

In  the  10th  month,  a  young  woman,  professing  with  the 
Independents,  refused  to   take  an  oath,  as  witness,  in  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

158  HOBART  TOWN.  [10th  mo. 

Supreme  Court.  She  was  called  upon  to  state  her  reasons  for 
this  refusal^  which  she  did  in  a  clear  and  concise  manner, 
urging  the  command  of  Christ  as  the  ground  of  her  objec- 
tion. According  to  existing  regulations,  the  Judge  must 
have  committed  her  to  prison  for  contempt  of  court,  had 
the  matter  been  pressed  1  but  to  avoid  this,  the  Counsel 
withdrew  her  evidence. 

This  circumstance  increased  an  exercise  that  my  mind 
had  been  under,  respecting  the  practice  of  judicial  swearing, 
and  this  feeling  was  further  increased,  by  learning  that 
a  discourse  had  been  delivered  in  the  Independent  chapel, 
attempting  to  defend  the  practice;  and  believing  that  it 
would  conduce  to  my  peace  to  throw  something  before  ihe 
public  on  the  subject,  I  wrote  an  essay,  entitled,  ^^The 
Question,  are  Judicial  Oaths  Liawfol?  answered;  with  some 
Observations  on  the  Moral  Influence  of  Oaths.^^  In  this 
tract  the  fallacy  of  the  ai^uments  brought  forward  in 
support  of  the  practice  of  Judicial  Swearing  was  proved  on 
Scriptural  grounds. — ^Appendix  C. 

10th  mo.  16th.  We  had  a  religious  interview  with  the 
Hulk  Chain-gang,  in  a  long  shed,  in  which  they  regularly 
assemble  for  worship,  on  First  and  Fourth  days.  The  dis- 
cipline of  this  gang  is  very  strict ;  and  finom  its  local  situation, 
the  men  are  effectually  kept  from  strong  drink.  The  hulks, 
on  board  of  which  they  sleep,  are  kept  clean,  and  are  well 
ventilated :  they  are  moored  close  alongside  of  the  jwrd  in 
which  the  men  muster.  These  prisoners  are  employed  in 
public  work^f  improvement  on  the  side  of  SuUvans  Cove,  and 
are  kept  constantly  under  an  overseer  and  a  military  guard. 
This  gang,  which  forms  an  important  link  in  the  chain  of 
the  prison-discipline  of  the  colony,  is  depicted,  in  the  an- 
nexed etching,  copied  from  a  work  called  '^Ross's  Hobart 
Town  Annual.^^ 

10th  mo.  24th.  A  young  Irishman  called  upon  me,  who 
came  to  V.  D.  Land,  a  few  months  ago,  with  a  small  sum 
of  money,  and  soon  after  his  arrival  got  into  a  situation ; 
but  giving  way  to  dissipated  habits,  and  making  a  mock, 
as  he  said,  of  temperance,  he  found  many  of  his  own 
stamp,  who  were  willing  to  seek  his  firiendship  while  his 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

U^.fL-M.^.,  I*-. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC  j 

1833.]  VAN    DTBHENS    LAND*  159 

money  lasted.  This  was  not  long ;  and  as  he  soon  incapaci* 
tated  himself  by  intemperance,  he  lost  his  situation.  When 
his  money  was  gone,  his  friends  were  gone  also ;  and  some 
that  he  had  helped,  were  miwilling  to  help  him  in  return, 
and  he  was  at  his  wif  s  end  to  know  what  to  do.  Many 
young  men  who  come  out  with  fiur  prospects,  ruin  them- 
selves in  this  way,  and  then  find  fault  with  the  Colony. 
Without  persons  have  capital,  and  conduct  to  take  care  of 
it,  they  should  not  emigrate  to  the  Australian  Colonies.  If 
they  have  stability,  and  their  capital  be  in  their  physical 
powers,  and  they  have  ability  to  employ  it  efiiciently,  in 
mechanical  occupations,  or  in  agricultural  labour,  it  may  be 
of  good  service. 

10th  mo.  25th.  We  ascended  Mount  Wellington.  At 
the  base,  sandstone  and  limestone,  form  low  hills ;  further 
up,  compact  argillaceous  rock  rises  into  higher  hills,  which 
abound  in  marine  fossils.  The  height  of  the  mountain  is 
four  thousand  feet.  Near  the  top,  basalt  shows  itself  in 
some  places,  in  columnar  cliffs.  The  trees,  for  two-thirds 
of  its  height,  are  Stringy-bark,  White  and  Blue  Oum,  Pep- 
permint, &c.  A  species  of  EuccdyptuSy  unknown  in  the 
lower  part  of  the  forest,  is  frequent  at  an  elevation  of  three 
diousand  feet.  Another  is  found  on  the  top  of  the  moun- 
tain. The  different  species  of  Eucalyptus  are  very  common, 
and  form  at  least  seven-eighths  of  the  vast  forests  of 
Tasmania.  In  the  middle  region  of  the  mountain,  the 
climate  and  soil  are  humid.  Hie  Tasmanian  Myrtle,  Fagus 
Cmmnghanm,  here  forms  trees  of  moderate  size ;  the  Aus- 
tralian Pepper-tree,  Tasmania  fragransy  is  frequent;  the 
Broad-leaved  Grass-tree,  Richea  DracophyUay  forms  a  strik- 
ing object;  it  is  very  abundant,  and  on  an  average,  from  ten 
to  fifteen  feet  high ;  it  is  much  branched,  and  has  broad, 
grassy  foliage.  The  branches  are  terminated  by  spike-like 
panicles  of  white  flowers,  intermingled  with  broad,  bracteal 
leaves,  tinged  with  pink.  Cutcitium  salicifoliumy  Hakea  Usso» 
spemuiy  Telopea  truncatay^  Corraaferrugineay  GauUheria  fnspi- 
day  Prostanthera  lasianthosy  Friesia  peduncularisy  and  many 
other  shrubs,  are  met  with  in  the  middle  region  of  the  moun- 
tain.    For  a  considerable  part  of  the  way  up,  we  availed 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

160  MOUNT   WELLINGTON.  [lOth  mO. 

ourselves  of  a  path  that  is  nearly  obliterated^  which  was  used 
by  the  workmen^  when  laying  a  watercourse  from  the  breast  of 
the  mountain,  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  Hobart  Town 
with  water.  This  path  led  through  a  forest  of  Tree-ferns, 
surmounted  by  Myrtle,  &c.  Nearer  the  top,  we  had  to  pass 
a  large  tract  of  tumbled  basalt.  The  upper  parts  of  many  of 
the  stones  were  split  oflF,  probably  by  the  alternations  of  frost 
and  heat.    A  few  patches  of  snow  were  still  remaining. 

The  top  of  the  mountain  is  rather  hollow,  sloping  toward 
Birches  Bay,  in  the  direction  of  which,  a  stream  of  excellent 
water  flows.  The  ground  is  swampy,  with  rocks  and  stony 
hills.  Aatelia  alpina,  Glichenia  alpifMy  Drosera  arcturi, 
several  remarkable  shrubby  Asters,  a  prostrate  species  of 
Leptospermum,  Exocarpos  humijustts,  a  dense  bushy  Richea, 
and  several  mountain  shrubs,  of  the  Epcuris  tribe,  are  scat- 
tered in  the  swamps,  and  among  the  rocks.  Two  Snipes 
flew  up  from  a  marsh,  in  which  there  was  a  frog  with  a  voice 
much  like  that  of  the  English  Red  Grouse. 

We  ascended  the  highest  portions  of  the  mountain  on  the 
west  and  south,  from  which  the  view  is  extremely  fine.  It 
commands  the  whole  of  the  south-east  portion  of  V.  D. 
Land,  with  its  numerous  bays,  peninsulas,  and  adjacent, 
small  islands,  the  singular  outlines  of  which  may  be  seen 
upon  one  of  the  maps  at  the  end  of  this  volume.  The 
ocean  forms  the  horizon,  from  the  westward  of  the  mouth 
of  D'Entrecasteaux  Channel,  and  to  the  southward,  and 
as  far  to  the  north-east  as  about  St.  Patricks  Head.  The 
atmosphere  was  rather  milky  to  the  north,  so  as  not  to 
leave  the  horizon  very  distinct  in  that  direction.  To  the 
westward  we  thought  we  could  recognise  the  Peak  of  Tene- 
rifie,  and  some  of  the  mountains  near  Macquarie  Harbour, 
Port  Davey,  and  the  South  Cape.  Hobart  Town,  Sorell 
Town,  and  the  cultivated  lands,  with  the  houses  of  the  settlers 
about  Richmond,  New  Norfolk,  and  Hamilton,  along  with 
the  courses  of  the  rivers  Derwent  and  Huon,  were  striking 
objects.  The  green  patches  of  cultivated  land  on  Browns 
River,  and  in  various  other  places,  in  the  recesses  of  the 
''bush,'^  proved  interestingly,  the  powers  of  industry  in 
subduing  the  forest. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  161 

In  descending,  we  got  into  a  thick  part  of  the  forest, 
through  which  we  had  sometimes  to  force  our  way  among 
deep  cutting-grass^  and  tangled  Bauera ;  and  sometimes  we 
had  to  travel  on  fallen  trees,  at  an  elevation  above  ^^  terra 
firma,^'  much  greater  than  was  agreeable.  We  were  glad 
to  reach  a  known  tracks  in  the  foot  of  the  mountain  while 
twilight  lasted,  having  effected  the  descent  in  3^  hours. 

While  we  were  at  Hobart  Town,  at  this  time  a  prisoner, 
named  Robert  King,  died  in  the  HospitaL  We  had  long 
felt  much  interest  respecting  him,  on  account  of  his  simple 
piety.  He  gave  me  the  following  account  of  his  life,  which 
I  have  interspersed  with  a  few  remarks  upon  his  situation 
as  a  prisoner,  and  his  state  as  a  practical  Christian. 

Robert  King,  was  the  son  of  persons  in  respectable  cir- 
cumstances, who  resided  in  London :  they  gave  him  a  good 
education^  but  at  an  early  age  he  fell  into  much  evil,  under 
the  influence  of  bad  company:  he  became  exceedingly 
intemperate,  and  immoral  in  other  respects ;  and  at  length, 
his  conduct  was  unbearable  to  his  relations,  and  they  closed 
their  doors  against  him,  so  that  he  became,  in  the  true 
sense  of  the  word,  an  Outcast.  He  joined  himself  to  a 
gang  of  thieves  in  Tothill-fields ;  who  supported  themselves 
in  their  profligacy,  by  picking  pockets,  and  committing 
other  kinds  of  robbery.  He  adopted  infidel  principles, 
on  similar  grounds  to  those  on  which,  there  is  reason  to  be- 
lieve, many  other  infidels  have  also  adopted  them ;  and  who 
are,  nevertheless,  very  ready  to  ridicule  the  truths  of  Chris- 
tianity, with  a  pretence  of  being  very  knowing  about  them  : 
— ^^  Not,'^  said  R.  King,  "  because  I  had  carefully  examined 
the  subject  and  found  any  reasoiuiUe  objection  to  the  truths 
of  Holy  Scripture ;  but  because  I  wished  to  be  an  infidel, 
and  hoped  there  was  no  future  state ;  for,  I  knew,  if  there 
was,  I  had  no  prospect  of  happiness  in  it.^^ 

But  though  R.  King  had  joined  with  those  fools,  who, 
in  their  folly,  deny  the  being  of  a  God,  and  who  make  a 
mock  of  sin,  yet  God,  who  is  long-suflering,  and  rich  in 
mercy,  still  followed  him  for  good ;  and,  in  the  dispensation 
of  his  providence,  the  transgressor  was  arrested  by  the 
strong  arm  of  the  law,  when   sinning  with   a  high  hand, 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

162  HOBART  TOWN.  [9th  mo. 

and  wa«  tried^  found  guilty^  and  sentenced  to  be  trans- 

Having  forfeited^  by  his  crimes^  that  fireedom  to  which, 
as  an  Englishman,  he  was  bom,  his  ankles  were  loaded 
with  chains,  and  he  was  subjected  to  the  rigid  discipline 
of  a  convict,  on  a  voyage  of  sixteen  thousand  miles  from 
his  native  land — that  land  to  which  he  was  never  more 
to  return — and  on  arriving  at  Hobart  Town,  he,  and  his 
numerous  shipmates,  imder  like  circumstances,  were  assigned 
into  bond  service.  This  service  differs  little  from  slavery, 
except  that  the  prisoner  remains  the  property  of  the  Govern* 
ment,  and  consequently  cannot  be  sold  by  his  master.  The 
master  agrees  with  the  Government  to  comply  with  certain 
terms  in  regard  to  the  food,  clothing,  and  labour  of  the 
assigned  servant;  and  the  servant  may  complain  to  a  magi»* 
trate  if  his  master  fail  to  do  justly  in  these  respects.  But 
the  prisoner  is  liable,  on  the  complaint  of  his  master,  to 
be  flogged  or  sent  to  work  in  chains,  for  insubordination 
and  other  offences;  and  his  insubordination  may  often  be 
little  more  than  irritation  of  temper,  excited  by  an  un- 
reasonable master. 

The  convict,  like  a  slave,  may  happen  to  be  the  servant 
of  a  kind  or  of  a  hard-hearted  master;  and  if  he  should 
be  the  servant  of  a  hard  master,  he  must  bear  it,  for  he 
cannot  change  at  pleasure,  because  he  is  in  bondage— galling 
bondage !  a  state  from  which  even  those  who  have  the  best 
of  masters,  are  glad  to  be  delivered. 

On  arriving  in  Van  Diemens  Land,  R.  King  saw  several 
young  men,  whom  he  had  known  in  England,  such  as  him- 
self, but  who,  in  the  day  of  their  trouble  had  sought  the 
Lord,  and  had  come  under  the  power  of  religion ;  and  the 
change  in  them  was  so  great,  that  he  began  to  think  there 
was  more  in  religion  than  he  had  been  willing  to  admit. 
Happily  for  him,  he  was  assigned  to  a  kind  and  pious 
master,  whose  wife  was  of  similar  character ;  and  their  ex- 
ample helped  to  deepen  those  favourable  impressions  which 
he  had  received,  in  regard  to  religion,  at  a  time  when  his 
heart  was  softened  by  the  affliction  that  he  had  brought 
upon  himself  by  his  sins.     His  mind  now  became  open  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]'  VAN   DIBMSNB   LAND.  163 

iSbe  convictionfl  of  the  Holy  Spirit  as  a  reprover  of  evil; 
he  saw  the  sinfolness  of  sin^  and  felt  the  terror  of  the  Lord 
in  his  sool,  because  of  his  transgression ;  and^  in  repentance, 
he  began  to  cry  for  mercy,  to  that  God  whom  he  had 
despised;  for  he  now  no  longer  doubted  the  existence  of 
tiiat  Almighty  Being,  whose  hand  lay  heavy  npon  him  in 
judgment.  He  lamented  his  folly,  abhorring  himself  in 
deep  humiliation;  and  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  open  his 
understanding,  to  look  upon  Jesus,  as  the  Lamb  of  God, 
who  taketh  away  the  sin  of  the  world ;  and  to  give  him  an 
evidence  by  the  Spirit,  of  the  pardon  of  his  sins,  through 
£Bdth  in  that  atoning  blood  which  was  shed  upon  the  cross^ 
for  the  redemption  of  sinners. 

The  sense  of  the  love  of  God,  who  had  been  thus  merciful 
to  him,  contrited  him  greatly,  and  he  earnestly  desired  to 
live  to  his  glory;  but  he  found  that  the  natural  depravity 
of  his  own  heart  had  been  so  greatly  increased  by  indulgence 
in  sin,  that  he  was  very  easily  ensnared.  He  now  experi- 
mentally learned,  that  he  could  only  stand  against  temptation 
by  watchfulness  and  prayer  to  God,  who  alone  was  able  to 
deUver  him.  In  these  exercises  he  persevered,  and  God  was 
honoured  by  his  upright  conduct,  which  gained  him  also  the 
fieivour  of  pious  persons,  who  became  acquainted  with  him, 
and  who  esteemed  him  as  a  brother  in  Christ,  notwith- 
standing, he  was  still  a  prisoner.  His  master  was  interested 
in  the  management  of  ^^a  Sabbath  school  ;^^  and  in  this, 
R.  King  gladly  rendered  assistance,  from  a  desire  to  do  what 
he  could,  toward  training  up  children  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord, 
in  the  hope  that  they  might  be  preserved  from  the  snares  into 
which  he  had  fEdlen. 

As  he  grew  in  grace,  he  felt  more  strongly  his  own  un- 
worthiness  and  helplessness,  and  understood  better  than 
when  he  was  first  awakened  from  sleep  in  sin,  that  it  is 
for  Christ's  sake  alone,  and  through  his  intercession,  that 
mankind  have  access  to  the  throne  of  grace ;  and  he  became 
diligent  in  waiting  upon  God,  with  his  mind  stayed  upon 
Him,  and  in  lifting  up  his  heart  in  prayer,  according  to 
the  sense  of  his  necessity,  given  him  at  the  time. 

After   having    maintained   a    Chjistian    character    for   a 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

164  HOB  ART  TOWN.  [9th  mo. 

considerable  period^  he  was  attacked  by  a  fever ;  and  though 
he  recovered  from  it  so  as  to  be  able  to  walk  out,  and  enjoy 
the  fresh  air^  yet  the  effects  of  his  former  depravity  upon 
his  constitution  prevented  him  from  regaining  his  strength^ 
and  he  died  while  yet  but  a  young  man.  Disease^  for  a 
short  time,  rather  beclouded  his  mind;  and  he  expressed 
a  fear  respecting  the  sincerity  of  his  love  to  God :  but  tbe 
fruits  meet  for  repentance^  that  he  had  continued  to  bring 
forth  from  the  time  of  his  awakenings  left  no  room  to  doubt 
his  sincerity^  but  afforded  ground  to  beUeve^  that^  as  he  had 
penitently  sought  the  forgiveness  of  his  sins^  through  Jesus 
Christy  and  the  help  of  God^  to  turn  away  from  his  wicked- 
ness, and  to  do  that  which  was  lawful  and  right,  he  was 
mercifully  prepared  to  join  the  glorious  company^  "who 
have  washed  their  robes  and  made  them  white  in  the  blood 
of  the  Lamb.""* 

*  This  account  of  B.  King,  with  a  few  additional  remarks,  is  published  by 
"  The  York  Friends*  Tract  Association,"  under  the  title  of  "  The  Van  Diemens 
Land  Convict." 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Second  Visii  to  FUndcn  Island. — ^West  Coast  Aborigines. — ^Dislike  to  Fat. — 

Emigrants. — Bruny  Island. — Port  Arthur. — Quardof  Dogs,  See, — ^Discipline. 

Diving  of  Native  Women. — Shamrock  Stranded. — ^FUnders  Island. — ^Planting 
Potatoes. — ^Difference. — Civilisation. — Qrass-tree  Plains. — Prime  Seal  Island. 
— Spears. — Climbing  Trees. — Comparative  Skill  — ^Mustering. — Cleanliness. — 
Catechist. — Light-house. — ^Bash*rangers. — ^Launceston. 

Some  disagreement  having  arisen  between  a  person  em- 
ployed as  Catechist^  at  the  Establishment  for  the  Aborigines^ 
on  Flinders  Island^  and  the  officers  there,  which  the  Com- 
mandant had  su^ested  we  might  be  helpful  in  reconciling, 
the  Lieut.  Governor  applied  to  us  on  the  subject,  and  after 
serious  consideration,  we  believed  it  right  to  accept  his 
invitation  again  to  visit  the  Island.  The  Shamrock  cutter 
was  put  under  our  direction  for  the  voyage,  and  we  sailed 
firom  Hobart  Town  on  the  22nd  of  11th  month,  Richard  H. 
Davies,  being  in  command  of  the  vessel. 

We  had  on  board  a  party  of  sixteen  Aborigines,  who 
had  joined  G.  A.  Robinson,  on  the  west  coast.  When  we 
were  first  introduced  to  them,  they  were  smeared  from  head 
to  foot  with  red  ochre  and  grease  $  and,  to  add  to  their 
adornment,  some  of  them  had  blackened  a  space  of  about 
a  hand's  breadth,  on  each  side  of  their  faces,  their  eyes 
being  nearly  in  the  centre  of  each  black  mark !  Some  of 
the  elderly  women  were  as  far  removed  from  handsome  as 
human  beings  could  well  be.  As  they  sat  naked  upon  the 
ground,  with  their  knees  up,  and  their  heads  bare,  their 
resemblance  to  Oran-outangs  was  such  as  to  afford  some 
apology  for  those  who  have  represented  them  as  allied  to 
those   animals.      Some   of  the   younger  women   were  of  a 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


more  agreeable  appeaitufice ;  a  man  in  the  company  was 
tall^  and  of  features  so  patriarchal  and  Jewish^  as  strongly 
to  resemble  pictures  designed  to  represent  Abraham.  He 
was  blind  of  one  eye^  which  we  understood  he  had  lost 
some  years  ago^  by  a  shot  from  a  white  man. 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  custom  of  the  Aborigines  of  V, 
D.  Land;  common  with  the  Jews^  except  it  be  of  not  eating 
fat.  This  they  so  much  abhor  as  even  to  reject  breads  cut 
with  a  buttery  knife.  On  my  companion  offering  some  soup 
to  a  poor  emaciated  woman,  on  board  the  cutter^  who  had  a 
baby  that  looked  half-starved^  she  tried  to  take  it^  seeing  it 
was  offered  in  good  will ;  but  having  a  little  fat  upon  it,  she 
recoiled  from  it  with  nausea.  John  R.  Bateman^  master  of 
the  brig  Tamar^  once  had  some  soup  made  for  a  party  of 
these  people^  whom  he  was  taking  to  Flinders  Island :  they 
looked  upon  it  complacently,  skimmed  off  the  floating  fat 
with  their  hands,  and  smeared  their  hair  with  it,  but  would 
not  drink  the  soup ! 

The  wind  being  unfavourable,  we  anchored  at  the  mouth 
of  IKEntrecasteaux  Channel,  where  the  Government  brig 
Isabella,  with  English  emigrants  for  Launceston,  and  the 
Adelaide,  a  vessel  in  the  Sperm  Whale  fishery,  were  lying. 
— ^A  great  number  of  emigrants  have  lately  arrived  from 
England.  Many  of  them  are  mechanics,  who  cannot  find 
employment  in  Hobart  Town,  in  consequence  of  the  number 
that  have  preceded  them.  As  this  class  of  emigrants  is 
wanted  in  Launceston,  the  Government  has  undertaken  to 
convey  them  thither.  Persons  wanting  places  as  clerks,  find 
great  difficulty  in  obtaining  situations  in  new  colonies. — ^We 
went  on  shore  at  Kelleys  Farm^  on  Bruny  Island ;  where 
vessels  are  fr^uently  fiimished  with  potatoes,  eggs,  fowls^ 
&c.  The  land  is  of  fair  quality,  but  the  adjacent  hills  are 
sandy,  and  thin  of  soil  and  herbage.  This  island  is  nearly 
covered  with  wood  Uke  that  of  the  main  land,  and  has  a  few 
Austral  Grass*trees  interspersed  among  them. 

11th  mo.  23rd.  Very  wet;  the  wind  contrary.  The  decks 
were  so  leaky  that  it  was  difficult  to  find  a  dry  place  to  sit  in^ 
in  the  cabin ;  happily,  no  wet  of  any  consequence  came  into 
our  berths.    The  poor  Aborigines  had  to  sleep  under  a  tent. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1853.]  VAN    DIBMBN8  LAND*  167 

farmed  of  a  sail^  on  dedi,  the  hold  being  occupied  with  pro- 
Tisions^  which  it  was  hoped  would  have  been  delivered  at 
Port  Arthur  yesterday.  They  seemed^  nevertheless^  con- 
tented and  cheerful. 

25tfa.  We  reached  Port  Arthur^  which  is  greatly  improved 
since  we  were  here  before^  though  much  still  requires  to  be 
done  before  it  can  be  fully  effective  for  the  purpose  of  a 
PesDsl  Settlement.  A  good  penitentiary,  and  a  place  of 
worship  are  much  wanted.  The  Penitentiary  in  use  consists 
only  of  bark  huts,  surrounded  with  a  high,  stockade  fence. 
One  hut  is  appropriated  to  educated  prisoners,  who  are  now, 
in  many  instances,  sent  here  on  their  arrival  in  the  Colony, 
being  considered  as  having  abused  their  advantages  more 
than  the  uneducated.  This  class  of  prisoners  feel  their 
degradation  greatly :  they  are  occupied  in  manual  labour  in 
the  settlement  gardens.  The  other  prisoners  are  divided 
into  a  chain-gang,  and  a  first  and  second  class,  distinguished 
by  the  kind  of  labour  allotted  them,  by  their  clothing,  and 
by  the  second  class  having  an  allowance  of  tea  and  sugar, 
lliis  classification  produces  a  good  effect.  Captain  Charles 
O'Hara  Booth,  the  Commandant,  has  succeeded  in  estabHsh- 
ing  a  more  strict  discipline  than  his  predecessors,  and  in 
some  respects,  than  that  pursued  at  Macquarie  Harbour :  he 
has  abolished  the  use  of  that  great  desideratum  with  pri- 
soners— tobacco.  The  health  of  the  prisoners  is  generally 
good,  though  cases  of  scurvy  have  of  late  increased.  In  the 
afternoon  we  walked  with  Capt.  Booth  to  the  signal-stadon, 
two  miles  and  a  half  distant,  through  forests  of  Stringy-bark, 
Blue-gum,  White-gum,  Myrtle,  Sasafras,  Tree-fern,  &c.  an 
assemblage  proving  the  cUmate  to  be  somewhat  humid ;  it  is, 
however,  much  drier  than  that  of  Macquarie  Harbour. 

26th.  We  accompanied  Captain  Booth  to  Eagle  Hawk 
Neck,  the  isthmus  separating  Tasmans  Peninsula,  on  which 
Port  Arthur  is  situat^,  from  Forestiers  Peninsula,  which  is 
connected  with  the  main  land.  The  distance,  after  leaving  a 
boat  at  the  head  of  LongBay,  was  about  eleven  miles,  which 
we  walked  in  a  soaking  rain. — ^A  guard  of  soldiers  is  stationed 
at  Eagle  Hawk  Neck,  which  is  only  120  yards  across,  at  hi^ 
tide ;    and  to  make  the  barrier  more  secure,  nine  watch  dogs 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

168  PORT  ARTHUR.  [llth  mo. 

are  placed  at  intervals^  with  nine  lamps  between  them. 
Constables  are  also  stationed  at  several  outposts.  By  these 
means  escape  from  the  Penal  Settlement  is  rendered  very 
difficult  Tlie  dogs  soon  give  notice  of  the  approach  of  any 
person.  Some  of  the  hills  on  Tasmans  Peninsula  may  be 
about  1^000  feet  high,  and  much  of  the  forest  with  which  it 
is  covered,  is  very  dense. 

28th.  We  visited  a  company  of  prisoner  brick-makers, 
and  proceeded  to  the  coast,  betwixt  Cape  Roaul  and  the 
entrance  to  Port  Arthur,  to  see  a  remarkable  chasm  in  the 
basalt.  It  is  about  127  feet  deep,  and  very  narrow.  The 
sea  may  be  heard  rushing  up  it.  In  the  course  of  our  walk, 
we  had  much  conversation  with  Captain  Booth,  of  a  satis- 
factory character.  From  what  we  see  and  learn,  we  are  dis- 
posed to  consider  that  the  punishment  of  Port  Arthur,  consists 
in  its  restraint,  rather  than  in  any  excessive  degree  of  labour 
that  is  exacted.  The  prisoners  work  with  reluctance.  The 
privations  of  liberty  and  society,  with  the  vigilant  superin- 
tendence, are  keenly  felt.  The  generality  of  prisoners  look 
upon  themselves  as  the  aggrieved  parties,  which  is  much  to 
be  regretted :  when  they  take  an  opposite  view  it  is  to  be 
regarded  as  a  token  of  reformation.  No  prisoners  are  now 
allowed  private  gardens ;  none  but  the  boat's  crew  are  allowed 
to  fish,  and  none  are  allowed  to  hunt. 

29th.  We  anchored  in  Safety  Cove,  the  wind  being 
contrary.  6.  W.  Walker  and  myself  went  on  shore,  and 
walked  to  the  coast,  in  the  direction  of  Cape  Roaul,  on  a 
steep  sandy  part  of  which,  the  white  variety  of  HeUchrymm 
bracteatum  is  found;  also  Hierochloe  australis,  a  fragrant 
grass.  In  the  afternoon  we  went  on  shore  on  a  fishing 
excursion,  and  obtained  a  plentiful  supply  of  Muttton-fish, 
Haliot%8  keviffatOy  from  the  rocks,  at  low-water.  They  were 
mostly  under  the  kelp,  immersed  in  the  sea,  and  were  dis- 
lodged by  means  of  sharp-pointed  sticks.  Some  of  the 
women  went  into  the  water  among  the  large  sea-tangle,  to 
take  Cray-fish.  These  women  seem  quite  at  home  in  the 
water,  and  frequently  immerse  their  faces  to  enable  them 
to  see  objects  at  the  bottom.  When  they  discover  the 
object   of  their    search,  they  dive,    often    using    the   long 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  VAN   DIEMEN8  LAND.  169 

stems  of  the  kelp  to  enable  them  to  reach  the  bottom; 
these  they  handle  as  dexterously  in  descending,  as  a  sailor 
woidd  a  rope,  in  ascending. 

We  sailed  from  Port  Arthur  on  the  30th  of  11th  mo. 
After  rounding  Cape  PiUar,  the  swell,  which  had  been  left  by  a 
recent  gale,  was  very  trying.  We  passed  to  the  eastward  of 
Maria  Island,  and  sighted  Cape  Barren  Island,  in  Banks's  Strait, 
at  daylight,  on  the  2nd  of  12th  mo. — Sailing  west  of  Preser- 
vation Island,  we  anchored  imder  Green  Island,  at  high  tide ; 
and  a  gale  from  the  south-east  occasioned  the  vessel  to  drive, 
so  that  it  was  left  dry  at  low  water,  lying  down  to  one  side 
very  uncomfortably,  but  without  further  damage. — In  con- 
sequence of  this  accident,  the  Aborigines  were  put  on  shore 
on  Green  Island,  where  they  had  a  feast  of  Mutton  Birds 
and  their  eggs,  and  smeared  themselves  from  head  to  foot 
with  red  ochre  and  grease.  The  multitude  of  birds  returning 
to  the  island  in  the  evening  was  so  great  that  it  was  difficult 
to  conceive  how  each  pair  would  find  a  burrow.  The  Abori- 
gines from  Flinders  Island  had  been  here,  and  we  learned 
that  they  had  collected  8,000  eggs :  countless  numbers  were, 
however,  still  left :  they  had  also  destroyed  great  numbers  of 
birds,  which  were  scattered  in  all  directions  over  the  island. 

12th  mo.  3rd.  Being  landed  by  a  whale-boat,  at  the 
Lagoons,  the  site  of  the  old  settlement  on  Flinders  Island, 
we  made  our  way  along  the  beach,  and  through  the  bush,  to 
Wybal'enna,  where  we  received  a  hearty  welcome  from  both 
the  Black  and  the  White  Inhabitants;  and  were  much  pleased 
with  the  improvements,  since  we  were  here  fourteen  months 
ago.  A  number  of  neat  huts  have  been  erected,  and  some 
land  has  been  converted  into  gardens.  One  piece,  of  more 
than  an  acre  and  a  half,  has  been  broken  up,  fenced,  and 
planted  with  potatoes,  by  the  Aborigines. 

The  Aborigines  of  V.  D.  Land  soon  learned  to  distinguish 
between  free  people  and  prisoners,  and  shewed  a  contempt 
for  the  latter.  The  prisoners  have  adopted  the  expression, 
^*to  plant'^  a  thing,  to  signify,  to  hide  or  conceal  it,  especially 
in  regard  to  things  stolen.  On  a  Black,  on  Flinders  Island, 
being  asked,  if  he  would  like  to  have  some  potatoes  to  plant, 
he  replied.  No,  with   disdain,  supposing  it  was   meant  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

170  FLINDBES   ISLAND.  [12th  mO« 

conceal  dishonesdy ;  but  said  he^  I  should  like  to  have  some 
to  put  into  the  ground^  that  I  might  see  them  jump  up. 

4th.  We  had  a  conference  with  the  parties  at  variance, 
and  endeavoured  to  soften  down  die  asperities  that  had 
arisen  between  them,  in  consequence  of  a  conscientious  man 
having  expected  too  much  from  others,  not  awakened  like 
himself  to  the  importance  of  acting  in  all  things  on  religious 
principle,  and  having  imbibed  some  prejudice  against  them, 
which  had  excited  disgust  on  their  part. 

A  large  company  of  the  native  women  took  tea  with  us,  at 
the  Commandant's:  they  conducted  themselves  in  a  very 
orderly  manner,  and  after  washing  up  the  tea-things,  put 
them  in  their  places,  and  showed  other  indications  of  ad- 
vancement in  civilization.  They  are  gaining  a  taste  for 
European  provisions,  particularly  for  milk  and  mutton. 

5th.  Another  party  of  Aborigines  breakfasted  with  us. 
We  distributed  among  them  some  cotton  handkerchiefs,  and 
some  tobacco,  an  article  of  which  they  are  exceedingly  fond, 
but  the  use  of  which  they  have  learned  from  Europeans. 
Some  of  the  women  immediately  commenced  hemming  the 
handkerchiefs,  having  learned  this  art  from  the  wife  of  the 
Catechist.  They  presented  us  with  some  spears  and  shell 
necklaces  in  return.  The  Surgeon  brought  the  new  comers  in 
a  boat  from  Green  Island,  having  first  successfully  assisted 
in  getting  the  Shamrock  off  the  sands,  into  deep  water. — On 
the  arrival  of  the  new  party,  it  was  found  that  the  husband 
of  one,  and  the  father  of  another,  who  had  come  hither 
before  them,  were  deceased;  but  this  did  not,  in  these 
instances,  produce  much  emotion. — ^Accompanied  by  the 
Commandant  of  the  Settlement,  the  Master  of  the  Shamrock, 
and  an  intelligent  native,  we  visited  the  Grass-tree  plains 
that  extend  toward  the  east  coast.  The  soil  is  sandy  and 
poor,  and  clothed  with  thin  rigid  herbage,  and  scattered,  low 
Gum-trees,  low  scrub,  and  large  Grass-trees,  Xanthorrhaa  om^ 
traUs?  Some  of  the  last  are  fromS  to  7  feet  high,and  as  many  in 
circumference  ;  they  have  leaves  3  to  4  feet  long,  and  flower- 
spikes  5  to  10  feet  high,  thickly  clothed  with  hard  scales, 
and  small,  white,  star-like  flowers,  except  for  about  1^  feet 
at  the  base,  which  is  bare.     All  the  trunks  are  charred  from 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

.    N  -\.* 


■'    •  ri    I '  1 '     ,        v       .1 

I    *'  " 

1*1   ;S«  T        I    '■   I-        J. 

1 1      --.'l>     *•• 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  bass's  straits.  I7I 

the  burning  off  of  the  scrub.  Abundance  of  red  resin^ 
capable  of  being  used  in  the  manufacture  of  sealing  wax  and 
French-polish^  is  exuded  by  them.  This  substance  fills  up 
the  places  left  by  the  decay  of  the  flower-stems  of  former 
years,  and  by  injuries  $  it  is  also  lodged  abundantly  around 
the  base  of  the  trunk,  which  is  thus  defended  from  an  excess 
of  moisture.  The  blanched  base  of  the  leaves,  which  our 
swarthy  companion  obtained  for  us,  by  beating  off  the  head 
of  a  Grass-tree  that  had  not  thrown  up  a  flower-stem,  is 
pleasant  eating,  and  has  a  nutty  flavour.  A  species  of 
Isopogon  occurs  on  these  plains.  This  is  probably  the  most 
southern  locality  of  the  genus. 

The  Grass-tree  plains,  which  are  represented  in  the  accom- 
panying etching,  are  separated  frx>m  the  west  coast,  by  a 
range  of  granite  hills,  covered  with  Common  and  Blue  Gum- 
trees,  Oyster  Bay  Kne,  &c. 

The  low  ground  about  the  Settlement,  is  clothed  with 
long  grass,  and  with  Leucopogon  Gnidmm  and  Fabricia  myr- 
tifoliay  handsome,  white-flowered  shrubs,  here  attaining  to 
20  feet  high,  and  with  a  few  bushy  species  of  Acacia,  &c. 
These  are  decorated  by  the  lovely  cUmbers  Clematis  aristata 
and  Comesperma  voiubiUs ;  the  former  of  delicate  white  and 
the  latter  of  lively  blue. 

6th.  We  visited  Prime  Seal  Island,  distant  about  eight 
miles*  This  also  is  a  granite  island.  Black  fibrous  Schorl, 
here  called  Jet,  is  imbedded  in  the  rock,  in  the  cavities  of 
which,  large  crystals  are  also  met  with. — In  the  low  part 
of  the  Island,  there  were  patches  of  an  imrecorded  species 
of  Lasiopetakim^vnth  purple  flowers.  Croton  rosmarir^foliutny 
a  pretty,  privet-like  bush,  forms  thickets,  both  here  and  on 
Flinders,  where  it  is  also  interspersed  with  She-oak. — ^The 
Wallaby  aboimds  here.  Several  were  killed  by  the  natives 
who  accompanied  us.  Some  of  these  people  only  eat  the 
male  animals,  others  only  the  females.  We  were  unable  to 
learn  the  reason  of  this,  but  they  so  strictly  adhere  to  the 
practice,  that  it  is  said,  hunger  will  not  drive  them  to  de- 
viate from  it.  This  island  did  not  prove  favourable  for 
sheep.  It  was  formerly  the  resort  of  vast  herds  of  Fur 
Seals;  but  they  have  nearly  forsaken  both  it  and  many  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

172  FLINDERS    ISLAND.  [12th  mO. 

the  neighbouring  ones^  in  consequence  of  the  slaughter  com- 
mitted among  them  by  the  seiders.  We  saw  a  few  on  an 
adjacent  rock. 

7th.  Some  of  the  male  Aborigines  amused  themselves 
with  throwing  waddies  and  spears  at  grass-tree  stems^  set 
up  as  marks^  which  they  firequently  hit.  They  still  strip 
off  their  clothes  when  engaged  in  this  amusement ;  but  in 
wearing  decent  coYcring  at  other  times^  as  well  as  in  many 
other  respects^  they  shew  decided  marks  of  advancing  civi- 
lization.— In  dressing  their  spears,  they  use  a  sharp  flint 
or  a  knife :  in  using  the  latter  for  this  purpose,  they  hold 
it  by  the  end  of  the  blade.  They  straighten  their  spears 
till  they  balance  as  accurately  as  a  well  prepared  fishing-rod, 
performing  this  operation  with  their  teeth.  The  simplicity 
of  the  weapons  of  these  people,  has  been  urged  as  a  proof 
of  their  defect  of  intellect,  but  it  is  much  more  a  proof  of  their 
dexterity,  in  being  able,  with  such  simple  implements,  to 
procure  game,  &c.  for  food.  A  shower  of  their  spears, 
which  they  send  through  the  air  with  a  quivering  motion, 
would  be  terribly  destructive. 

The  climbing  of  the  lofty,  smooth-trunked  gum-trees,  by 
the  women,  to  obtain  opossums,  which  lodge  in  the  hollows 
of  decayed  branches,  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  feats 
I  ever  witnessed.  This  is  effected  without  making  any  holes 
for  the  thumbs  or  great  toes,  as  is  common  among  the 
natives  of  N.  S.  Wales,  except  where  the  bark  is  rough 
and  loose,  at  the  base  of  the  tree.  In  this  a  few  notches 
are  cut  by  means  of  a  sharp  flint,  or  a  hatchet ;  the  latter 
being  preferred-  A  rope,  twice  as  long  as  is  necessary  to 
encompass  the  tree,  is  then  thrown  around  it.  In  former 
times,  this  was  made  of  tough  grass,  or  strips  of  Kangaroo 
skin,  but  one  of  hemp  is  now  generally  used.  The  left 
hand  is  twisted  firmly  into  one  end  of  the  rope,  the  middle 
of  which  is  tightly  grasped  by  the  right,  the  hatchet  is 
placed  on  the  bare,  closely-cropped  head,  and  the  feet  are 
placed  against  the  tree:  a  step  or  two  is  then  advanced, 
and  the  body,  at  the  same  time,  is  brought  into  a  posture 
so  nearly  erect  as  to  admit  the  rope,  by  a  compound  motion, 
to  be  slackened,  and  at  the  same  moment  hitched  a  little 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833.]  bass'b  straits.  17S 

further  up  the  tree. — By  this  means  a  woman  will  ascend 
a  lofty  tree  with  a  smooth  trunks  ahnost  as  quickly  as  a 
man  would  go  up  a  ladder.  Should  a  piece  of  loose  bark 
impede  the  ascent  of  the  rope^  the  portion  of  the  rope  held 
in  the  right  hand^  is  taken  between  the  teeth^  or  swung 
behind  the  right  leg^  and  caught  between  the  great  and  the 
fore  toe^  and  fixed  against  the  tree.  One  hand  is  thus 
fireed^  to  take  the  hatchet  from  the  head^  and  with  it  to 
dislodge  the  loose  bark. — On  arriving  at  a  large  limb^  the 
middle  of  the  rope  is  also  secured  in  the  left  hand^  and 
the  loose  end  is  thrown  over  the  limb  by  the  right  hand^ 
by  which  also  the  end  is  caught,  and  the  middle  grasped^ 
till  the  left  hand  is  cleared.  This  is  then  wrapped  into 
the  middle  of  the  rope,  and  the  feet  are  brought  up  to  the 
wrinkles  of  the  bark,  which  exist  below  the  large  limbs. 
One  end  of  the  rope  is  then  ptdled  downward,  and  this 
causes  the  other  to  ascend,  so  that,  by  an  effort  of  the 
feet,  the  body  is  turned  on  to  the  upper  side  of  the  limb 
of  the  tree. — In  descending,  the  woman  places  one  arm  on 
each  side  of  the  limb  of  the  tree,  and  swings  the  rope  with 
one  hand  till  she  catches  it  with  the  other :  she  then  turns 
off  the  limb,  and  swings  underneath  it,  till  she  succeeds 
in  steadying  herself  with  her  feet  against  the  trunk,  around 
which  she  then  throws  the  loose  end  of  the  rope.  Having 
secured  this,  she  lets  go  the  portion  by  which  she  was  sus- 
pended under  the  limb,  and  descends  in  the  manner  in 
which  she  ascended. — ^Although  this  is  done  with  ease  by 
women  in  vigour,  one  who  had  been  out  of  health,  but 
seemed  recovered,  could  not  get  many  steps  off  the  ground, 
so  that  not  only  skill,  but  a  considerable  measure  of  strength, 
appears  necessary  to  ascend  the  gigantic  gum-trees. 

Alter  having  seen  something  of  the  natives  of  V.  D.  Land, 
the  conviction  was  forced  upon  my  mind,  that  they  ex- 
ceeded Europeans  in  skill,  in  those  things  to  which  their 
attention  had  been  directed  from  childhood,  just  as  much 
as  Europeans  exceeded  them,  in  the  points  to  which  the 
attention  of  the  former  had  been  turned,  under  the  culture 
of  civilization.  There  is  similar  variety  of  talent  and  of 
temper  among  the  Tasmanian  Aborigines,  to  what  is  to  be 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

174  FLINDERS    I8LANP.  [I2th  mO. 

found  among  other  branches  of  the  human  bmily;  and  it 
would  not  be  more  erroneous  in  one  of  these  people,  to 
look  upon  an  English  woman  as  defective  in  capacity,  because 
she  could  neither  dive  into  the  deep  and  bring  up  cray-fish,nor 
ascend  the  lofty  gum-trees  to  catch  opossums  for  her  family, 
than  it  would  be  for  an  English  woman  to  look  upon  the 
Tasmanian  as  defective  in  capacity,  because  she  could  nei- 
ther sew  nor  read,  nor  perform  the  duties  of  civil,  domestic 
life.  Were  the  two  to  change  stations,  it  is  not  too  much 
to  assume,  that  the  untutored  native  of  the  woods  would 
much  sooner  learn  to  obtain  her  food,  by  acquiring  the  arts 
of  civilization,  than  the  woman  from  civilised  society  would, 
by  acquiring  the  arts  belonging  to  savage  life. 

8th.  The  Aborigines,  having  noticed  that  the  few  soldiers 
at  this  station,  who  were  placed  as  a  guard  against  the 
Sealers,  were  mustered  on  First-day  mornings,  to  see  that 
they  had  made  themsdves  property  dean,  voluntarily  com- 
menced mustering  in  a  similar  way :  they  ako  brought  out 
the  wares  with  which  they  had  been  entrusted,  to  have  them 
inspected.  The  Commandant  took  advantage  of  this,  and 
encouraged  them  to  do  so  weekly.  This  morning  they  pre- 
sented their  tin  pots  and  plates,  knives  and  spoons,  bright 
and  clean,  and  except  three  men,  were  dean  in  thdr  appard. 
These  men  complained,  that  the  women  had  not  washed 
their  dothes,  and  threatened  to  wash  them  themselves,  if 
they  should  again  be  so  neglected !  The  men  were  dressed 
in  duck  frocks  and  trowsers,  and  had  handkerchiefs  about 
their  necks.  The  women  had  on  stuff  under-garments,  and 
diecked  bedgowns,  and  had  handkerchiefs  on  their  heads 
and  around  their  shoulders.  Many  of  their  countenances 
were  fine  and  expressive.  It  was  surprising  to  see  how 
much  improved  some  of  the  most  unsightly  of  the  women 
had  become  by  being  decently  dad:  they  scarcely  looked 
like  the  same  race  of  beings.  They  afterwards  assembled  in 
a  very  orderly  manner,  with  the  white  people,  in  the  rude 
shelter  of  boughs,  used  as  a  chapel.  On  this  occasion  a 
portion  of  Scripture  was  read  by  G.  W.  Walker;  after  which 
I  had  a  little  to  communicate  in  the  line  of  ministry. — 
There  was  something  peculiarly  moving,  in  seeing  nearly  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

18S3.]  bass's  straits.  175 

whole  of  the  remaining  Aborigines  of  Van  Diemens  Land^ 
now  a  mere  handfdl  of  people,  seated  on  the^  ground,  listen- 
ing with  much  attention  to  the  truths  of  the  gospel,  however 
little  they  might  be  able  to  understand  what  was  said,  and 
conducting  themselves  with  equal  gravity  in  the  times  of 

dth.  Several  of  the  Aborigines  were  out  himting :  they 
obtained  little  but  a  Tasmanian  Porcupine*  The  Wallaby 
and  Brush  ICangaroo  are  become  scarce  on  Flinders  Is- 
land, in  consequence  of  the  improvidence  of  the  people 
in  killing  all  they  can,  when  they  have  opportunity,  and 
often  more  than  their  wants  require*  Snakes  are  common 
on  these  islands.  Three  kinds  have  come  under  our  notice 
— the  large  black  species,  the  one  with  red  sides.  Coluber 
porphyryacetis,  and  a  smsdler  species  called  here,  the  Dia- 
mond Snake — all  of  which  are  dangerously  venomous.  Some 
lai^  ticks  were  sticking  to  the  sides  of  one  of  the  red 

10th.  We  dined  with  the  Catechist,  who  has  taken  con- 
siderable pains  to  instruct  the  Aborigines,  and  to  acquire 
their  language :  he  has  translated  the  first  three  chapters  of 
Genesis  into  one  of  their  dialects. — lading  that  the  cutter 
must  proceed  to  Launceston  for  supplies,  we  concluded  to 
accompany  it,  and  sailed  this  evening. 

11th.  After  a  fine  voyage,  we  entered  the  Tamar  early, 
the  eastern  headland  of  which  is  rendered  much  more  dis- 
tinguishable by  a  newly-erected  lighthouse.  On  bringing  up 
at  George  Town,  we  found  the  inhabitants  in  great  alarm : 
they  had  been  keeping  guard  all  night,  in  consequence  of  a 
party  of  bush-rangers  having  entered  one  of  their  houses,  the 
preceding  evening,  and  robbed  it,  after  binding  the  master. 
Circumstances  of  this  kind  are  of  rare  occurrence  at  the 
present  day. 

12th.  We  had  a  pleasant  sail,  with  the  help  of  the  tide, 
to  near  Laimceston,  where  we  arrived  in  the  course  of  the 
day,  and  met  with  warm  greetings  from  our  acquaintance. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Launceston. — ^Meetings. — Pious  Prisoner. — Improvements. — Aborigines'  Mer- 
chandise.—Meeting  at  George  Town. — ^Rambles. — ^York  Town. — ^Trout. — ^Voy- 
age.— Flinders  Island. — Kangaroo  Apple. — Greeting. — ^Distribution  of  Cloth- 
ing.— ^Native  Chief. — Fire. — Notions  of  Supernatural  Influence,  and  a  Future 
Existence. — ^Departure  from  Flinders  Island. — Intemperance. — Cutter  driven 
upon  the  Rocks. — Recklessness. — Dangerous  Situation. — Arrival  at  Kelvedon. 

Since  our  former  visit  to  Launceston^  considerable  im- 
provements have  been  made  in  the  place.  A  bridge  across 
the  North  Esk  is  in  a  considerable  state  of  advancement, 
and  a  Penitentiary  for  females  is  nearly  completed.  The 
latter  is  to  supersede  one  at  George  Town^  which  is  in  a 
ruinous  state^  and  to  which  the  transfer  of  the  prisoner- 
women,  in  boats,  is  highly  objectionable. 

The  Aborigines  now  residing  on  Flinders  Island  have  a 
small  flock  of  sheep,  that  were  given  them  by  a  benevolent 
individual  in  the  Colony.  These  are  fed  upon  Green  Island; 
isind  the  wool  which  they  have  produced,  was  committed  to 
my  charge,  to  dispose  of,  for  the  owners.  The  proceeds 
were  to  be  applied  in  the  purchase  of  hardware  and  cloth- 
ing; this  was  effected  accordingly^  and  some  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  Launceston^  liberally  added  to  the  stock  of  goods, 
in  a  variety  of  useful  articles  that  were  not  very  saleable  in  their 
shops^  and  of  partially  worn  garments,  so  that  on  returning 
to  Flinders  Island^  we  had  some  considerable  packages  of 
goods  for  the  Blacks. 

12th  mo.  15th.  We  had  two  meetings  in  the  Court- 
house, at  Launceston^  which  were  attended  by  a  consider- 
able number  of  people.  To  me,  they  were  seasons  of  labo- 
rious exercise,  under  a  sense  of  great  weakness  of  flesh  and 
of  spirit :  I  was  enabled,  however,  to  hold  up  the  standard  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1B3S.]  VAN    DIBMENS    LAND.  177 

the  Truth  as  it  is  in  Jesus^  and  to  show  that  the  salvation 
proposed  in  the  Gospel,  is  not  only  the  foi^veness  of  past 
sins,  through  faith  in  the  atoning  blood  of  Christ,  but  de- 
liyerance  from  the  power  of  Satan,  by  the  effectual  opera- 
tion of  the  Holy  Spirit ;  by  which  the  sincere  disciples  of 
a  crucified  Lord  are  created  in  him  unto  good  works,  in 
which  God  hath  ordained  that  we  should  walk*  I  had  also 
to  point  out  the  great  benefit  of  waiting  on  the  Lord  in 
silence,  with  the  attention  turned  to  the  teaching  of  the 
Spirit^  by  which  a  true  sense  is  given  of  the  state  of  the 
soul,  and  thus  a  right  preparation  is  received,  to  ask  in 
the  name  of  Jesus,  the  supply  of  our  spiritual  necessities. 
There  was  a  degree  of  solemnity  pervading  my  own  mind 
in  the  times  of  silence,  in  which  the  creature,  bowed  be- 
fore the  Lord,  felt  its  own  nothingness,  and  was  sensible 
that  God  was  all  in  all ;  in  which  there  was  not  only  the 
silence  of  all  flesh,  but  something  also  of  a  reverent  silence 
of  spirit. 

16th.  In  a  religious  interview  with  a  few  persons,  who 
have  manifested  an  attachment  to  the  principles  of  Friends, 
and  three  of  whom  have  occasionally  met  on  First-days,  for 
the  purpose  of  worshipping  God  xmitedly,  I  expressed  a  few 
words,  to  encourage  them  not  to  be  cast  down,  when  in  their 
silent  waiting,  they  might  be  sensible,  only  of  their  own  empti- 
ness, and  of  the  natural  depravity  of  their  own  hearts.  I  also 
pointed  out  the  importance  of  our  learning  these  things,  in 
order  that  we  may  be  himibled,  and  be  taught  not  to  trust  in 
ourselves,  but  in  the  Lord  alone.  After  this,  one  of  them, 
in  a  weighty  manner,  related  a  little  of  his  own  experience, 
both  in  his  early  life,  before  he  came  under  the  power  of 
reUgion,  and  of  his  comforts  and  conflicts  since  that  time. 
This  was  followed  by  similar  commimications  from  the 
rest.  One  of  them  mentioned,  that  the  first  recollection 
of  condemnation  which  he  had,  was  on  an  occasion  on 
which  his  father  had  given  him  three  half-pence,  in  mistake 
for  a  penny,  when  he  was  very  young :  he  kept  the  whole 
sum,  notwithstanding  powerful  convictions  that  he  was  doing 
wrong  in  not  returning  the  half-penny;  and,  from  that 
time,  he  added  sin  to  sin,  until  it  brought  him  under  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

178  OBORGK  TOWN.  [12th  mo. 

■entence  of  the  law.  He  also  noticed  his  awakening,  when  a 
prisoner;  losing  ground  by  unwatchfulness  on  his  passage 
out^  and  giving  way  to  the  gratification  of  pride  in  his  dress 
after  his  arrival  in  this  country,  by  which  he  had  been 
brought  under  great  condemnation ;  his  renewed  convictions 
and  conflicts ;  his  sense  of  pardon  through  tiie  atoning  blood 
of  Jesus,  and  his  comfort  imder  the  remembrance  of  the 
declaration,  that  nothing  should  be  able  to  separate  us  firom 
the  love  of  Ood.  He  has  adopted  the  plain  language,  ha- 
bits, and  manners  common  among  Friends,  and  appears  to 
maintain  a  deep  exercise  of  soul  before  the  Lord. 

21st.  We  embarked  again  on  board  the  Shamrock,  and 
drifted  a  few  miles  down  the  Tamar  with  the  tide.  The 
settiements  on  the  banks  of  the  river,  appear  much  im- 
proved within  the  last  fourteen  months,  and  present  an 
enlivening  interruption  to  the  continuous  forest. 

22nd.  A  favourable  breeze  brought  us  to  George  Town, 
early.  On  arriving,  we  made  arrangements  to  hold  a  meet- 
ing with  the  inhabitants,  at  five  o'clock  in  the  evening, 
and  occupied  the  forenoon  in  giving  notice  to  such  people 
as  were  not  at  their  place  of  worship,  which  is  very  thinly 
attended,  except  by  persons,  such  as  prisoners,  who  have 
no  option  in  regard  to  staying  away.  George  Town  is 
going  fast  to  decay ;  the  whole  population  now  amoimts  to 
only  a  small  number.  It  was,  however,  a  satisfaction  to 
have  this  meeting  with  them,  which  was  well  attended.  I 
had  been  impressed  with  a  belief  that  we  should  be  with 
them  to-day;  but  yesterday,  when  the  wind  was  contrary, 
and  we  made  little  progress,  I  was  ready  to  think  this  im- 
pression was  only  from  the  activity  of  my  own  imagination. 

Contrary  winds  delayed  the  Shamrock  a  few  days  at  George 
Town. — ^We  had  now  added  to  our  company  James  Allen,  from 
Tyrone,  in  Ireland,  who  was  on  his  way  to  Flinders  Island, 
to  succeed  A.  Mc.  Lachlan  in  the  office  of  Surgeon  to  the 
Establishment  for  the  Aborigines.  We  found  this  young 
man  a  pleasant  companion  in  our  rambles  in  the  neighbour- 
hood.— We  visited  tiie  light-house,  on  the  eastern  head  of 
the  Tamar ;  near  to  which  there  is  a  lagoon  of  nearly  fresh 
water,  just  within  the  shore,  a  circumstance  common  on 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1833«]  VAN    DIEMBN8    LAND.  l79 

low  parts  of  these  coasts. — In  this  direction  Ccrrma  9pecio$a 
is  foimd^  which  though  abundant  in  some  parts  of  N.  8. 
Wales^  is  scarcely  known  in  V.  D.  Land.  Cornea  alba, 
the  Cape  Barren  tea,  becomes  a  large  bush,  and  covers  the 
sand  hOls  of  the  western  head  of  the  Tamar.  Shrubs  of 
this  genus,  as  well  as  of  some  others  in  this  country,  shed 
their  seeds  while  the  seed-vessels  remain  green,  the  seeds  are 
consequently,  difficult  to  collect. — ^We  also  visited  the  re- 
mains of  York  Town,  which  was  one  of  the  first  settle- 
ments in  this  island.  The  country  around  it  looked  tempt- 
ingly green,  but  this  greenness  proved  to  be  rigid  herbage, 
unfit  for  cattle,  consisting  chiefly  of  a  stemless  XatUhorrhaa, 
or  Grass-tree;  and  the  place  was  consequently  abandoned, 
except  one  or  two  cottages,  to  which  labour  has  added 
productive  gardens,  well  stocked  with  apple,  pear,  and 
chorry  trees,  gooseberries  and  vegetables.  The  cherries 
and  gooseberries  were  now  ripe,  the  former  sold  at  Is.  per 
pound,  and  the  latter  at  Is.  6d.  per  quart. — ^Near  this 
place,  a  beautiful  Bauera,  with  pink  blossoms,  as  large  as  a 
shilling,  was  in  flower. — ^The  hills  in  this  neighbourhood 
are  very  arid,  but  covered  with  wood;  they  abound  in 
iron  ore,  and  asbestos,  which  last  is  here  called  '^Cotton 
Stone.^^  Some  of  the  pools  near  George  Town  produce  a 
small  speckled  fish,  which  is  named  Trout,  but  is  far  infe- 
rior to  the  Trout  of  Europe ;  yet  it  is  a  pleasant  fish  for  the 
table.  Many  European  names  have  been  given  to  things 
here,  at  the  antipodes  of  Europe,  which  have  very  little 
resemblance  to  the  originals. 

On  the  27th,  we  put  to  sea,  but  made  little  progress. 
At  night  we  were  off  the  seal  rock,  called  Barren  Joey,  or 
Eleventh  Island ;  and,  on  the  night  of  the  28th,  off  Twenty- 
day  Island.  A  westerly  breeze  sprung  up  before  sunset. 
My  mind  had  been  imder  great  exercise  for  the  last  two 
days,  from  a  strong  sense  of  temptation,  and  of  the  danger 
of  falling  away.  The  mercy  of  God  in  Christ  Jesus  was 
the  ground  of  my  hope,  and  my  prayer  was  that  he  might 
cut  the  thread  of  my  life  rather  than  permit  me  to  bring 
dishonour  upon  his  holy  cause.  Still  I  felt  an  appalling 
sense  of  my  own  weakness  and  danger,  and  of  the  necessity 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

180  WYBALBNNA.  [1833. 

to  watch  and  pray^  lest  I  shoxdd  enter  into  temptation. 
My  trust  was  in  the  Lord  for  strength,  and  my  desire  that 
his  strength  might  be  made  perfect  in  my  weakness,  and 
that  he  alone  might  have  the  glory.  So  far  as  I  coxdd  dis- 
cover I  was  in  my  right  place,  and  the  Lord  was  pleased, 
in  great  mercy,  to  confirm  this  feeling,  by  some  precious 
and  clearly  perceptible  intimations  of  his  Spirit. 

29th.  We  were  favoured  again  to  come  safely  to  anchor, 
under  Green  Island,  after  a  gale  in  the  night,  in  which  the 
cutter  was  driven  through  a  channel  between  two  Islands, 
the  depth  of  which  was  imknown  to  those  on  board ;  but 
the  mate,  by  keeping  a  good  look  out  from  the  mast  head, 
was  enabled  to  direct  the  course  of  the  vessel,  so  as  to  avoid 
the  shallows. 

30th.  The  wind  having  moderated,  we  were  again  put 
on  shore  on  Flinders  Island. — ^While  waiting  at  a  creek,  for 
the  ebbing  of  the  tide,  we  cooked  some  Mutton-birds  for 
dinner,  and  having  no  salt,  dipped  the  morsels  in  salt  water 
as  we  eat  them,  which  made  them  palatable.  The  fr^sh 
water  at  the  Lagoons,  to  the  south  of  which  we  landed, 
being  dried  up,  we  could  obtain  no  drink  till  evening,  but 
we  got  a  few  Kangaroo-apples,  which  resemble  potato-apples 
in  form,  but  are  slightly  acid,  and  rather  mealy  though  not  dry. 
We  reached  Wybalenna  soon  after  sunset  On  approaching 
this  place,  we  were  discovered  by  some  women  who  were 
cutting  wood :  they  now  recognized  us  as  old  acquaintance, 
and  gave  us  a  clamorous  greeting,  which  brought  all  the 
people  and  dogs  out  of  their  huts,  with  such  a  noise  as, 
had  we  not  known  that  it  was  the  expression  of  friendship 
on  the  part  of  the  people,  would  have  been  truly  appalling. 

1st  mo.  3rd,  1834.  The  weather  having  become  moderate, 
the  Shamrock  came  to  the  settlement  and  dischaiged  her 
cargo ;  and  we  had  the  pleasure  of  distributing  among  the 
Aborigines  the  various  articles  purchased  with  their  wool, 
and  contributed  by  their  friends  at  Launceston.  The  dress- 
ing of  many  of  them  in  clothes,  such  as  they  had  not  been 
accustomed  to  wear,  was  not  a  little  amusing,  but  all  were 
made  to  fit.  One  of  their  chiefs  took  a  great  fancy  to  a 
japanned  comb,  such  as  he  saw  a  woman  use,  that  had  been 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  FLINDERS    ISLAND.  181 

among  the  sealers ;  but  when  he  obtained  one^  he  was  much 
disappointed  to  find  that  he  could  not  get  it  through  his 
tangled  hair^  which  had  among  it,  knots  of  dried  ochre  and 
grease^  notwithstanding  he  had  ceased  for  sometime  to  use 
these  articles,  and  had  tried  to  wash  them  out.  In  this  dilem- 
ma he  applied  to  me ;  and  being  desirous  to  please  him^  I  did 
my  best,  but  was  obliged  to  hold  the  hair  back  with  one  hand^ 
and  pull  with  the  comb  with  the  other.  From  this  he  did 
not  shrink,  but  encouraged  me  in  my  work,  saying  frequently, 
'*  Narra  coopa*' — very  good.  And  when  the  work  was  ac- 
complished, he  looked  at  himself  in  a  glass,  with  no  small 
degree  of  pleasure.  He  was  a  man  of  an  intelligent  mind, 
who  made  rapid  advances  in  civilization,  and  was  very  help- 
ful in  the  preservation  of  good  order  at  the  Settlement. 
In  former  days,  when  the  Aborigines  committed  depre- 
dations upon  the  settlers,  he  lost  one  hand  by  a  steel  trap 
that  was  concealed  in  a  cask  of  flour,  in  a  cottage,  near 
Ldttle  Swan  Port. 

5th.  In  the  forenoon,  we  had  another  religious  interview 
with  the  people  of  the  establishment,  in  their  chapel  of 
boughs.  In  the  afternoon,  we  were  occupied  in  assisting 
to  extinguish  a  fire,  that  threatened  the  destruction  of  the 
Settlement,  and  which  had  caught  the  long  grass  on  the 
adjacent  hill.  This  fire  burnt  furiously  before  a  strong  wind, 
but  was  brought  under,  by  beating  it  out  with  green,  gum- 
tree  boughs.  In  this  work  the  Aborigines  joined  and  shewed 
great  dexterity. — ^These  people  have  received  a  few  faint 
ideas  of  the  existence  and  superintending  providence  of 
God;  but  they  still  attribute  the  strong  emotions  of  their 
minds  to  the  devil,  who,  they  say,  tells  them  this  or  that, 
and  to  whom  they  attribute  the  power  of  prophetic  commu- 
nication. It  is  not  clear  that  by  the  devil,  they  mean, 
anything  more  than  a  spirit ;  but  they  say,  he  lives  in  their 
breasts,  on  which  account  they  shrink  from  having  the  breast 
touched.  One  of  their  names  for  a  white  man  signifies^  a 
white  devil,  or  spirit;  this  has  probably  arisen  from  their 
mistaking  white  men  at  first  for  spiritual  beings.  They  have 
also  some  vague  ideas  of  a  future  existence,  as  may  be 
inferred  from  their  remarks  respecting  the  deceased  woman 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

182  OREBN    ISLAND.  [ist  mO. 

on  the  Hunter  Islands^  before  noticed.  They  also  say  they 
suppose  that  when  they  die^  they  shall  go  to  some  of  the 
islands  in  the  Straits^  and  jump  up  white  men ;  but  the  latter 
notion  may  be  of  modem  date. 

6th.  Having  accomplished  the  object  of  our  visit,  so  far 
as  to  effect  a  reconciliation  between  the  parties^  who  were 
at  variance^  which  did  not,  however,  prevent  the  ultimate 
removal  of  the  worthy  Catechist,  we  again  embarked  on 
board  the  Shamrock.  A  large  party  of  the  Blacks  accom- 
panied us  to  the  shore,  and  we  took  leave  of  them  under 
feelings  of  much  interest,  excited  by  their  kind,  affectionate 
and  cheerful  dispositions,  and  by  the  circumstances  under 
which  they  have  left  their  native  land  for  the  convenience 
of  strangers. 

7th.  We  beat  up  to  Green  Island,  through  a  narrow  and 
shallow  channel,  among  some  small  islands.  Some  of  the 
men  had  got  liquor  clandestinely,  and  were  excited  by  it. 
The  mate  became  exasperated,  and  set  them  to  some 
additional  but  unnecessary  work,  as  a  punishment.  At  this 
juncture,  a  current  rendered  the  cutter  unmanageable,  and 
it  drifted  rapidly  toward  the  rocks  under  Chapel  Island. 
At  length,  an  effort  to  put  about,  proved  successful,  and  we 
again  came  to  anchor  under  Green  Island. 

8th.  The  wind  blew  from  the  east,  and  increased  into 
a  gale,  which  soon  raised  a  heavy  sea.  Our  anchors  dragged^ 
and  the  cutter  went  on  shore :  she  beat  upon  the  sand  from 
nine  o^clock  in  the  evening  till  two,  in  the  morning,  and 
then  settled. 

9th.  The  morning's  tide  again  floated  the  Shamrock,  but 
the  storm  continuing,  she  drove  upon  a  bank  of  soft,  cal- 
careous rock,  upon  which  she  settled  within  a  few  yards 
of  a  place  where  this  rock  joins  the  granite.  The  rud- 
der was  hawled  up  to  save  it  from  injury,  and  the  ebb  of 
the  tide  left  the  vessel  dry  and  uninjured,  standing  with 
her  coppered  keel  imbedded  in  the  soft  rock.  In  the 
evening  the  wind  shifted,  and  a  heavy  rain  stilled  the 
sea  so  quickly,  that  the  effect  was  almost  like  awaking  from 
dreaming  of  a  storm  and  finding  a  calm.  The  same  rain 
also   extinguished  the   fire  at   the  settlement  on  Flinders 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  bass's  straits.  183 

Island^  which  by  the  columns  of  smoke,  we  could  discover 
had  been  rekindled. — ^After  the  rock  had  been  cut  away  by 
means  of  felling  axes,  so  as  to  allow  the  rudder  to  be 
restored  to  its  place,  a  kedge  anchor,  with  a  warp,  or  slender 
hempen  cable  was  carried  out  by  a  boat,  and  fixed  in  a  con- 
venient place ;  and  as  soon  as  the  rising  tide  began  again 
to  float  tlie  vessel,  the  warp  was  plied,  and  we  were  favoured 
by  eleven  in  the  evening,  to  be  again  riding  at  anchor  in 
deep  and  still  water. 

The  time  the  vessel  lay  upon  the  rocks,  was  to  me,  one  of 

deep  humiliation  before  the  Lord,  who  condescended  to 

be  very  merciful  to  us.     On  the  first  night,  being  exhausted 

and  weary,  and  not  seeing  any  immediate  danger,  I  retired 

to  my  berth,  under  the  impression,  that  if  anything  were 

to  be  done,  I  should  be  more  equal  to  it  after  some  rest; 

and  though  I  was  sometimes  awaked  by  a  heavy  shock  of 

the  vessel  on  the  sand,  I  could  thankfully  adopt  the  language 

of  the  Psalmist:    '^I  laid  me  down  and  slept:    I  awaked 

for  the  Lord   sustained  me.''     During  the  following  day, 

we  could  pitch  a  stone  from  the  deck  upon  the  granite 

rocks ;   the  vessel  was  sure  to  break  up,  if  she  went  upon 

them,  and  the  change  of  wind  was  in  the  direction  to  set 

her  that  way,  unless    advantage  could   be  taken  by  the 

warp  of  every  inch  she  floated.     Under  these  circumstances, 

it  appeared  a  serious  thing,  when  we  were  safe  on  land, 

again  to   climb  up  the  side  of  the  cutter,   and  await  the 

rising  of  the  tide;    but  feeling  peaceful  before  the   Lord, 

on  looking  this  way,  and  not  equally  so  on  looking  the  other, 

I  followed  tiie  direction  of  my  own  feelings,  without  making 

any  remark,  even  to  my  companion.    All  the  rest  of  the 

company  returned  on  board,  which  proved  to  be  for  the 

best,  as  we  were  thus  able  to  help  in  pulling  at  the  warp, 

and  were  on  board  at  a  time  when  hands  could  have  been  ill 

spared  to  bring  us  from  the  shore. — ^It  was,  however,  awfiil, 

in  this  season  of  suspense,  to  hear  the  seamen  with  reckless 

thoughtlessness,  swearing  more  than  usual.    My  companion 

watched  an  opportunity  to  remonstrate  against  this  insult  to 

the  Majesty  of  Heaven ;  and  his  rebuke  was  well  received, 

as  from  a  well-intentioned  man,  but  without  any  appearance 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

184  OTSTBR   BAT.  [Ist.mO. 

of  humiliation  before  God.  Circumstances  like  these  often 
prove  who  are  on  the  Lord's  side  and  who  are  not :  they 
are  strong  trials  both  of  principle^  and  of  faith. 

10th.  When  off  the  Peaks  of  Cape  Barren^  and  going  about 
eight  knots  an  hour^  with  the  wind  from  the  west^  it  changed 
for  a  few  minutes^  and  blew  so  suddenly  from  the  norths 
that  it  caught  the  cutter  on  her  broad  side^  and  bore  her  so 
much  down,  that  it  was  necessary  to  let  the  squar&-sail  fly, 
and  drop  the  peak  of  the  main  sail,  to  allow  her  to  right 
again.  The  lurch  was  so  sudden  as  to  occasion  me  to  fall 
upon  the  top  of  the  cabin,  which  was  raised  and  had  a  gang- 
way round  it,  and  I  was  obliged  to  hold  on  with  my  face 
downward  towards  the  sea,  till  the  vessel  righted  again ;  for 
she  was  too  far  gone  to  allow  me  to  recover  myself,  until 
her  own  side  rose  out  of  the  water. 

11th,  Off  the  coast  of  V.  D.  Land.  The  wind  was 
adverse,  and  the  swell  such  as  to  occasion  great  sickness. 

12th.  A  gentle  and  favourable  breeze  brought  us  through 
Schoutens  Passage  about  noon ;  it  then  increased  so  as  to 
bear  us  much  down  on  one  side,  and  to  impel  us  rapidly 
across  Oyster  Bay,  to  Kelvedon,  where  our  dear  friends, 
Francis  Cotton  and  his  family,  awaited  our  arrival  on  the 
beach.  We  gladly  took  leave  of  the  Shamrock  and  were 
conveyed  through  the  surf  by  the  intrepid  mate,  who  was 
soon  after  lost,  by  the  upsetting  of  a  small  vessel  in  a  gale 
of  wind.  In  the  haste,  of  our  departure,  the  plug-hole 
of  the  boat  was  left  open,  and  the  state  of  the  sea  admitted 
of  no  delay,  to  remedy  this  inconvenience,  I  therefore 
stopped  the  hole  with  my  thiunb,  and  we  were  favoured 
to  reach  the  land  in  safety,  the  men  jumping  out  of  the 
boat,  and  running  it  quickly  through  the  surf. — ^Thus, 
through  the  mercy  of  our  Heavenly  Father,  was  this 
tedious  voyage  terminated,  under  feelings  of  thankfulness, 
in  the  remembrance  of  o\xr  many  deliverances,  and  with  the 
desire,  that  if  any  good  had  been  effected,  the  Lord  might 
have  all  the  glory,  for  to  him  alone  all  glory  belongeth. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Kelvedon. — ^Meetingt. — Soldier  Injured. — Papal  Penance.—- Animalfl  Poisoned.-— 
Instinct. — ^Use  of  Spirits  in  Whaling,  &c. — ^Toad-fish. — The  Saddle. — ^Eastern 
Marshes. — ^Dead  Trees. — ^Fann. — Settler  and  his  Flock. — Sheep  Lands. — 
Opossums. — Meetings  at  Oatlands  and  Jericho. — Sheep  and  Wool. — ^Native 
'Cat. — ^Dairy  Farm. — ^Yale  of  the  Jordan. — ^Platypus. — ^Black  Brush. — ^The 
Carlton. — ^Visitors. — Inns. — Temperance  Beformation. — Richmond. — Jemsa- 
lem. — ^Drought. — Parrots. — Green  Ponds. — Settlers. — ^Invalid  Boad  Party. — 
ICiU. — ^New  Norfolk. — ^Meetings. — Forlorn  Prisoner. — Pions  Settler. — ^Prison- 
ers at  Bridgewater. — ^Return  to  Hobart  Town. — Indisposition. 

Wb  remained  a  few  weeks  with  our  friends  at  Kelvedon. 
In  the  course  of  this  time^  my  strength^  which  had  been 
much  reduced  by  the  previous  exertion^  excitement,  and 
sea^sickness^  was  considerably  restored. — In  this  neigh- 
bourhood we  had  several  religious  meetings^  in  some  of 
which  we  were  comforted  by  the  exhortations  of  Dn  Story, 
who  had  yielded  to  the  convictions  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and 
had  seen  it  his  place  to  adopt  and  advocate  the  principles  of 

YiThile  we  were  in  Gh'eat  Swan  Port,  a  soldier  at  Waterloo 
Point  received  a  serious  injury,  by  swimming  upon  a  log  of 
wood,  which  is  an  accident  that  may  easily  occur  in  this  coun- 
try, where  most  of  the  timber  is  so  heavy  as  to  sink  in  water. 
When  accompanying  Dr.  Story,  in  a  visit  to  this  man,  I  saw 
an  Irish  soldier  doing  penance,  by  kneeling  with  his  bare 
knees  on  some  rough  gravel.  It  is  lamentable  to  behold 
practices  so  repugnant  to  the  spirit  of  the  Oospel,  imposed 
by  any  church  upon  those  convinced  of  sin,  and  by  which 
their  attention  is  diverted  from  that  ^'repentance  toward 
God,  and  faith  toward  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,'^  which  the 
Apostie  preached  as  the  way  of  salvation. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

186  SWAN  PORT.  [2nd  mo. 

At  Kelvedon^  my  attention  was  called  to  the  circum- 
stance^ of  the  flesh  of  cattle  that  had  died  in  the  bush^ 
having  become  poisonous.  Several  pigs^  geese^  and  fowls 
died^  from  having  eaten  of  the  flesh  of  a  dead  bullock^  or 
pecked  about  the  carcase.  A  person  in  this  neighbourhood 
had  boiled  some  of  the  flesh  of  a  cow^  found  dead  in  the 
bush^  and  had  given  it  to  his  dogs  and  pigs^  which  were 
made  so  sick  that  he  thought  they  also  would  have  died.  It 
is  possible  that  these  cattle  might  have  died  from  the  bite  of 
serpents^  and  that  the  poison  might  have  become  propagated 
in  their  carcases ;  but  from  whatever  cause  they  may  become 
poisonous^  the  instinct  of  wild  animals  protects  them  from 
suffering  by  it ;  for  the  carcases  of  such  cattle  often  remain 
imtouched  either  by  birds  or  beasts  of  prey. 

2nd  mo.  I7th.  Accompanied  by  Francis  Cotton,  we  set 
out  to  visit  the  central  part  of  the  Island,  on  oiir  way  back 
to  Hobart  Town,  and  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the  Little 
Swan  Port  River.  Here  a  person  was  making  an  attempt  to 
dry  fish  for  distant  markets.  This  we  were  satisfied  could 
not  succeed,  because  of  the  quantity  of  rum  allowed'  to  the 
men  employed,  and  it  was  soon  given  up.  The  use  of 
spirituous  liquors,  is  equally  injurious  in  whale-fishing,  not- 
withstanding much  is  sometimes  said  in  its  favour.  I  once 
asked  a  seaman,  a  native  of  Sydney,  who  had  been  brought 
up  in  this  occupation,  what  was  his  opinion  on  the  subject : 
he  replied,  ^^  I  will  tell  you,  sir,  how  Y^e  used  to  do  when  we 
went  to  catch  sperm-whales.  We  always  left  Sydney  with 
a  good  stock  of  spirits  on  board ;  and  as  soon  as  we  got  clear 
of  the  Heads  of  Port  Jackson,  we  fell  to  work,  the  captain 
and  all  hands,  to  drink :  we  kept  it  up  till  the  grog  was 
done,  and  then  we  were  ill  two  or  three  weeks,  after  which 
we  began  to  catch  whales  1  Once,  we  came  upon  a  shoal  of 
sperm-whales,  when  we  were  all  so  drunk  that  we  could 
hardly  see,  and  we  manned  the  boats  and  ran  upon  them  in 
such  a  way,  that  it  was  a  wonder  we  were  not  all  lost.  Now, 
sir,  you  may  form  your  own  judgment  of  the  use  of  spirits 
in  whaling.^' 

18th.  We  crossed  the  Little  Swan  Port  River,  in  which 
were  a  considerable  number  of  poisonous,  smooth-skinned 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  187 

fish^  the  Toad-fish  of  this  country.  Three  persons  in  a  family 
near  Hobart  Town^  in  1831^  lost  their  lives,  by  eating  fish  of 
this  kind. — ^The  evening  was  spent  with  a  settler,  who  has 
exercised  a  considerable  degree  of  moral  and  religious  care 
over  his  assigned  servants,  with  very  satisfactory  results. 

19th.  Taking  a  westerly  course,  we  travelled  through 
several  miles  of  trackless  forest,  and  over  some  lofty  hills. 
In  one  place,  a  deep,  woody  ravine  is  crossed  by  a  remarkable 
natural  causeway;  which,  being  a  little  depressed  in  the 
middle,  is  called  The  Saddle :  its  breadth  is  scarcely  more 
than  would  admit  a  good  road,  and  its  sides  are  almost 
perpendicular.  It  is  the  only  known  pass  out  of  the  central 
part  of  Oyster  Bay.  Beyond  the  Saddle,  the  land  joins  the 
side  of  a  remarkable  peak,  called  The  Sugar  Loaf,  the  further 
side  of  which  descends  steeply  to  the  Eastern  Marshes. 
The  southern  entrance  to  Oyster  Bay  is  equally  impassable 
for  carriages,  and  the  northern  one  is  exceedingly  rugged, 
but  carts  are  dragged  over  it.  The  district  is  only  accessible 
for  goods,  by  sea.  On  the  Eastern  Marshes,  nearly  all  the 
Gum-trees  are  dead.  We  were  hospitably  entertained  by  a 
settler,  who  was  disposing  of  his  cattle,  and  endeavouring  to 
let  his  farm,  of  2,000  acres,  400  of  which  are  enclosed,  and 
50  in  cultivation,  for  £150  a-year.  There  are  upon  it  a 
plain,  stone  house,  and  a  few  out-buildings.  Kangaroos  are 
numerous  in  this  part  of  the  country. 

20th.  The  country  toward  Oatlands,  where  we  arrived  in 
the  evening,  is  of  hills,  of  small  elevation,  thinly  wooded 
with  Black  and  Weeping  Gum-trees,  and  interspersed  with 
level  grounds,  marshy  in  winter,  but  very  dry  in  summer. — 
We  called  upon  a  respectable  settler,  who,  in  consequence 
of  the  dishonesty  of  his  assigned  servants,  had  been  induced 
to  act  as  his  own  shepherd.  Though  this  is  a  great  incon* 
venience  to  a  person  having  all  his  other  affidrs  to  superin- 
tend, yet  it  has  preserved  his  flocks  from  depredations,  such 
as  have  greatly  reduced  many  others. — Prom  Oatlands  we 
proceeded  to  Ansty  Barton,  the  hospitable  mansion  of 
Thomas  and  Mary  Ansty,  from  whom,  on  a  former  visit, 
as  well  as  at  the  present  time,  we  received  great  kindness. 

The  domain  of  Thomas  Ansty,  consists  of  upwards  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

188  AN8TY   BARTON.  [Ist  mO. 

20^000  acres^  much  of  which  is  of  thinly  wooded^  grassy 
hills,  adapted  for  sheep;  but  in  the  dry  climate  of  this 
part  of  v.  D.  Land^  it  will  not,  on  an  average,  maintain  one 
sheep  to  two  acres  during  the  year. — Opossums  are  exceed- 
ingly numerous  in  this  neighbourhood :  they  are  to  be  seen 
in  almost  every  gum-tree,  by  moonlight. 

We  remained  at  Ansty  Barton  till  the  25th,  and  in  the 
mean  time,  held  religious  meetings,  and  meetings  for  the 
promotion  of  temperance,  at  Oatlands  and  Jericho.  At 
the  latter  place,  William  Pike,  the  Episcopal  Chaplain,  and 
his  family,  were  kindly  helpful  to  us.  From  their  house, 
Francis  Cotton  returned  to  Swanport. 

26th.  We  proceeded  over  some  fine  sheep-hills,  to  the 
house  of  John  Bisdee,  a  prosperous  settler,  located  in  a 
pleasant  vale,  surrounded  by  fine,  thinly-wooded  sheep-hills : 
his  estate  which  has  the  benefit  of  a  few  springs  that  supply 
water  during  this  dry  season,  includes  5,000  acres,  that,  on 
an  average,  wiU  maintain  about  two  sheep  to  three  acres :  it 
extends  to  the  Black  Marsh,  upon  the  Jordan,  which  is 
now  a  chain  of  large,  deep  poob.  The  Common  Pheasant 
has  been  introduced  upon  this  estate ;  and  in  order  to  pre- 
serve it,  his  men  have  been  encouraged  to  destroy  the  Native 
Cats,  by  receiving  eight-pence  for  each  of  their  skins.  These 
animals  are  so  numerous,  that  at  one  time  the  people 
brought  in  six  hundred  skins. 

3rd  mo.  2nd.  In  the  course  of  the  last  three  days,  we 
visited  the  settlers  at  the  Lovely  Banks,  the  Cross  Marsh, 
the  Hunting  Ground,  and  Green  Ponds,  and  held  some 
meetings  among  them.  At  Green  Ponds  we  called  upon  a 
respectable  family,  in  which  an  aged  woman,  who  had  been 
remarkable  for  steady  piety  was  declining  imder  paralytic 
disease.  On  being  enquired  of,  as  to  how  she  was,  she  re- 
plied, ^'Very  happy  in  body  and  mind.^'  How  encourag- 
ing is  the  calm  sunshine  of  the  close  of  the  day,  in  such 
persons ! 

3rd.  Accompanied  by  George  Gorringe,  a  medical  man, 
filling  also  the  office  of  Catechist,  we  proceeded  to  the 
Broad  Marsh,  and  had  a  meeting  with  the  neighbouring  fami- 
lies, at  the  house  of  Peter  Murdoch.     This  person  has  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  189 

finest  dairy-jform^  in  V.  D.  Land.  It  is  situated  on  a  fertile 
levels  on  the  Jordan^  and  is  advantageously  stocked  with 
Aldemey  cows. 

4th.  We  proceeded  along  the  course  of  the  Jordan^  to 
the  Black  Brushy  passing  the  houses  and  enclosures  of  se- 
veral settlers.  The  vale  of  the  Jordan,  with  its  boundary 
of  hiUs,  reminded  me  of  Bilsdale,  in  Yorkshire;  but  the 
climate  is  much  milder  than  that  of  England,  though  liable 
to  occasional  summer  frosts.  Platypuses  are  not  uncommon 
in  the  pools  of  the  Jordan,  in  which,  as  well  as  in  the  other 
rivers  of  Tasmania,  and  on  the  seancoast.  Black  Shaggs  are 
often  seen  fishing. 

At  the  Black  Brush  several  young  men,  who  emigrated 
from  Birmingham,  have  opened  a  store,  which  has  paid 
them  well.  They  erected  a  house,  in  which  they  are  re- 
siding, though  it  has  yet  only  shutters  to  close  the  places 
intended  for  windows.  In  the  evening,  we  collected  the 
establishment,  and  some  of  their  neighbours,  and  had  a 
religious  opportunity  with  them.  An  adjacent  settler,  who 
appeared  to  be  a  very  decent  man,  was  one  of  the  congre- 
gation. He  was  formerly  a  prisoner,  having  been  trans- 
ported for  seven  years,  for  a  very  trifling  offence. 

5th.  We  passed  roimd  the  end  of  a  lofty  tier  of  hQls, 
into  the  vale  of  Bagdad,  and  went  by  the  Tear-tree  Brush,  to 
Richmond*  On  the  6th  we  continued  our  joiuney  to  Sorell 
Town  or  Pitt  Water,  and  on  the  7^^  proceeded  to  the 
Carlton,  a  small  settlement  on  a  creek  opening  into  Frede- 
rick Henry  Bay.  Here  the  Government  has  placed  a  school- 
master, a  native  of  Scarborough,  who  has  been  most  of  his 
life  a  seafaring  man,  and  who  seems  to  be  a  man  of  much 
simple,  religious  feeling:  he  reads  the  prayers,  &c.  of  the 
Episcopal  Church  every  First  day;  but  this  sort  of  me- 
chanical religious  service  does  not  seem  to  be  very  attractive 
to  the  people,  either  here  or  in  other  places.  The  old  man 
was  much  pleased  with  our  visit.  We  had  a  meeting  with 
some  of  his  neighbours  and  scholars ;  at  the  close  of  which, 
in  the  true  spirit  of  a  village  school-master,  he  requested 
his  pupils  to  repeat  the  Evening  Hymn,  and  then  pro- 
nounced the  "Apostolic  benediction.*'     He  appears  to  try 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

190  THE  CARLTON.  [2nd  mo. 

to  impress  upon  their  minds  the  spiritual  signification  of  the 
hymns  which  he  teaches  them. 

The  wife  of  a  settler  in  this  neighbourhood^  to  whom  we 
made  some  remarks  on  the  loneliness  of  their  situation^  said^ 
that  as  there  was  no  inn  nearer  than  Sorell  Town^  they  were 
seldom  many  days  without  visiters ;  and  that,  at  one  period, 
they  were  not  more  than  three  days  at  a  time,  for  six  months, 
without  some  person,  who  was  travelling  to  look  for  land 
to  settle  upon,  or  under  some  other  pretext  claiming  their 
hospitality.  This  is  a  common  circumstance  in  aU  parts 
of  the  Colony. — Having  become  accustomed  to  travelling  in 
the  bush,  and  the  evening  being  starlight,  we  made  our  way 
back  to  Sorell  Town,  though  not  without  some  difficulty* 

8th.  Arriving  late  last  night,  we  went  to  an  inn,  kept 
by  a  person  named  Leigh,  which  we  found  remarkably  clean 
and  comfortable.  Inns  in  this  country  are  often  rendered 
very  uncomfortable  by  vermin*  Part  oi  the  day  was  spent 
with  our  fellow-passenger  from  England,  Frances  Halls,  at 
whose  house  a  neighbouring  settler  called,  who  informed 
us,  that  when  the  views  of  the  Temperance  Society  were 
first  promulgated  in  this  colony,  he  thought  them  foolish ; 
but  that  he  was  now  convinced  of  their  soundness,  and  was 
astonished  at  their  influence  in  discountenancing  spirit 

11th.  On  the  9th  and  10th  we  had  religious  meetings 
with  the  inhabitants  of  Sorell  Town  and  Richmond,  and 
with  about  one  hundred  prisoners  employed  in  the  public 
works.  Richmond  is  nearly  doubled  in  size  since  we  visited 
it  a  few  months  ago.-*-Accompanied  by  our  kind  friend  J. 
H.  Butcher,  we  again  visited  some  of  the  settlers  on  the 
Coal  River,  and  were  hospitably  entertained  by  one,  who 
having  capital,  and  paying  attention  to  the  improvement  t)f 
his  estate,  has  been  remarkably  prosperous. 

12th.  We  proceeded  to  Jerusalem,  ten  miles  further  up 
the  Coal  River.  Where  we  held  a  meeting  with  some  free 
people,  and  a  number  of  prisoners  in  the  public  works,  who 
are  at  present  employed  in  building  a  gaol.  Drought  has 
continued  so  long  that  most  of  the  miUs  in  the  Island,  are 
unable  to  grind.    The  family  with  whom  we  lodged  were 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  191 

nearly  out  of  bread,  and  had  so  little  prospect  of  soon  being 
able  to  renew  their  stock,  that  it  was  trying  to  us  to  think 
of  partaking  with  them,  notwithstanding  they  entertained 
us  cheerfully. — Green  Parrots  are  very,  numerous  in  this 
neighbourhood,  a  flock  of  about  a  hundred,  flew  up  from 
a  stubble,  as  we  passed. 

13th.  Taking  a  westerly  direction,  firom  the  upper  part 
of  Jerusalem,  we  passed  over  some  lofty  tiers  of  hills, 
to  Green  Ponds.  Part  of  the  way  was  very  steep;  the 
whole  of  it  a  trackless  forest.  Some  of  the  thick  scrub 
Among  these  hills  had  lately  been  burnt.  The  groimd  in 
these  places  was  covered  with  ashes  and  black  sticks,  that 
made  travelling  unpleasant.  We  crossed  several  deep  gullies 
in  our  descent,  and  in  five  hours  and  a  half  from  leaving 
Jerusalem,  emerged  from  among  the  hills,  close  to  the  house 
of  an  elderly  man,  whom  we  much  wished  to  see,  and  by 
whom  we  were  courteously  received.  This  person  was 
formerly  a  prisoner,  and  came  out  with  Governor  Collins. 
Being  industrious,  and  of  more  sober  habits  than  many  of 
his  cotemporaries,  he  has  prospered  greatly  since  he  became 
firee :  he  is  now  possessed  of  five  thousand  acres  of  land, 
capable  of  maintaining  two  thousand  sheep,  and  some  homed 
cattle.  He  has  taught  himself  to  read  and  write,  and  his 
Bible  has  the  appearance  of  being  well  read.  His  wife, 
who  was  also  formerly  a  prisoner,  prepared  tea  for  us,  and 
waited  on  us  very  kindly.  They  both  seemed  grateful  for 
our  visit;  and  for  the  religious  instruction  conveyed  to 
their  fiamily. 

17th.  In  the  course  of  the  last  three  days,  we  had  meet- 
ings at  Green  Ponds,  Constitution  Hill,  and  Brighton;  at 
the  last  two  of  which,  a  large  nxunber  of  prisoners  were 
present  We  became  the  guests  of  a  settler,  who  had  a 
value  for  religion,  but  like  many  others,  enjoyed  but  lit- 
tle of  clearness  or  comfort  in  it,  for  want  of  submitting 
to  the  baptisms  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  by  which  the  true 
disciples  of  Christ  are  crucified  to  the  world  and  the  world 
to  them,  and  know  that  they  abide  in  him,  by  the  Spirit 
which  he  hath  given  them. — ^To-day,  we  had  a  religious  inter- 
view with  a  road-party  of  the  halt  and  maimed.    Though 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

192  NEW  NORFOLK.  [2nd  mo. 

many  of  them  were  grown  old  in  sin^  there  was  a  remarkable 
sense  of  divine  influence  over  our  minds  whilst  assembled 
with  them^  and  we  had  no  doubt  but  it  was^  to  some  of 
them,  a  time  of  renewed,  merciful  visitation. — ^We  afterwards 
went  along  the  north  bank  of  the  Derwent,  to  New  Norfolk, 
and  coming  opposite  to  the  mill  of  John  Terry,  a  boat  was 
sent  across  for  us,  and  we  spent  the  evening  under  his 
hospitable  roof.  This  mill  is  now  working  night  and  day; 
notwithstanding  most  of  the  miUs  to  the  northward  and 
westward  are  stopped  for  want  of  water.  Many  families 
have  to  send  their  com  more  than  fifty  miles  to  grind. 
J.  Terry's  mill  is  turned  by  a  streamlet  from  the  mountains, 
called  the  Thames,  a  tributary  of  the  Derwent.  The  fall 
accommodates  three  water-wheels,  one  above  another. 

19th.  We  had  a  meeting  in  the  hospital  with  the  patients 
and  the  prisoners  in  the  public  works;  a  few  other  per- 
sons also  attended.  Most  of  the  congregation  stood,  the 
room  being  incapable  of  containing  them  if  seated.  I  felt 
empty  of  all  qualification  to  labour,  till  after  entering  the 
room,  but  looked  to  tiie  Lord  for  help  to  do  his  holy  will. 
A  feeling  of  solemnity  came  over  my  mind,  and  under  it,  I 
was  enabled  to  extend  the  gospel  message  to  sinners,  to 
repent  and  believe  in  Jesus,  for  the  remission  of  sins,  that 
through  him,  they  might  receive  the  washing  of  regeneration, 
and  the  renewing  of  the  Holy  Ohost,  and  thus  be  enabled 
to  work  righteousness.  They  were  referred  to  the  conviction 
of  sin  in  their  own  minds,  as  the  drawing  of  the  Father, 
seeking  to  lead  them  to  repentance,  and  to  faith  in  Christ, 
and  to  bring  them  to  wait  and  pray,  daily,  for  the  help  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  to  enable  them  to  walk  before  God,  and 
be  perfect. 

20th.  We  spent  a  little  time  at  the  bedside  of  a  man 
in  the  hospital,  who  had  expressed  a  wish  to  see  me,  and  who 
was  in  a  deplorable  state,  in  consequence  of  early  instability. 
According  to  his  own  account,  he  had  often  called  upon  the 
Lord  in  time  of  trouble,  and  again  forgotten  him  when  his 
trouble  ceased.  Now,  when  racked  with  pain,  and  without 
hope  of  being  raised  up,  he  often  feared  that  he  was  too 
great  a  sinner  to  be  pardoned.     I  entreated  him  to  cherish 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.1  VAN   DIEMEN8    LAND.  193 

■^  m 

the  feeling  of  condemnation  for  sin^  ftnd  to  wait  on  the 
Lord  in  the  way  of  his  judgments^  and  to  seek  a  true  re- 
pentance and  unfeigned  faith  in  Christy  ^^  who  bore  our  sins 
in  his  own  body  on  the  tree:^^  remembering  that  God  is 
almighty  to  save,  both  by  pardoning  sin  for  Christ's  sake^ 
and  through  him,  working  in  us  that  which  is  well  pleasing 
in  his  sight.  Sin  had  a  dreadful  hold  of  this  man,  who 
seemed  unable  to  keep  his  mind  turned  toward  the  Lord. 

22nd.  In  the  afternoon  we  visited  a  person,  who  was 
brought  up  in  the  Episcopal  Church,  with  whom  we  had 
much  conversation  on  the  simplicity  and  the  spirituality  of 
the  Gospel.  She  said,  she  perceived  that  religion  was  a  very 
different  thing  from  what  she  had  been  taught  to  think  it ; 
and  that  it  did  not  consist  in  forms  and  ceremonies,  but  in 
an  exercise  of  soul  before  God. 

23rd.  We  had  a  large  meeting  in  the  forenoon,  in  the 
loft  of  a  building  erected  for  a  store.  In  the  afternoon 
another  was  held  in  a  room  in  the  hospital.  Both  were 
seasons  of  Divine  favour,  in  which  ability  was  afforded  to 
warn  sinners  of  their  danger,  and  to  invite  them  to  turn  to 
the  Lord  and  live.  The  privilege  of  the  true  Christian, 
in  holding  communion  with  the  Father  and  the  Son,  under 
the  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  sensibly  manifested  as 
the  Comforter,  and  the  Spirit  of  Truth,  was  also  pointed 

26th.  Our  kind  friend  Robert  OflScer,  in  whose  family 
we  were  inmates  for  a  few  days,  drove  us  to  the  residence 
of  an  aged  and  pious,  man,  of  the  name  of  Geiss,  who  had 
long  served  the  Lord,  and  walked  in  peacefiilness  before 
him.  The  influence  of  his  bright  example  of  piety,  is  per- 
ceptible on  those  around  him.  From  this  place,  we  walked 
to  Bridgewater,  where  we  had  an  interview  with  the  chain- 
gang,  in  a  rude,  dry-stone  building.  The  Wesleyans  have 
for  some  time  past,  gratuitously  afforded  religious  instruc- 
tion, every  First-day,  to  these  poor  outcasts,  and  there 
seems  a  decided  relaxation,  in  the  ferocity  of  their  counte- 
nances, since  they  have  received  this  attention. 

27th.  We  reached  Hobart  Town,  and  attended  the  lit- 
tle week-day  meeting,  of  those  in  religious  fellowship  with 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

194  HOBART  TOWN.  [3rd  mo. 

us^  with  whom  we  sat  in  silence,  but  in  the  enjoyment  of 
the  folfihnent  of  that  promise  of  Christ;  ^^ Where  two  or 
three  are  gathered  together  in  my  name,  there  am  I  in  the 
midst  of  them/^ 

On  the  way  to  Hobart  Town  at  this  time,  I  was  attacked 
with  an  affection  of  the  heart,  by  which  my  life  seemed 
often  in  great  jeopardy,  but  it  did  not  confine  me  to  the 
house,  notwithstanding  I  suffered  much  from  it  for  several 
weeks ;  when  thus,  continually  admonished  of  the  uncertainty 
of  surviving  from  one  day,  and  sometimes  from  one  hour, 
to  another,  I  was  often  favoured  with  such  a  sense  of  the 
divine  presence,  as  was  very  confirming  to  my  faith,  and 
enabled  me  to  speak  more  experimentidly  than  before,  on 
the  benefit  of  holding  communion  in  spirit  with  the  Lord, 
and  of  neither  neglecting  the  things  that  belong  to  salvation, 
nor  resting  in  speculative  opinions. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Hobart  Town. — ^Meeting  Places. — ^DiBcontinoance  of  Reading  Meetings. — Week- 
day Meetings. — ^Ministers. — ^Meetings  to  which  the  Public  were  invited.— 
Prayer. — Principles  of  Friends. — Base-line. — Perjury. — Prisoner  Boy. — Grass- 
tree  Hill. — Esculent  Vegetables. — Silent  Meetings. — ^Flagellation. — ^Monthly 
Meetings. — Beflections. — ^Report  on  Chain-gangs  and  Boad  Parties. — Traffic 
of  the  Blacks. — "  Guide  to  True  Peace." — Colonial  Hospital. — J.  Johnson. — 
Orphan  School. — Penitentiary. 

We  remained  in  Hobart  Town,  with  little  exception,  from 
the  27th  of  3rd  month,  to  the  22nd  of  8th  month.  During 
this  period,  and  for  some  time  afterwards,  our  meetings  for 
worship  were  held  in  the  cottage  of  William  Holdship,  on 
the  Newtown  Road.  This  individual  had  had  his  attention 
drawn  to  the  principles  of  Friends,  by  reading  a  tract,  on 
the  Glory  of  the  True  Church,  by  Francis  Howgill,*  and 
another  entitled  "The  Ancient  Christianas  Principle,  &c/' 
by  Hugh  Turford.  Friends  being  under  the  necessity  of  re- 
moving their  meetings  from  the  house  in  which  they  had 
been  held  in  Macquarie  Street,  in  consequence  of  another 
tenant  occupying  it,  they  were  held  a  few  times  in  the 
houses  of  William  Rayner  and  another  individual,  but 
neither  of  these  proving  convenient  places,  W.  Holdship 
offered  the  use  of  a  room  in  his  cottage,  saying  he  should 
count  it  a  privilege  to  have  the  opportunity  of  sitting  with 
Friends  in  their  meetings,  notwithstanding  they  were  often 
held  in  silence. 

At  one  of  our  Monthly  Meetings  for  Discipline,  it  was 

•  A  revised  edition  of  this  tract,  has  lately  heen  printed  hy  the  York  Friends' 
Tract  Association,  under  the  title  of,  "  A  Testimony  against  Ecclesiastical 

O  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

196  HOB  ART  TOWN.  [3rd  mo. 

concluded  to  discontinue  the  meeting  for  reading  the  Scrip- 
tures and  the  writings  of  Friends,  on  First-day  afternoons, 
and  to  hold  meetings  for  worship  instead.  The  persons  who 
attended  our  meetings  being  now  in  the  practice  of  reading 
their  Bibles  and  religious  biography,  &c.  diligently  at  home, 
meetings  for  religious  instruction  by  these  means,  appeared 
to  be  no  longer  necessary.  The  room  in  which  we  now 
met,  being  at  liberty  also  on  week-days,  it  was  agreed  to  hold 
a  meeting  for  worship,  at  10  o^clock,  on  fifth-day  forenoons, 
instead  of  at  half-past  six  in  the  evening.  This  sacrifice 
of  a  portion  of  the  best  part  of  a  day,  to  the  Lord  in  the 
middle  of  the  week,  evidently  received  his  blessing,  as  has 
very  imiversally  been  the  case  in  the  Society  of  Friends, 
where  the  sacrifice  has  been  made  in  sincerity.  Several 
fresh  members  were  also  added  to  our  little  company,  and 
two  men,  who  had  for  some  time  spoken  in  our  congregations, 
to  the  edification  of  their  brethren,  were  recorded  as  approved 
ministers.  The  meeting  also  came  to  the  settled  judgment, 
that  the  communications  of  another  individual,  were  not 
generally  to  edification,  how  well  soever  they  might  be  in- 
tended; and  in  the  spirit  of  love,  he  was  requested  to 
withhold  the  expression  of  any  mere  cogitations  of  the 
mind,  such,  not  being  accompanied  by  the  baptizing  power 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  without  which  no  ministry  can  be  of 
any  practically  good  effect. 

When  we  first  arrived  in  Hobart  Town,  the  meeting- 
houses of  the  Independents  and  Wesleyans  were  freely 
offered  for  our  use,  in  case  we  should  wish  to  invite  the 
inhabitants  to  assemble  with  us  At  that  time,  it  did  not 
appear  to  be  our  duty  to  enter  upon  such  a  service  j  but 
now,  believing  it  required  of  us,  we  held  meetings  for  public 
worship  in  both  of  these  places,  to  which  the  inhabitants 
generally,  were  invited.  In  one  of  the  meetings  in  the 
Independent  chapel,  some  remarks  were  made  upon  the  evil 
resulting  from  the  mind  being  kept  in  a  state  of  excitement, 
such  as  is  common  in  the  world,  almost  from  the  cradle 
to  the  grave,  and  which  is  transferred  also  into  performances 
designed  to  be  religious,  often  keeping  the  mind  much 
diverted  from   that  attention  to    its  own  condition  before 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1854.]  VAN    DIBMBNS    LAND.  197 

the  Lord^  which  is  essential  to  spiritual  worship.  The 
great  benefit  of  retirement  of  mind  from  this  excitement, 
and  of  commmiion  of  soul  with  the  Most  High  in  silence^ 
was  pointed  out,  and  the  people  were  directed  to  the  teach- 
ing of  the  Holy  Spirit,  inwardly  revealed,  as  essentially 
necessary  to  a  saving  knowledge  of  Christ. 

After  we  had  remained  in  silence  about  an  hour,  in  the 
meeting,  in  the  Wesleyan  Chapel,  a  young  man,  originally 
sent  to  the  colony  as  a  convict,  of  whose  repentance  and 
reformation  we  had  had  many  proofs,  commended  the  at- 
tention of  the  audience,  in  a  few  sentences,  to  the  inspeaking 
voice  of  Christ,  the  Good  Shepherd;  whose  sheep  know 
his  voice  and  follow  him,  and  receive  of  him  eternal  life. 
This  opened  my  way  to  comment  largely  on  the  declaration, 
'^  The  wages  of  sin  is  death ;  but  the  gift  of  God  is  eternal 
life  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.'^ 

We  had  likewise^  a  meeting  in  the  Supreme  Court  Boom, 
in  which  silence  prevailed  for  nearly  an  hour  and  a  half, 
under  a  precious  feeling  of  heavenly  solemnity.  The  advan- 
tage of  having  the  mind  so  stayed  upon  God,  as  to  worship 
him  in  spirit  and  in  truth,  without  being  dependent  on  the 
stimulus  of  vocal  exercises,  was  afterwards  commented  upon, 
as  well  as  the  loss  sustained  by  many,  who,  after  having 
attained  to  repentance,  and  to  a  sense  of  justification  from 
past  sin^  through  faith  in  Christ,  instead  of  walking  by  faith 
according  to  the  continued  manifestations  of  the  Holy  Spirit, 
depend  greatly  upofi  the  excitement  of  such  vocal  exercises 
as  are  popularly  styled  *^  means  of  grace,^^  to  enable  them 
to  hold  on  their  heavenward  course,  and  thus  have  their 
expectation  divided  between  God,  and  these  things;  by  which 
means  they  often  fall  away,  or  become  weak  and  dwarfish  in 
religious  attainments.  The  desirableness  of  that  state  was 
shown,  in  which  the  mind,  reverently  bowed  before  God, 
is  prepared  either  to  be  edified  in  silence,  or  by  words 
spoken  under  the  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  which  is 
nevertheless,  not  dependent  on  vocal  teaching. 

4th  mo.  12th.  We  proceeded  to  the  east  side  of  the 
Derwent,  by  a  steam-packet  that  has  lately  been  established, 
to  take  passengers,  &c.  from  Hobart  Town  to  Kangaroo 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

198  liAUDERDALE.  [4tih  mo. 

Pointy  and  by  which  the  danger  of  this  ferry  is  materially 
reduced,  and  the  fare  is  lessened  one-half.  We  afterwards 
walked  to  Lauderdale  on  Muddy  Plains^  making  a  few  calls 
on  the  way.  The  evening  was  spent  pleasantly  in  the  fan 
mily  of  a  pious  settler.  After  the  reading  of  the  Scriptures^ 
a  long  silence  ensued,  which  was  concluded  by  my  stating 
to  the  company,  that  I  did  not  apprehend  it  was  my  place^ 
at  that  time^  to  express  any  thing  in  the  way  of  exhortation 
or  prayer.  On  my  doing  this,  the  master  of  the  house 
knelt  down  with  his  family,  and  uttered  some  petitions.  We 
thought  it  our  place,  on  this  occasion,  to  keep  our  seats^ 
and  thus  to  bear  a  testimony  against  that  disposition  which 
determines^  on  such  occasions,  to  utter  something  in  the 
way  of  prayer^  and  which  has,  by  this  means,  a  strong 
tendency  to  draw  the  mind  away  from  inward  prayer,  and 
to  cherish  a  feeling,  as  if  prayer  must  necessarily  be  vocal^ 
and  might  be  performed  by  proxy.  We  afterwards  had  some 
satisfactory  conversation,  on  this  subject,  and  on  the  advan- 
tage of  cultivating  in  silence,  an  individual^  inward  exercise^ 
and  of  not  engaging  vocally  in  prayer,  except  when  the  mind 
is  brought  under  the  feeling  of  duty  in  the  matter.  My  mind 
was  subsequently  drawn  towards  the  prisoner-servants,  and 
we  had  an  open  opportunity  with  them^  both  in  testimony 
and  in  prayer.  A  son  of  our  host^  who  voluntarily  accom- 
panied us  to  visit  the  prisoners,  became  awakened  to  the 
importance  of  eternal  things  at  this  time :  he,  and  most  of 
the  other  members  of  the  family,  afterwards  adopted  the 
principles  of  Friends,  under  a  conviction  of  their  Scriptural 
soundness,  and  a  clear  perception,  of  the  operation  of  divine 
power  upon  the  mind,  known  in  their  practical  adoption. 

13th.  We  travelled  to  the  Hollow-tree,  where  we  had  a 
small  but  satisfactory  meeting.  Much  of  the  way  to  this 
place,  lay  through  a  narrow  avenue  of  some  miles  in  lengthy 
cut  through  the  bush,  for  the  purpose  of  measuring  a  base- 
line, for  a  trigonometrical  survey,  which  is  going  forward 
in  the  Island. 

14th.  We  visited  a  party,  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  pri- 
soners^ employed  in  cutting  a  road  across  Grass-tree  Hill, 
by  which  the  distance  between  Hobart  Town  and  Richmond 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  199 

will  be  materially  shortened.  In  this  company  I  recognized 
a  man  from  York,  transported  on  the  charge  of  perjury.  This 
crime,  whether  in  this  instance,  well  substantiated  or  not,  is 
exceedingly  common  among  the  convict  population.  Another 
prisoner  was  a  yguth  who  was  the  cabin  boy  on  board 
the  Charlotte  cutter,  in  our  first  voyage,  in  Basses  Straits  :  he 
had  been  trained  in  vice  from  infancy,  and  had  passed  from 
the  milder  to  the  severer  form  of  punishment,  in  con- 
sequence of  his  waywardness,  since  he  was  transported. 
When  on  board  the  cutter,  the  following  conversation  passed 
between  him  and  the  mate: — Mate:  '^ Tommy!  where  do 
you  come  from  V'  Boy  :  '^  Liverpool,  sir.^'  Mate :  ^^  What 
is  your  father  ?*'  Boy :  '^  I  have  none,  sir.^'  Mate:  "What 
was  heP  Boy:  *' Nothing,  sir.^^  Mate:  ^'What  is  your 
mother?''  Boy:  "She  is  dead,  sir."  Mate:  "Who  do 
you  live  with,  at  home  ?''  Boy  :  "  My  sister,  sir.''  Mate : 
"What  is  your  sister?"  Boy:  "Nothing,  sir."  Mate: 
"What  did  you  do  for  a  living?"  Boy:  "They  used  to 
put  me  in  at  the  windows  to  open  doors,  sir." — In  this  way, 
it  is  to  be  feared,  that  many  are  trained  to  crime,  and 
become  the  pests  of  society  from  the  influence  of  an  evil 
education;  and  that  the  parties  stated  to  be  "nothing," 
which  is  a  common  description  in  such  cases,  have  lived 
by  vicious  means. 

The  rocks  that  are  cut  through,  in  forming  the  road  over 
Ghrass-tree  Hill,  are  argiUaceous,  embedding  shells.  Sand- 
stone, with  a  calcareous  admixture,  also  occurs  in  some 
places.  The  Grass-trees  are  not  so  large  as  those  on  Flin- 
ders Island,  nor  as  some  on  the  north  end  of  Bruny  Island, 
but  they  are  of  the  same  species. 

15th.  We  returned  to  Hobart  Town  yesterday,  and  to- 
day, I  spent  some  time  in  writing  an  account  of  the  esculent, 
vegetable  productions  of  this  island  for  Dr.  Ross,  which 
was  printed  in  his  Annual  for  1834.  This  article,  amended 
by  my  friend,  R.  C.  Qunn,  is  presented  to  the  reader  in 
Appendix  D.  In  the  evening  we  had  a  long  conversation 
with  a  person  of  religious  character,  who  admits  that  silent 
retirement  in  private,  is  a  state  most  favourable  to  devotion, 
but  he  does  not  seem  to  be  able  to  enter  into  the  views  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

200  HOBART  TOWN.  [4th  mo. 

Friends  in  regard  to  public  worship,  at  least,  as  respects  the 
silent  part  of  it,  and  he  cannot  understand  why  meetings  should 
sometimes  be  held  wholly  in  silence.  I  believe  these  things 
are  a  mystery  to  many  other  good  men ;  and  unless  the 
Lord  open  their  understandings,  to  see  the  advantage  of 
this  united  retirement  of  soul  before  him,  I  have  no  ex- 
pectation that  they  will  understand  it  by  argument.  Never- 
theless, the  matter  is  so  plain  to  those  who  have  felt 
the  benefit  of  this  mode  of  worship,  that  we  rarely  find 
they  can  be  satisfied  with  any  other.  In  dwelling  under  the 
baptizing  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  in  reverent  stillness 
before  the  Lord,  a  sense  is  given  us  of  our  imworthiness^ 
also  of  acceptance  in  the  Beloved,  who  died  for  us: 
we  feel  that  we  become  his  adopted  members,  and  are 
bowed  in  a  reverent  fear  before  him  ;  so  that  we  are  brought 
to  watch  and  wait  before  the  Lord,  in  meetings  and  out 
of  them,  and  to  revert  to  this  state  of  expectation  from 
him  alone,  whenever  we  find  ourselves  carried  away  from 
a  sense  of  his  presence  being  with  us. 

30th.  I  witnessed  the  infliction  of  the  punishment  of 
flagellation,  in  the  Penitentiary-yard,  upon  a  prisoner  belong- 
ing the  Hulk  Chain-gang,  who  was  a  very  refractory  man. 
The  scars  upon  his  back  bore  testimony  to  frequent  previous 
inflictions  of  this  degrading  punishment.  The  Superin- 
tendent of  Convicts  said  this  man  had  been  more  frequently 
flogged,  than  almost  any  other  in  the  Colony :  he  writhed 
and  cried  out  greatly  under  the  strokes  of  a  '^  cat^'  of  knotted 
cords,  which  raised  red  wheals,  and  drew  some  blood :  his 
sentence  was  to  receive  fifty  lashes. 

5th  mo.  1st.  At  our  Monthly  Meeting,  it  was  proposed  to 
hold  these  meetings  alternately,  at  Hobart  Town  and  Kelve- 
don,  and  to  transmit  the  minutes  from  the  one  place  to  the 
other  for  confirmation,  in  order  to  secure  the  strength  and 
judgment  of  the  whole  of  the  members  of  the  little  body, 
professing  with  Friends,  in  this  land ;  the  distance  between 
Hobart  Town  and  Kelvedon  being  too  great  to  admit  of  the 
members  at  the  one  place,  frequently  meeting  with  those  at 
the  other.  This  proposition  was  subsequently  adopted  with 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1SS4.]  VAN   DISMEN8    LAND*  201 

4th.  In  reflecting  upon  the  command^  ^^  Go  throtigh  the 
breadth  of  the  land/^  which  I  believed  to  be  of  the  Lord, 
when  it  was  impressed  on  my  mind,  in  the  3rd  mo.  1832, 
and  which  we  have  now  nearly  fulfilled,  I  have  felt  much 
peace.  As  I  have  meditated  upon  this  command,  at  various 
times,  there  has  been  a  renewal  of  a  measure  of  the  feeling  of 
sweetness  and  authority  that  accompanied  it  at  the  first.  This 
I  esteem  a  condescending  mercy,  to  an  unprofitable  servant 
deeply  sensible  of  many  defects,  who  truly  feels,  that  not  unto 
himself,  but  to  the  Lord  alone,  belongs  the  glory  of  any  good 
that  may  have  been  effected  through  his  means. 

7th.  Occupied  with  a  Report  to  the  Lieut.  Governor,  on 
the  state  of  the  Chain-gangs  and  Road-parties  of  the  Colony; 
nearly  all  of  which  we  have  now  visited.  Their  state  has 
claimed  our  sympathy,  and  we  have  thought  it  right  to  make 
several  suggestions  for  the  improvement  of  their  discipline. — 
An  extract  from  this  Report  is  introduced  into  this  volume, 
in  Appendix.   E. 

8th.  The  upper  and  middle  portions  of  Mount  Welling- 
ton are  covered  with  snow.  This  may  be  regarded  as  the 
commencement  of  winter  in  this  region ;  and  equivalent  to 
the  8th  of  the  11th  month  in  England. 

9th.  A  hundred  dried  Brush  Kangaroo  skins  were  sent  to 
my  charge,  by  W.  J.  Darling,  to  dispose  of  for  the  Aborigines 
on  Flinders  Island.  For  these  I  obtained  seven-pence  each. 
With  the  money,  several  useful  articles  were  purchased  for  the 
people  who  had  collected  them ;  and  the  stock  returned  was 
augmented  by  contributions  from  a  number  of  benevolent 
persons  in  Hobart  Town.  The  attempt  to  induce  the  Abori- 
gines to  preserve  skins,  and  other  articles  of  traffic,  was 
afterwards  carried  out  more  extensively,  and  with  success,  by 
G.  A.  Robinson.  A  few  more  of  the  native  Blacks  lately 
joined  this  individual,  on  the  west  coast ;  and  ultimately,  they 
were  all  prevailed  upon  to  leave  the  main  land,  and  join  their 
countrymen  on  Flinders  Island. 

11th.  We  had  a  meeting  in  the  Wesleyan  chapel  at 
CyBriens  Bridge,  in  which  the  people  were  reminded  of  the 
time,  when,  by  attending  to  the  convictions  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  upon  their  own  consciences^  they  perceived  their  lost 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

802  HOBART  TOWN.  [5th  mo. 

state^  and  that  their  hearts  were  occupied  by  sin^  when  they 
were  also  brought  to  repentance,  and  found  peace,  through 
faith  in  Christ,  made  a  profession  of  religion,  and  brought 
forth  fruits  of  righteousness.  This  process  was  then  compared 
with  that  of  their  taking  possession  of  the  land  they  are 
occupying,  and  clearing  it,  by  felling  and  burning  oflF  the 
timber  and  the  scrub — the  natural  and  unprofitable  produce 
of  the  earth — and  fencing  and  cultivating  the  land.  They 
were  then  desired  to  reflect  upon  the  condition  to  which 
such  land  soon  returns,  if  neglected ;  and  to  consider  how 
soon,  according  to  their  own  knowledge,  it  again  becomes 
covered  with  forest  and  scrub,  so  as  only  to  be  distinguishable 
from  "  the  wild  bush''  by  the  remains  of  the  fence.  From 
this  they  were  urged  to  remember,  that  without  a  constant 
care  to  keep  their  own  hearts  under  the  influence  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,  they,  in  a  similar  way,  would  soon  again  become 
unprofitable  and  overgrown  with  sin,  notwithstanding  they 
might  retain  the  appearance  of  a  fence  against  evil,  in  some 
remaining  profession  of  religion.  This  appeal  was  not  with- 
out efi*ect.  One  man  acknowledged  to  us,  that  he  was  already 
sensible  of  some  measure  of  relapse,  into  the  sinful  state  that 
had  been  spoken  of. 

17th.  We  revised  a  treatise  entitled  "A  Guide  to  True 
Peace,''  which,  we  concluded  to  print  as  a  tract,  and  to  circulate 
chiefly  among  persons  stirred  up  to  some  degree  of  religious 
feeling,  but  who  do  not  get  sufiiciently  deep  in  inward 
exercise,  and  in  consequence  remain  weak  Christians. 

19th.  In  company  with  James  Scott,  the  Colonial  Sur- 
geon, a  man  from  whom  we  have  received  much  kindness, 
and  some  other  persons,  we  visited  the  Colonial  Hospital, 
which  seems  to  be  a  well-managed  institution,  and  acconmio- 
dates  a  hundred  patients. — In  the  afternoon,  accompanied  by 
T.  J.  Crouch,  we  walked  to  Glenorchy,  to  see  John  Johnson, 
an  aged  man,  who  in  1800,  was  transported  for  seven 
years,  from  the  vicinity  of  Leicester,  for  robbing  a  fish- 
pond. He  told  us  that  he  was  formerly  a  great  poacher, 
and  did  not  complain  of  the  severity  of  his  hard  sen- 
tence, which  separated  him  from  his  wife,  who  is  since 
deceased,  and   from   four  children,  then  young.     Since  he 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENB    LAND.  203 

became  free^  he  has  never  had  the  means  to  return^  so 
that  transportation  for  seven  years  has  been  to  him^  as 
it  has  been  to  many  others,  exile  for  life.  By  his  own 
account,  the  increased  exposure  to  vice,  to  which  he  was 
subjected,  in  New  South  Wales,  and  subsequently  on  Nor- 
folk Island,  until  his  removal  to  Van  Diemens  Land,  drove 
him  further  into  sin.  Notwithstanding  this,  he  often  remem- 
bered his  degraded  condition,  and  longed  for  deliverance. 
The  ministry  of  a  woman  Friend,  in  England,  appears  to  have 
been,  under  the  divine  blessing,  the  means  of  kindUng  these 
desires  after  salvation,  which  the  floods  of  iniquity  were 
never  permitted  entirely  to  extinguish. 

About  two  years  ago,  a  Wesleyan  tract-distributor  found 
this  man  ^^three-parts  drunk,''  one  First-day  morning,  in  a 
room  where  several  others  were  in  bed,  completely  intoxicated. 
Some  of  them  had  been  fighting  in  the  night,  and  the  floor 
was  besmeared  with  their  blood.  Hopeless  as  this  state  of 
things  was,  the  man  left  them  some  tracts,  which  Johnson 
was  induced  to  read,  and  which  incUned  him  to  go  to  hear 
the  Wesleyans,  who  began  about  that  time,  to  preach  in  the 
neighbourhood.  Himself  and  one  of  his  companions,  became 
deeply  awakened  to  a  sense  of  their  sinful  state,  and  groaned 
under  its  burden.  In  confidence  in  the  declaration,  that 
^'  the  efiectual  fervent  prayer  of  the  righteous  man  availeth 
much,"  his  burdened  friend  and  he,  set  out  to  Hobart  Town, 
one  evening,  and  went  to  a  Wesleyan  meeting,  where  they 
stated  the  object  of  their  coming,  and  desired  the  prayers  of 
the  congregation.  By  their  own  account  and  that  of  others, 
it  appears  to  have  been  a  time  of  great  excitement ;  but  the 
Lord,  who  condescends  to  the  weakness  of  the  upright  in 
heart,  was  pleased  to  grant  an  answer  of  peace  to  their  fer- 
vent and  vociferous  supplications;  and  these  two  pilgrims 
returned  home  under  a  sense  of  the  pardoning  mercy  offered 
to  mankind  in  and  through  Jesus  the  Saviour.  Their  subse- 
quent walk  has  proved,  that,  great  as  was  the  excitement  that 
prevailed  on  the  occasion,  it  was  not  the  mere  illusion  of  a 
heated  imagination,  which  made  the  difference  that  these  two 
men  felt  in  themselves ;  they  remain  established,  quiet  Chris- 
tians.   Through  the  continued  labours  of  the  Wesleyans,  light 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

204  HOBART  TOWN.  [5th  IDO. 

has  gradually  diffiised  itself  around  them;  so  that,  to  these  first- 
firuits,  have  been  gathered  from  the  drunken  and  dissolute^ 
a  number  of  others,  who  form  the  little  congregation  at 
O'Briens  Bridge;  whose  influence,  notwithstanding  some 
grievous  instances  of  backsliding,  has  greatly  altered  for  the 
better,  the  population  of  the  neighbourhood. 

27th.  We  accompanied  George  Everitt,  the  Secretary 
of  the  Orphan  School  at  New  Town,  in  a  visit  to  that  laige 
and  useful  establishment,  which  is  now  removed  to  a  com- 
modious new  building.  Some  of  the  boys  are  instructed 
in  tailoring,  shoe  mending,  and  other  handicraft  occupa- 
tions, as  well  as  in  the  common  branches  of  school  educa- 
tion. Among  the  pupils  are  five  sons  of  the  Abori^nes, 
who  are  making  as  good  progress  in  their  learning,  as  boys 
of  European  extraction. 

29th.  We  visited  the  Penitentiary  for  Females,  which 
has  lately  received  the  addition  of  another  court-yard,  and 
two  double  tiers  of  cells.  There  is  much  difficulty  in  find- 
ing employment  for  the  prisoners,  notwithstanding  they  wash 
for  the  Hospital,  and  some  other  public  establishments. 
There  has  not  been  sufficient  religious  interest  excited  on 
behalf  of  this  class  of  prisoners,  in  any  place  in  this  country, 
to  maintain  a  visiting  committee  of  their  own  sex. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Browns  Bivcr. — Potatoes.-^Cordage-trces. — Hobart  Town  JaU. — Meetings. — 
Baptism. — Condemned  CriminalB. — Ministry. — Comparison  of  the  Stock- 
keepers  with  the  sons  of  Jacob. — ^Musk  Bat. — Convincement  by  reading 
«  Barclay's  Apology." — Ministry. — Kangaroo  Hunter. — ^Naming  of  Places 
in  y.  P.  Land. — Penguins. — Albatross. — Morepork. — ^Delay. — ^Ministry  of 
G.  W.  W. — Penitent  Prisoner. — Trying  Occurrences. — Seyen-mile  Beach. — 
Holothurids. — ^Drunken  Prisoners,  &c. — Awkward  TraTelling. — ^Arriyal  at 
KeWedon. — Fruit  Trees. — Black  Swans. — ^Arrival  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — 
Goralines,  &c. — Cranes. — ^Track  Lost. — Betum  to  Hobart  Town. 

5tli  mo.  30th.  We  walked  to  Browns  River^  a  small  settle- 
ment on  the  side  of  the  Derwent.  It  is  accessible  by  carts^  but 
sends  sawn  and  split  timber  and  potatoes^  by  water^  to  Hobart 
Town,  which  is  seven  miles  distant.  Potatoes  grow  here  to 
great  perfection,  on  light  loam  bordering  a  riyulet,  which  rises 
on  Mount  Wellington. — Sprengellia  incamata,  a  heath-like 
shrub,  was  in  flower  in  some  marshy  ground  on  the  road ;  and 
in  the  gullies  about  Sandy  Bay,  PUigianthus  discolor^  a  shrub 
of  the  Mallow  tribe,  bearing  clusters  of  small,  white  blos- 
soms, was  beautifully  in  flower.  There  are  other  species  of 
this  genus  in  the  colony,  all  of  which  are  called  Ciirri- 
jong.  This  name  is  also  given  in  the  Australian  territories, 
to  all  other  shrubs,  having  bark  sufficientiy  tenacious  to  be 
used  instead  of  cordage. 

31st.  We  accompanied  Thomas  Bannister,  the  Sherifi^, 
over  the  Jail  at  Hobart  Town,  which  is  a  very  defective 
building,  and  often  much  crowded,  but  it  is  kept  clean,  and 
appears  to  be  made  the  best  of. 

6th  mo.  1st.  We  returned  to  Browns  River,  where,  in 
a  tidy,  weather-boarded  bam,  we  met  a  decent-looking  con- 
gregation of  about  thirty  persons.      After  spending  some 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

206  BROWNS  RIVER.  [6th  mo. 

time  in  silence^  I  had  a  little  to  say  to  them^  but  there  did 
not  seem  to  be  much  way  open  for  expression^  nor  was  there 
much  before  my  mind  to  communicate.  Nevertheless,  I 
thought  there  was  with  us,  a  comforting  sense  of  the  Lord^s 
presence.  We  left  this  hitherto  much-neglected  spot,  with 
the  hope  that  an  interest  on  religious  subjects,  that  seemed  to 
be  awakened  in  several  minds,  was  an  omen  for  good.  We 
returned  along  the  ridge  of  a  tier  of  woody  hills,  of  which 
Mount  Nelson  is  one,  on  which  there  is  a  signal  station, 
answering  to  that  at  Hobart  Town.  From  this  station  we 
again  enjoyed  a  fine  view  of  the  latter  place,  and  of  the  exten- 
sive bays  of  the  Derwent,  as  well  as  of  the  surrounding 
country,  which  rises  in  almost  every  direction,  into  hills, 
covered  with  sombre  forest,  here  and  there  invaded  by 
the  hand  of  culture,  which  has  introduced  green  fields, 
that  make  a  lively  contrast  with  the  dark  olive  of  the 
widely-spread  bush. — From  Mount  Nelson,  we  descended 
to  Sandy  Bay,  and  met  another  congregation,  of  about  forty 
persons.  After  a  season  of  silence,  I  was  enabled  clearly  to 
point  out  the  evil  of  sin,  and  the  way  to  escape  from 
it,  through  repentance  towards  God  and  faith  towards 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  We  parted  under  solemn  feeling, 
after  prayer  had  been  vocally  put  up,  on  behalf  of  this 

3rd.  We  had  a  long  discussion  with  some  of  our  ac- 
quaintance, on  water-baptism,  a  subject  upon  which  we  arc 
often  called  to  explain  our  views.  We  rarely  meet  with 
people  so  free  from  educational  prejudice,  as  to  be  willing 
to  look  upon  the  commands  of  Christ  to  his  disciples,  to 
baptize,  as.  separable  from  the  idea  of  water,  and  in  tiieir 
proper  connexion  witii  spiritual  influence;  or  who  are  suf- 
ficiently enlightened,  to  discern  the  liberty  of  Christians  to 
abandon  all  those  things,  that  in  their  nature  accord  with 
the  dispensation  of  types  and  shadows,  ratiier  than  with  the 
spirituality  of  the  Gospel. 

Persons  often  tell  us,  tiiat  they  see  the  accordance  of  the 
principles  of  Friends  with  the  Gospel,  except  in  r^ard  to 
Baptism,  and  what  is  called  the  Lord^s  Supper;  but  that 
on  account  of  our  disuse  of  these,  tiiey  cannot  join  us.     I 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  207 

believe,  however,  that  most  of  these  persons  deceive  them- 
selves, as  to  their  reason  for  not  joining  us ;  and  that  the 
truth  of  the  matter  is,  that  they  have  not  yet  apprehended 
the  nature  of  the  simple  teaching  of  the  Divine  Spirit,  as 
true  Friends  have  been  privileged  experimentally  to  receive 
it.  The  cross  of  sitting  down  in  silence  to  wait  upon  the 
Lord,  in  order  to  be  taught  of  him,  and  of  bearing  to  be 
humbled  under  a  sense  of  helplessness,  is  also  too  great 
for  this  description  of  people.  We  have  noticed,  that  when 
any  attain  to  this  humbled,  teachable,  state,  they  generally 
become  satisfied  of  the  propriety  of  ceasing  to  use  cere- 
monial rites,  and  feel  the  importance  of  bearing  those  tes- 
timonies to  the  simphcity,  peaceableness,  and  spirituality 
of  the  Gospel,  which  Friends  maintain  to  be  its  true  cha- 
racteristics, and  in  which,  the  faithful  among  them,  endea- 
vour to  walk;  and  in  so  walking,  know  their  communion 
to  be  with  the  Father  and  witih  his  Son  Jesus  Christ,  under 
the  baptizing  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit. 

8th.  Our  meetings  were  not  particularly  lively ;  but  I  had  a 
few  words  to  express,  near  the  close  of  that  in  the  afternoon ; 
at  which  nineteen  persons  were  present.  An  individual  who, 
when  resident  in  London,  occasionally  attended  Gracechurch 
Street  Meeting,  now  frequently  meets  with  us :  he  acknow- 
ledges himself  to  be  more  folly  convinced  of  the  accordance 
of  the  principles  of  Friends  with  the  Gospel,  than  formerly ; 
especially  in  regard  to  the  doctrines  of  the  imiversal  offer  of 
Divine  grace  to  man,  and  of  the  perceptible  teaching  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  to  the  attentive  mind. 

15th.  After  dinner  Abraham  C.  Flower  came  to  our  lodg- 
ing, and  signified  that  he  felt  an  impression  of  duty  to  visit  three 
men  in  gaol,  ordered  to  be  executed,  to-morrow,  for  murder. 
G.  W.  Walker  conferred  with  William  Bedford,  the  Colonial 
Chaplain,  on  the  subject,  who  said  that  he  had  no  objection 
whatever  to  the  visit  being  paid.  Observing,  from  the  Act, 
that  die  Sheriff  possessed  power  to  grant  liberty  for  such  a 
visit,  we  went  to  him,  and  he,  with  his  wonted  benevolence 
and  urbanity,  immediately  granted  this  liberty,  subject  only 
to  its  being  agreeable  to  the  poor  culprits  to  see  us.  The 
keeper  of  the  gaol  accompanied  us  into  tiie  cell,  where  there 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

208  HOBART  TOWN.  [6th  mo. 

was  also  a  fourth  prisoner,  under  similar  sentence.  Though 
the  murder,  to  which  these  men  confess,  was  one  of  the  most 
deliberate  kind,  the  bond  of  hardness  of  heart  under  which 
it  was  committed,  now  appeared  to  be  broken,  and  they 
seemed  to  be  in  a  tender  frame  of  mind.  They  were  fiar 
from  being  men  of  ferocious  countenances.  We  each  had  a 
little  to  communicate  to  them,  encouraging  them  to  yield  to 
iheir  convictions  of  sin,  and  to  seek  pardon,  in  unfeigned 
repentance,  through  faith  in  the  atoning  blood  of  Christ,  in 
the  hope  that  they  might  find  mercy  with  God,  with  whom 
''one  day  is  as  a  thousand  years,'*  and  who  will  forgive  the 
sincerely  penitent.  The  poor  men  expressed  much  thankful- 
ness for  our  visit ;  toward  the  conclusion  of  which,  prayer 
was  put  up  on  their  behalf. 

20th.  The  Lieutenant  Governor  having  invited  us  to 
prepare  a  report  upon  the  state  of  the  Prisoners  and  Penal 
Discipline,  of  Van  Diemens  Land ;  with  observations  on  the 
general  state  of  the  Colony,  we  drew  one  up,  and  presented 
it  to  him. — ^This  document  is  introduced  to  the  reader  in 
Appendix.  F. 

7th  mo.  3rd.  Our  week-day  meeting  was  small,  but  it 
was  one  of  remarkable  exercise.  A  well-disposed  young  man 
was  present^  who  had  come  from  the  country  to  endeavour 
to  obtain  an  appointment  to  the  office  of  Catechist.  A 
Friend,  who  was  quite  ignorant  of  such  a  person  being  in 
town,  was  led,  in  commenting  upon  some  passages  of  Scrip- 
ture, to  point  out  with  remarkable  deamess,  the  mistakes  of 
those  who  thought  themselves  advancing  the  Lord's  work, 
by  entering  in  their  own  wills,  upon  formal  services,  and  thus 
holding  up  imitations  of  religion,  in  the  place  of  religion 
itself.  He  also  showed  how,  in  this  way,  they  wasted  their 
own  strength,  when,  if  they  would  have  remained  patiently 
under  the  baptizing  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  self  would 
have  been  subdued  in  them,  and  a  concern  on  behalf  of  others 
excited  by  this  holy  influence ;  which  concern,  as  it  was  given 
way  to  in  simplicity,  would  have  edified  others,  and  have 
been  attended  with  peace  to  the  labourers,  even  though  they 
might  appear  to  themselves  to  do  but  little.  More  to  the 
same  import  was  added  by  G.  W.  Walker  and  myself,  under 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  209 

what  we  apprehended  to  he  a  right  exercise,  but  which  might 
have  been  more  liable  to  be  called  in  question,  as  we  were 
aware  of  the  views  of  the  individual.  He  received  the  whole 
weU,  and  appeared  thankful  that  he  had  been  placed  in  the 
way  of  such  counsel. — In  our  meetings,  we  have  of  late  had 
much  evidence,  that  the  simple-hearted  are  often  baptized 
one  for  another. — Circumstances  needing  religious  counsel,' 
have  in  this  way  been  spoken  to,  by  parties  who  had  no  out- 
ward knowledge  of  them,  but  who  gave  way  to  express  the 
exercises  that  settled  upon  their  own  minds,  often  in  the 
feeling  of  much  weakness  and  fear. 

4th.  In  referring  to  the  circumstance  of  an  individual, 
formerly  a  prisoner  at  Macquarie  Harbour,  having  been 
lately  recorded  as  an  approved  minister,  by  Hobart  Town 
Monthly  Meeting  of  Friends,  a  person  of  our  acquain- 
tance, belonging  to  another  body  of  Christians,  writes : 
— "The  intelligence  conveyed  in  yours,  is  exceedingly  gra- 
tifying to  me.  That  one  of  the  despised,  hated,  and  per- 
secuted little  band  at  Macquarie  Harbour,  should  become 
an  accredited  minister  of  a  body  of  Christians,  whose  steady 
piety  and  arduous  labours  are  heard  of  through  the  world, 
and  acknowledged  as  extensively  as  they  are  known,  cannot 
but  be  considered  as  one  of  those  glorious  triumphs  of 
grace,  which  cause  the  saints  to  rejoice,  to  adore,  and  to 
love  the  Saviour  with  increasing  ardour.  To  me,  who  have 
seen  something  of  the  trials  and  difficulties  of  that  penal 
abode,  it  appears  truly  wonderful.  But  why  should  I  won^ 
der  ?  Does  it  not  often  please  the  Great  Disposei^,of  events, 
to  prepare  his  choicest  instruments  in  the  hottest  fire  ?  I 
fervently  pray  that  *  *  *  may  continue  a  faithful  standard- 
bearer  in  the  cause  of  Truth,  until  his  earthly  pilgrimage 
shall  close.^^ 

6th.  In  reading  the  book  of  Genesis  lately,  I  have  ))een 
much  struck  with  the  similarity  of  character  exhibited 
among  the  sons  of  Jacob,  to  that  which  is  to  be  found 
among  the  stock-keepers  of  Tasmania,  and  among  some 
of  the  settlers.  Similar  occasions  of  "evil  report,**  and 
exhibitions  of  hardness  of  heart,  such  as  induced  them  to  deal 
hardly  with  Joseph  their  brother,  and  other  descriptions  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

210  HOBART   TOWN.  [7th  mO. 

profligacy^  are  here  found  to  prevail,  and  are  reported  to 
have  prevailed  formerly,  in  a  much  greater  degree,  especially 
where,  from  remoteness  of  situation,  there  was  not  much 
probability  that  the  hand  of  justice  would  interfere.  This 
seems  to  prove  human  nature  to  be  the  same  in  this  age, 
as  it  was  in  that  of  the  patriarchs,  by  showing  its  similarity 
under  similar  circumstances.  It  is  true  that  its  malignant 
features  are  aggravated  in  this  day,  by  the  use  of  spirituous 
liquors;  but  this  evil  is  now  becoming  generally  acknow- 
ledged, and  is  likely  to  be  abandoned.  Appdling  as  the 
picture  is,  to  me,  there  is  some  encouragement  in  it,  for  the 
sons  of  Jacob,  when  brought  under  the  government  of 
Joseph,  and  influenced  increasingly,  as  they  advanced  in 
years,  by  the  example  of  their  pious  father,  appear  to  have 
become  greatly  improved,  and  similar  efiects  are  visible  from 
similar  causes,  in  this  land.  The  improved  government  of 
the  last  nine  years,  and  the  increase  of  moral  and  religious 
example  and  instruction,  are  imiversally  admitted  to  have 
restrained  much  of  the  evil  propensity  of  human  nature, 
which  was  formerly  given  way  to,  and  to  have  drawn  out 
some  of  the  better  feelings  of  the  human  heart.  Much, 
however,  remains  to  be  done,  but  the  improvement  already 
visible,  ought  to  operate  as  an  encouragement  to  the  use  of 
such  efficacious  means. 

7th.  In  a  walk,  I  observed  some  of  the  early  indications 
of  Spring.  Accuna  Oxycedrus^  Boronia  variabilis,  Epacris 
impressa,  Eriostemon  obovatum,  and  a  few  other  pretty  shrubs 
are  in  flower.  I  have  lately  obtained  skins  of  several  of  the 
birds  of  this  Colony,  among  them  are  species  of  Bittern, 
Coot  and  Duck,  and  a  little  bird  with  open  feathers,  like 
those  of  the  Emu,  in  its  tail,  whence  it  has  obtained  the 
name  of  the  Emu  Wren.  I  also  got  specimens  of  the  Wan- 
dering Albatross,  which  were  taken  at  sea,  oflF  Storm  Bay. 
The  skin  of  this  bird  is  so  oily  that  the  only  mode  of  preserv- 
ing it  seems  to  be,  by  filling  it  repeatedly  with  wood-ashes 
until  dried.  I  have  likewise  obtained  skins  of  the  Wombat, 
and  of  a  small  animal  inhabiting  the  shores  of  rivers,  and 
some  parts  of  the  coast,  and  having  the  habits  of  a  Water  Rat: 
its  hind  feet  are  webbed,  and  its  tail  is  tipped  with  white. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  211 

It  is  called  in  the  Colony,  the  Musk  Rat,  in  consequence 
of  a  skin  having  heen,  at  an  early  period,  packed  with  one 
of  a  Musk  Duck,  by  which  means  it  acquired  a  musky 
smell,  and  not  from  any  natural  smell  of  musk  in  the 

7th.  The  Monthly  Meeting  received  an  application  for 
membership,  from  an  individual  who  has  lately  adopted 
the  principles  of  Friends,  on  conscientious  grounds.  The 
father  of  this  person  has  also  become  convinced  of  the 
accordance  of  the  principles  of  Friends  with  the  Gospel, 
in  consequence  of  reading  a  copy  of  "  Barclay's  Apology,^ 
that  he  purchased  in  London,  of  Isaac  Veale,  who  seized  it 
from  Edmund  Fry,  for  an   ecclesiastical  demand. 

10th.  The  week-day  meeting  was  small.  A  pious  man, 
formerly  a  prisoner,  attended,  and  spoke  a  few  words,  ap- 
parently with  great  sincerity;  but  clearly  not  from  the 
description  of  exercise,  which  Friends  recognize  as  the  spring 
of  Gospel  ministry.  Something  was  afterwards  communi- 
cated by  two  Friends,  on  the  nature  of  such  exercises,  and 
on  the  benefit  of  suffering  the  Lord  to  work  in  us  and  by 
us,  rather  than  of  setting  ourselves  to  work.  After  meet- 
ing this  person  acknowledged  himself  to  have  been  in- 

15th.  We  had  sa.tiahctoTy  letters  from  two  of  our 
friends ;  both  indicative  of  a  growth  in  the  root  of  religion, 
as  well  as  of  some  enlargement  in  its  frxtit:  one  of  them 
holds  a  meeting  in  his  own  lodgings.  He  is  a  clerk  in  a 
Government-office,  and  being  allowed  a  small  sum  to  pro- 
cure himself  lodging  and  clothing,  he  has  this  advantage 
over  many  other  prisoners.  He  often  sits  alone  to  worship 
the  Lord,  but  sometimes  one  or  two  others  join  him,  and 
on  some  of  these  occasions,  he  says,  ^^In  obedience  to 
what  I  believed  to  be  required  of  me,  I  have  given  expression 
to  what,  for  dread,  I  dared  not  to  suppress,  though  in  much 
backwardness  and  brokenness.  I  have  experienced  the 
terrors  of  the  Lord  in  not  freely  giving  up ;  and  once  for 
going  beyond  the  word  of  life.^^  Like  one  of  our  friends 
here,  he  is  another  Onesimus.  Some  of  the  free  population 
of  respectable  rank,  and  of  some  degree  of  religious  thoi^ht- 

p  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

212  MUDDY  PLAINS.  [7th  mo. 

fulness,  regard  him  as  a  shining  light,  in  a  dark  place, 
very  humble,  but  full  of  faith,  and  abundant  in  good 

On  the  18th  we  again  went  to  Muddy  Plains,  where  we 
held  two  meetings,  on  the  20th.  Many  of  the  inhabitants 
of  this  district  still  retain  a  very  low  and  immoral  character, 
but  there  is  some  willingness  among  them  to  listen  to 
counsel.  Many  of  the  assigned  servants  are  far  fix>m  what 
they  ought  to  be;  but  we  always  find  they  receive  plain 
dealing  well,  when  it  is  administered  in  love. 

21st.  We  visited  Hugh  and  Mary  Germain,  in  their  neat 
cottage.  Hugh  Germain  came  to  V.  D.  Land  with  Colonel 
Collins,  at  the  first  settlement  of  the  colony.  He  was  a 
private  in  the  Marines,  and  was  for  many  years  employed 
in  hunting  Kangaroos  and  Emus  for  provisions,  which  the 
officer,  whose  servant  he  was,  received  from  him,  and  sold 
to  the  Government,  at  Is.  6d.  per  pound.  Germain,  as- 
sisted by  two  prisoners,  returned  1,000  pounds  per  month, 
on  an  average.  Though  Emus  are  now  rarely  seen  on 
the  island,  at  that  time  they  were  frequently  met  with 
about  New  Norfolk,  Salt  Pan  Plains,  the  Coal  River,  and 
Kangaroo  Point.  The  Kangaroo  was  also  very  plentiful 
in  places  where  it  is  now  rarely  seen :  one  of  the  largest 
Foresters  that  Germain  killed,  was  on  the  spot  where  Hobart 
Town  Barracks  now  stand :  the  hind  quarters  weighed  130 
lbs.  and  it  measured  nine  feet  from  the  tip  of  the  nose  to  that 
of  the  hind  feet.  At  this  period,  these  animals  were  usually 
taken  by  dogs.  H.  Germain  says,  he  rarely  carried  a  gun, 
though  he  often  fell  in  with  parties  of  Aborigines,  *^in 
whom  there  was  then  no  harm."  He  thinks  they  hurt 
nobody  till  two  white  men,  charged  with  murder,  escaped 
from  Port  Dalrymple,  and  got  among  them.  He  pursued 
this  mode  of  life  so  closely,  as  to  be  at  one  time,  five  years 
without  sleeping  on  a  bed;  and  sometimes,  in  very  wet 
weather,  he  was  driven  to  take  refuge  from  floods,  in  a  tree ; 
where  he  has  had  to  remain  all  night,  covered  with  a  large 
kangaroo's  skin,  to  keep  off*  the  rain.  He  was  the  first  white 
man  who  penetrated  into  several  parts  of  the  colony,  and 
a  principal  in  conferring  upon  them  such  names  as  Jericho^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMEXS    LAND.  213 

Bagdad,  Abyssinia,  &c.  Only  one  of  the  party  could  read ; 
and  his  only  books  were  a  Bible,  and  the  Arabian  Nights' 
Entertainment;  out  of  which  books  the  places  were  suc- 
cessively named.  He  considers  his  health  to  have  been 
preserved  through  these  hardships,  chiefly,  by  washing 
himself  well  every  morning  and  evening. 

22nd.  Was  very  showery.  We  returned  to  Hobart 
Town,  crossing  at  Kangaroo  Point,  in  a  whale-boat.  It  was 
rough  on  the  Derwent,  near  the  middle  of  which,  we  passed 
several  Jackass  Penguins.  I  had  often  before,  heard  the 
cries  of  these  birds  on  the  river. 

23rd.  A  person  of  my  acquaintance  furnished  me  with 
a  living  Albatross,  but  as  I  could  not  conveniently  accom* 
modate  a  large,  living  bird,  I  killed  it,  being  desirous  of 
preserving  its  skin.  The  stomach  contained  a  green  sub* 
stance  resembling  Barilla,  and  a  large  quantity  of  pure,  whale 
oil ;  about  a  quart  of  which  ran  out  of  the  bird's  mouth. 
Probably  the  Albatross  may  eat  Barilla  and  other  vegeta* 
bles  containing  soda,  to  enable  it  to  digest  the  oil.  Like 
many  others  of  the  gull  tribe,  it  feeds  greedily  on  blubber, 
which  is  often  to  be  had  in  these  seas,  in  the  whaling 
season.  The  oil  from  the  stomach  remained  limpid,  but 
that  from  the  skin,  which  was  so  abundant  as  to  require 
to  be  removed  with  a  spoon,  became  opaque,  white,  and 
almost  solid,  on  cooling. 

The  adaptation  of  animals  to  their  station,  is  one  of  the 
subjects  in  which  the  wisdom  and  skill  of  the  Creator,  is 
remarkably  exemplified.  Thus  the  eye  of  the  Morepork  or 
Greater  Night  Jarr,  which  I  lately  had  the  opportunity  of 
examining,  is  wonderfully  adapted  for  enabling  it  to  see  the 
insects  in  the  dark,  on  which  it  feeds.  The  eye  is  large  and 
stretched  by  a  bony  ring,  of  one.  piece ;  and  when  recently 
removed,  it  forms  a  fine  camera-obscura,  transmitting  the 
images  of  objects  facing  it,  through  the  integuments  at  the 
back  of  the  retina.  The  tongue  of  the  Wattle-bird  and  the 
Honey-eater  being  pencilled  with  hairs,  is  as  remarkably 
adapted  to  enable  them  to  obtain  the  honey  which  forms 
their  food,  from  flowers. 

25th.     G.  W.  Walker  wrote  to  Sydney,  to  request  our 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

214  HOBART  TOWN.  [7th  mo. 

letters  still  to  be  forwarded  to  us  here.  In  some  respects^  it 
is  trjring  to  us  to  remain  so  long  in  this  land^  and  when  way 
opens^  we  shall  be  glad  to  proceed  to  New  South  Wales ; 
but  we  must  wait  with  patience  the  will  of  Him  who  knoweth 
the  end  from  the  beginning;  who  hath  condescended  to  lead 
us  about  and  to  instruct  us;  and  whose  time  is  the  best  time. 
The  little  company  here,  who  have  been  gathered  to  Friends, 
is  becoming  more  organized,  and  is,  I  trust,  deepening  in  the 
root  of  religion :  this  also  appears  to  be  the  case  with  some 

31st.  The  week-day  meeting  was  small.  It  was  a  season 
to  be  remembered  with  comfort,  by  those  who  were  brought 
to  wait  for  the  revelation  of  Jesus,  by  the  Spirit,  sent  to  them 
of  the  Father,  in  order  that  they  might  feel  his  power  raised 
into  dominion  in  themselves,  over  all  the  powers  of  darkness, 
and  know  the  true  Shepherd  to  put  them  forth  and  go  before 
them.  Thus  such  become  built  up  in  Him,  members  of  that 
church  of  God,  against  which  the  gates  of  hell  shall  not  pre- 
vail ;  whilst  all  systems  that  are  mixed  up  with  the  short- 
sighted views  of  human  expediency,  must  ultimately  have 
the  unsound  mixture  rooted  out  of  them,  or  otherwise  they 
must  become  disorganized,  how  much  soever  they  may  en- 
large their  borders  for  a  season. 

8th  mo.  7th.  The  propriety  of  recording  my  dear  Com- 
panion as  an  approved  minister,  came  under  the  con- 
sideration of  the  Monthly  Meeting ;  and  it  concluded,  under 
the  feeling  of  unity  with  his  Gospel  labours,  to  take  this 
step,  subject  to  the  confirmation  of  the  next  Monthly  Meet- 
ing, to  be  held  at  Kelvedon,  in  Great  Swan  Port. — ^A  com- 
munication was  received  by  the  Monthly  Meeting,  from  a 
young  man,  who  is  an  assigned  prisoner  servant  in  the 
Colony,  desiring  to  be  commended  to  the  notice  of  Friends. 
The  meeting  being  interested  by  his  expressions  of  penitence, 
recorded  its  feeling  of  Christian  interest  for  him,  and  its  wish 
to  hear  from  him,  from  time  to  time,  that  it  might  know  the 
state  of  his  religious  progress.  The  following  extracts  are 
from  a  letter  from  this  yo\mg  man,  in  reply  to  one  written 
a  few  weeks  since :  "  I  am  thankful  to  say,  that  I  feel  rather 
more  comfortable  in  my  mind  than  I  did  when  I  wrote  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMEN8    L.AND.  215 

you  before.  Your  kind  advice  respecting  the  Temperance 
Society  has  claimed  my  close  consideration;  for  I  now 
believe  it  rights  well  to  consider  before  I  engage  in  any 
matter^  under  a  sense,  that  if  I  had  done  that  before,  I 
should  have  been  preserved  from  falling  into  many  snares, 
amongst  which  strong  drink  was  one.  I  may  say,  it  was  the 
first  of  my  going  astray :  this  led  me  to  company,  by  which 
it  increased  on  me,  together  with  going  to  places  of  amuse- 
ment; and  being  imder  many  engagements  of  this  abomi- 
nable nature,  it  caused  me  to  neglect  my  business;  so  at 
last,  I  became  a  thief,  a  disgrace  to  my  relatives,  my  friends, 
and  my  country.  I  have  now  come  to  forsake  such  abomi- 
nations, through  the  Lord's  assistance,  who  strictly  com- 
mands to  go  ^out  from  among  them,  and  touch  not  the 
unclean  things.^  Tell  the  young  men  at  home,  how  strong 
drink,  and  what  the  world  calls  pleasure,  bring  destruction 
and  misery,  upon  both  soul  and  body  :  encourage  them  in  a 
particular  manner  to  strive  against  such  evils.''  In  the  same 
letter  he  speaks  of  his  parents,  in  terms  of  affection,  and 
laments  with  much  bitterness,  that  he  behaved  so  wickedly 
towards  them,  and  neglected  their  pious  advice,  which,  if  he 
had  attended  to  it,  would  have  preserved  him  from  coming 
into  such  a  state,  as  that  in  which  he  is  now  placed.  He  then 
expresses  thankfulness,  that  the  Lord  was  merciful  toward 
him,  both  at  the  hulks,  and  on  his  voyage,  and  that  he  is  so 
now,  in  the  colony,  also  that  he  has  a  good  master  and  mis- 
tress. In  speaking  of  his  wish  to  have  some  tracts,  &c.  he 
says,  "A  Bible  would  be  a  very  great  treasure  to  me,  for  it  is 
very  seldom  I  can  get  the  loan  of  one."  In  a  former  letter 
he  says :  ^'  I  resigned  my  membership  with  Friends,  not  on 
any  religious  point  of  view,  far  from  it ;  it  was  to  prevent 
my  vile  and  evil  conduct  being  discovered."  In  his  last 
letter,  after  requesting  to  be  commended  to  the  love  and 
notice  of  Friends  here,  he  says,  "  I  have  a  great  desire  once 
more  to  join  that  Society ;  for  it  is  the  only  one  that  my 
conscience  would  allow  me  to  join :  their  belief  and  principles 
I  love,  and  I  prize  them  more  now  than  ever  I  did;  and 
through  the  Lord's  assistance  I  shall  practise  them  more 
than  ever  I  have  done.     I  have  been  highly  favoured,  at 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

216  HOBART  TOWN,  [8th  mo. 

different  times,  in  silent  waiting  on  the  Lord,  when  seated 
upon  an  old,  fallen  tree,  under  a  rock,  at  the  back  of  the  hill^ 
where  the  trampling  of  human  feet  is  seldom  heard." 

15th.  We  have  regretted  of  late,  to  see  in  some  well 
disposed  persons,  a  disposition  to  calumniate  Friends,  and 
to  try  to  make  out  that  Quakerism  is  not  accordant  with 
the  Gospel.  The  occasion  of  this  has  been,  that  a  few  per- 
sons have  adopted  the  principles  of  Friends,  from  a  con- 
viction of  their  more  complete  accordance  with  the  Gospel, 
than  those  of  the  communities  with  whom  they  were  before 
associated.  This  has  also  led  to  the  exhibition  of  a  very 
different  spirit  toward  us,  on  the  part  of  some  persons,  from 
that  which  we  have  endeavoured  to  entertain  toward  those 
who  conscientiously  differed  from  us ;  and  which  we  hope  ever 
to  be  enabled  to  maintain  toward  such  :  it  has  also  some- 
times drawn  us  into  discussions,  much  against  our  inctination, 
which  have,  however,  ^  been  overruled  for  good.  Inquiry 
into  our  principles  has  been  excited,  and  we  have  been 
willing  to  give  an  answer  in  meekness,  to  those  who  have 
sought  information  respecting  them. 

On  the  22nd  we  commenced  another  journey,  and  pro- 
ceeded in  company  with  Robert  Mather  and  Francis  Cotton, 
to  Lauderdale ;  where,  on  the  24th,  we  held  another  meeting 
with  the  neighbouring  inhabitants. 

25  th.  On  arriving  at  the  Bluff-ferry,  on  the  Pitt  Water, 
there  was  no  boat-man,  we  therefore  walked  along  the  "Seven- 
mile  Beach,  to  the  Lower-ferry,  where  we  had  to  wade  a  con- 
siderable distance  to  the  boat.  I  do  not  remember  to  have  suf- 
fered so  much  before,  from  the  coldness  of  the  water.  A  heavy 
surf  from  the  Southern  Ocean,  breaks  upon  this  beach ;  upon 
which  a  niunber  of  remarkable  marine  animals  were  cast. 
One  among  them,  of  about  a  foot  in  length,  belonged  to 
the  order  of  Holothuridse  or  Sea  Cucumbers.  We  quar- 
tered for  the  night  at  the  hospitable  dwelling  of  James  and 
E.  Gordon. 

26th.  We  pursued  our  way  through  the  long  and 
dreary  Cherry-tree  Opening,  over  the  Brushy  Plains,  the 
White  Marsh,  and  Burst-my-gall  HiU,  to  Prossers  Plains. 
Here  we  designed  to  visit  a  settler,  and  turned  aside,  at  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMEN8    LAND.  21 7 

close  of  day^  along  a  track  leading  toward  bis  bouse.  About 
two  miles  oij  tbe  road,  we  found  it  intersected  by  a  new  fence, 
a  common  difficulty  in  a  newly  settled  country;  and  being  un- 
able to  find  our  way  further,  as  it  was  dark  and  rainy,  we  re- 
turned three  miles,  to  a  little  inn.  At  this  place  about  half-ar- 
score' men  were  intoxicated,  whom  we  judged,  from  their 
appearance,  to  be  soldiers  and  assigned  prisoner-servants: 
they  remained  drinking  and  using  bad  language,  till  midnight. 
In  other  respects  our  accommodation  was  tolerably  good  for 
such  a  place.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  much  drunken- 
ness exists  in  secluded  situations,  among  prisoners,  as  well 
as  among  free  people,  and  that  the  former  often  pilfer  to 
obtain  the  means  of  paying  for  liquor. 

27th.  Being  at  this  time  in  poor  health,  my  friend 
Francis  Cotton  had  mounted  me  on  his  mare,  it  being 
necessary  that  one  person  should  ride,  to  keep  a  sack 
containing  some  of  his  goods,  from  falling  off,  as  he  had  no 
means  of  fastening  it  to  the  saddle.  The  road  through 
Paradise  was  too  rough  and  precipitous  to  be  pleasant 
for  riding,  and  it  had  the  appearance  of  danger.  The 
scrub  was  also  difficult  to  get  through,  in  some  places, 
and  care  was  necessary,  as  the  way  is  a  mere  foot-track, 
to  avoid  being  carried  against  trees,  or  amongst  branches* 
However,  having  the  sack  to  take  care  of,  I  rode  at  a 
foot's  pace  over  the  whole,  except  one  hill,  and  the  river. 
The  rocky  bed  ^f  the  latter  is  slippery,  and  has  narrow 
chasms  in  it,  dangerous  to  the  legs  of  horses.  Some-> 
times  I  found  it  necessary  to  twist  one  hand  into  the 
mane,  and  with  the  other  to  lay  hold  upon  the  sack,  to  keep 
it  from  slipping  off  behind.  Horses  accustomed  to  .this 
kind  of  country,  descend  the  stony  hills  best,  with  the  bridle 
quite  slack ;  taking  care  of  themselves,  they  take  care  also 
of  their  riders.  On  this  journey  we  tried  carrying  our  own 
luggage  in  knapsacks,  but  did  not  find  it  so  convenient  to 
persons  unencumbered  with  guns,  as  having  each  a  parcel 
to  carry  by  a  strap  in  the  hand.  We  reached  the  habitation 
of  some  kind  friends,  a  little  after  dark,  having  had  to  use 
a  compass,  observe  a  star,  and  listen  to  the  direction  of  the 
roaring  of  the   surf,  on   a  neighbouring,  sandy  beach,  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

218  SWAN  PORT.  [8th  mo. 

enable  us  to  keep  in  the  right  direction^  which^  here  and 
there^  was  not  distinguishable  by  a  track. 

28th.  Early  in  the  afternoon^  we  reached  the  dwelling 
of  Thomas  Buxton^  whose  &mily  are  noted  for  their 
hospitality,  and  were  soon  supplied  with  what  was  needful 
for  our  wants.  Leaving  my  companions  to  follow  on  foot, 
I  rode  at  a  gentle  pace  over  the  Rocky  Hills.  We  all  arrived 
at  Kelvedon  in  the  evening,  and  were  again  refireshed 
together  in  waiting  upon  the  Lord. 

29th.  Was  occupied  in  assisting  F.  Cotton  to  plant  some 
fruit-trees,  and  to  engraft  others.  He  had  brought  the 
trees  and  scions  upon  his  back,  more  than  eighty  miles, 
to  preserve  them  from  injury.  Fruit  trees  are  valuable  in 
a  newly-settled  country.  Some  of  the  scions  were  obtained 
from  the  Government  Garden  at  Hobart  Town,  where  there 
is  a  valuable  collection  of  fruit-trees,  from  which  scions  may 
be  had,  on  apphcation  to  the  Aide-de-Camp  of  the  Lieut 
Governor.  The  others  were  from  the  capital  garden  of 
James  Gordon,  of  Pitt-water. 

31st.  We  assembled  twice  for  worship,  with  F.  Cotton's 
large  family,  the  assigned  servants  being  also  present,  and 
were  favoured  with  a  sense  of  divine  overshadowing.  A 
portion  of  Penn^s  ^*  No  Cross  no  Crown,''  and  a  Psalm^ 
were  read  at  the  commencement  of  the  opportunity  in  the 
evening.  The  chapter  on  the  use  of  flattering  titles  was 
the  one  falUng  in  course;  and  I  had  some  remarks  to  make  on 
this  subject,  which  possesses  more  importance  than  is  usually 
attributed  to  it.  As  my  understanding  has  been  opened  to 
it,  I  have  had  perfect  unity  with  our  early  Friends,  in  their 
testimony  against  these  titles,  and  also  against  complimentary 
forms  of  speech ;  and  a  strong  apprehension  has  rested  on 
my  mind,  that  if  Friends  should  abandon  these  testimonies, 
the  Lord  would  soon  take  them  away  from  being  a  people. 
To  cherish  pride,  which  is  an  abomination  to  the  Lord,  in 
others,  is  diametrically  opposed  to  the  principles  of  the 
Gospel ;  and  though  it  is  often  argued  that  these  things  are 
now  so  common,  that  pride  is  but  little,  if  at  all,  flattered 
by  them,  it  requires  but  a  small  degree  of  penetration  to 
perceive  that  they  are  very  gratifying  to  unregenerate  men ; 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1634.]  VAN    DIEICENB   LAND.  219 

and  that  the  remains  of  pride^  even  in  persons  of  some  de- 
gree of  spirituality^  are  mortified  by  the  omission  of  these 
titles  and  addresses. 

9th  mo.  4th.    The  Monthly  Meeting  was  held  at  Kelve- 
don,  and  the  judgment  of  that  held  in  the  8th  months  at* 
Hobart  Town,  was  confirmed,  respecting  recording  my  com- 
panion, as  an  approved  minister,  and  sanctioning  his  pro- 
ceeding with  me  in  that  capacity. 

Between  the  12th  and  l7th^  we  again  visited  the  settlers 
in  the  upper  part  of  Great  Swan  Port,  holding  several  reli- 
gious meetings  among  thenl. 

When  at  Moulting  Bay,  dose  to  the  house  of  a  settler, 
we  counted  fifty-six  Black  Swans,  in  pairs:  their  nests  had 
been  carried  away  by  floods.  This  is  often  the  case,  and 
at  other  times  they  are  extensively  robbed  of  tikeir  eggs. 
One  family,  at  whose  house  we  lodged,  had  sometimes 
taken  as  many  as  five  hundred  eggs  at  a  time.  Formerly  a 
tribe  of  Aborigines  resorted  regularly  to  this  neighbourhood, 
at  this  season  of  the  year,  to  collect  swans'  e^s. 

Happening  to  take  up  the  Hobart  Town  Courier,  at  Bel- 
mont, on  the  17th,  we  saw,  with  much  interest  and  satisfac- 
tion, a  notice  of  the  safe  arrival  of  our  dear  friends  Daniel 
and  Charles  Wheeler,  in  Hobart  Town.  They  landed  from  the 
Henry  Freeling,  on  the  10th  inst. ;  being  on  a  religious  visit, 
to  some  parts  of  the  Australian  Colonies,  and  to  the  Islands 
of  the  South  Seas. — Dr.  Ross,  the  editor  of  this  newspaper, 
had  kindly  inserted  a  special  notice  of  their  arrival, 
hoping  that  the  tidings  would  reach  us  through  this 

On  the  22nd,  we  set  out  to  return  to  Hobart  Town,  in 
company  with  Francis  and  Anna  Maria  Cotton.  Several  of 
their  children,  with  Dr.  Story,  accompanied  us  a  few  miles  on 
the  way.  On  the  beach,  near  T.  Buxton^s,  the  Doctor  and  I 
turned  over  some  flat,  basaltic  stones,  in  a  pool  of  salt  water, 
that  did  not  become  empty  by  the  recession  of  the  tide,  and 
were  gratified  with  the  sight  of  several  species  of  coralline, 
alcyonite,  sponge,  and  others  of  the  lower  tribes  of  animals,  of 
curious  and  singular  structure,  but  of  which  we  had  not  the 
means  of  preserving  specimens. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

220  PROSSERS  BAY.  [Sth  mo. 

On  the  beach  of  Prossers  Bay,  we  saw  two  beautiful  White 
Cranes ;  a  bluish,  lead-coloured  species  is  not  uncommon  ; 
several  species  of  Duck  are  also  met  with  in  this  Colony. 

Some  parts  of  our  journey  to  Spring  Bay,  were  very  un- 
iDomfortable  to  those  on  horseback.  A  slight  mistake  in  re- 
gard to  a  track,  occasioned  us  a  trackless  journey  for  several 
miles.  This  is  a  common  circumstance  in  Van  Diemens  Land^ 
where,  except  in  a  very  few  places,  naturally  clear,  and  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  settlers'  houses,  the  way  is  through 
forests,  bounded  only  by  the  sea  that  surrounds  the  island, 
and  which  are  full  of  dead  logs,  and  fragments  of  the  limbs  of 
trees,  scattered  in  all  directions ;  these  continually  turn  tra- 
vellers from  a  straight  line,  except  where  a  path  has  been 
cleared.  On  our  way,  we  had  conversation  with  some  pri- 
soner-guides, confirming  the  belief  that  there  are  many  of 
this  class,  far  from  being  destitute  of  religious  sensibility. 

On  the  27tii,  we  crossed  the  Derwent,  in  a  whale-boat,  to 
Hobart  Town ;  where  we  had  a  mutually  pleasant  meeting 
with  our  friends  D.  and  C.  Wheeler^  who,  \idthin  a  few 
months,  had  been  in  company  with  our  dear  connexions  in 
England.  Although  we  hear  of  these  frequentiy  by  letter,  yet 
there  is  a  satisfaction  in  hearing  of  beloved  relatives,  irom 
the  lips  of  those  that  have  lately  seen  them,  which  none  can 
fully  understand  but  by  experience. 

In  reviewing  our  late  journey,  and  the  many  blessings, 
and  mercies  we  have  been  made  partakers  of,  among  which 
is  the  improvement  of  my  own  health,  and  now,  in  having  the 
comfort  of  meeting  our  dear  friends,  we  felt  that  there  was 
great  reason  for  us  to  adopt  the  language,  '*  What  shall  we 
render  to  the  Lord  for  all  his  benefits  ?** 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Old  Johnson. — Prayer. — Spiritual  PoTcrty. — ^Yearly  Meeting. — Meeting  at  New 
Norfolk. — Influenra. — Cold  of  Mount  Wellington. — Mantis. — Sale  of  Spirits. — 
Calumny.— Visit  to  Port  Arthur.— Doughboy  Island.— Black-backed  Gull.— 
Commandant  bewildered  in  the  Forest — State  of  the  Penal  Settlement. — 
Scurvy. — ^Educated  Prisoners. — School. — Employment. — Convict  Boys. — Coal 
Mine. — Black  Snake  — Coal.— Plants. — Return  to  Hobart  Town.— Letter. — 
Meetings. — Laws  of  Primogeniture  and  Entail. — Pensioners. — Rural  Dean. 
—Surgeon  of  the  Alligator. 

8th  mo.  29th.  In  company  with  G.  W.  Walker,  F.  Cotton^ 
and  T.  J.  Crouch,  I  walked  tq.  Qlenorchy,  to  see  old  John 
Johnson,  who  has  been  very  ill,  and  is  still  so  feeble  that 
he  compares  himself  to  a  cracked  earthen  vessel,  bound 
about  to  keep  it  together.  He  is  full  of  thankfulness  for 
the  mercies  he  receives,  often  saying,  "  What  am  I,  a  poor 
bit  of  dust,  that  the  Lord  should  regard  me ;  I,  who  have 
hved  so  long  in  rebellion  against  God  ?  He  has  had  mercy 
upon  me,  but  I  can  never  forgive  myself,  nor  love  him 
sufficiently.  What  am  I,  or  what  are  we  all,  that  the  Lord 
should  thus  regard  us  ?'' — In  his  illness,  he  said,  he  felt  quite 
willing  to  die,  that  he  cast  himself  upon  his  Saviour,  and 
was  quite  willing  to  go.  When  his  pain  was  excessive,  he 
prayed,  that  if  consistent  with  the  divine  will,  he  might  be 
eased  of  his  pain,  and  permitted  to  speak  a  few  words  of 
the  Lord's  goodness  before  he  was  taken  away :  his  prayer 
was  immediately  answered,  and  the  violence  of  his  pain 
assuaged.  The  old  man  made  many  inquiries  of  us, 
on  the  nature  of  prayer.  He  said,  he  had  been  taught  to 
think  his  petitions  would  not  be  accepted,  unless  offered 
upon  bended  knees ;  and  that,  for  four  years,  he  had  not 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

222  GLENORCHY.  [8th  DdO. 

missed  a  night  in  getting  out  of  bed  to  pray,  in  addition  to 
praying  before  going  to  bed^  and  on  rising;  but  that  he 
began  to  think,  it  was  perhaps  unnecessary  for  him  to  get 
out  of  bed  for  this  purpose,  and  that  he  was  nearly  unable 
to  do  so.  We  explained  to  him,  that  God  is  only  wor- 
shipped in  spirit  and  in  truth  ;  that  if  the  heart  be 
but  bowed  before  him,  he  will  accept  its  offerings,  whe- 
ther from  persons  in  bed,  or  out  of  bed,  on  bended  knees, 
or  at  their  daily  occupations ;  and  whether  their  petitions 
be  uttered  or  unexpressed :  that  if  people  be  bowed  in 
reverent  stiUness  of  soul,  under  the  sense  of  the  Lord^s 
presence,  though  no  words  may  be  formed  in  the  mind, 
he  will  still  regard  and  bless  them.  The  old  man  said  he 
was  comforted,  and  saw  the  matter  more  clearly  than  he 
had  done  before,  but  that  when  he  was  first  awakened,  he  was 
so  ignorant  as  to  think  that  he  must  go  into  ^'  the  bush  ^' 
to  pray,  where  he  could  make  a  great  noise. 

In  the  course  of  a  walk,  with  a  serious  person,  about  this 
time,  he  told  me,  that  he  thought  he  had  sustained  loss,  by 
regarding  the  feeling  of  his  own  weakness  and  emptiness,  as 
a  state  of  desertion,  and  by  trying  to  turn  from  it,  instead  of 
regarding  it  as  the  teaching  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  designed  to 
humble  him,  and  to  bring  him  into  a  more  simple  trust  in 
the  Lord,  and  a  closer  communion  of  soul  with  God.  I 
believe  this  is  the  case  with  many,  who  thus  flinch  from 
humiliating  baptisms,  and  regard  them  as  the  withdrawing  of 
the  Lord's  Spirit;  not  recollecting,  that  the  presence  and 
light  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  are  as  necessary  to  enable  us  to 
behold  our  own  weakness  and  emptiness,  and  even  our  sin- 
fulness, as  they  are,  to  give  us  a  perception  of  the  Divine 
fulness;  nor  considering  that  we  can  never  properly  seek 
reconciliation  with  the  Father,  until  we  are  given  to  see  our 
alienation  from  him  by  sin ;  nor  come  unto  Christ,  as  those 
who  feel  that  they  need  a  physician,  imtil  we  feel  our 
spiritual  diseases;  nor  can  we  seek  to  know  the  Lord  to 
be  our  fulness,  till  we  are  made  sensible  of  our  own  empti- 
ness ;  nor  shall  we  know  him  to  be  our  strength,  till  we  be 
made  sensible  of  our  own  weakness.  But,  blessed  for  ever 
be  his  holy  name,  he  is  still  known,  by  his  dependent  chil- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  223 

dren^  to  be  riches  in  poverty,  strength  in  weakness,  and  a 
very  present  help  in  trouble. 

On  the  3rd  of  10th  months  the  first  Yearly  Meeting,  of 
the  persons  professing  with  the  Society  of  Friends,  in 
Van  Diemens  Land,  commenced ;  it  was  continued  by  ad- 
journments to  the  ninth,  inclusive.  The  principal  subjects 
that  occupied  its  attention,  were,  the  reading  and  recording 
of  the  certificates  from  Friends  in  England,  respecting  Daniel 
and  Charles  Wheeler,  and  George  W.  Walker,  and  myself; 
the  granting  of  an  additional  certificate  to  6.  W.  Walker,  to 
authorize  his  proceeding  with  me  to  New  South  Wales  and 
South  Africa,  in  the  character  of  a  minister  of  the  Gospel, 
(Appendix.  G.)  ;  the  making  of  a  record  of  our  labours  in 
V.  D.  Land ;  the  investigating  into  the  state  of  the  little 
community  professing  with  Friends  in  this  Colony,  and 
agreeing  upon  regulations  for  preserving  good  order  among 
them ;  and  the  addressing  of  an  Epistle  to  the  Meeting  for 
Sufferings,  of  Friends,  in  Great  Britain,  proposing  a  corres- 
pondence with  them.  The  meeting  was  favoured  to  be  able 
to  adopt  the  following  minute  at  its  termination : — 

^^  In  conclusion,  we  believe  it  our  duty  to  record,  under 
feelings  of  reverent  thankfulness,  that,  in  the  sittings  of  this 
our  first  Yearly  Meeting,  the  sensible  presence  of  the  great 
Head  of  the  Church,  has  been  mercifully  felt  among  us, 
enabling  us  to  transact  the  business  that  has  come  before 
us,  in  much  love,  and  in  unity  one  with  another.^^ 

On  the  25th  of  10th  month,  G.  W.  Walker  and  I,  went 
again  to  New  Norfolk,  where,  on  the  following  day  we  held 
two  meetings.  In  one  of  them  a  man,  who  is  attached  to  the 
principles  of  Friends,  reproved  some  persons  for  whispering ; 
and  afterwards  remarked,  that  our  sitting  in  silence  might 
appear  strange  to  some,  who  had  not  considered  the  matter, 
but  that,  for  his  own  part,  he  could  bear  testimony  to  the 
benefit  of  the  practice ;  that  before  leaving  England,  he  had 
for  some  time,  attended  a  little  meeting  of  Friends,  in  which, 
often,  not  a  word  was  spoken ;  that  when  these  meetings 
had  been  held  in  silence,  he  had  been  more  edified,  as  his 
mind  was  turned  to  the  light  of  Christ,  than  ever  he  had 
been  under  the  most  learned,  studied  discourses ;  and  that 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

224  NEW  NORFOLK.  [10th  mo* 

he  was  conTinced^  others  would  also  be  thus  edified^  even  in 
silence,  if  their  minds  were  turned  to  the  inward  manifesta- 
tion of  that  light,  which  is  given  us,  through  Jesus  Christ. 

On  returning  to  Hobart  Town,  we  found  Daniel  Wheeler 
very  ill,  in  the  influenza,  which  had  been  prevalent,  and 
in  many  cases,  fatal. 

11th  mo.  11th.  In  company  with  two  young  surgeons, 
I  again  ascended  Mount  Wellington,  and  collected  specimens 
of  various  plants.  Though  the  summer  is  advancing,  snow 
fell  dry  on  the  top  of  the  mountain,  and  the  cold,  with  a 
high  wind,  was  so  intense,  that  I  was  unable  to  restore 
circulation  in  my  hands,  by  rubbing  them  with  snow :  some 
of  my  fingers  were  consequently  numb  for  several  days  after. 
Another  of  our  company  became  violently  affected  with 
cramp,  from  which  we  all  suffered  in  some  degree.  Though 
the  snow  was  insufficient  to  protect  vegetation  from  the  frost, 
many  plants  which  were  in  flower,  did  not  seem  to  be 
injured  by  it ;  yet  they  cannot  endure  the  continued  cold 
of  an  English  winter. 

Insects  are  now  numerous,  some  species  of  the  remark- 
able genus  Mantisy  are  found  in  Tasmania ;  they  have  obtain- 
ed the  name  of  the  Praying  Mantis,  from  the  remarkable 
posture  in  which  they  stand  to  catch  flies,  which  they  eat 
with  great  voracity.  The  species,  common  at  this  season, 
in  the  gardens  here,  is  of  a  light  pea-green,  an  inch  and 
a  half  long,  and  three-tenths  wide  in  the  broadest  part 
of  the  body,  which  is  covered  with  wings,  an  inch  long,  of 
an  elliptic  form,  overlaying  each  other. 

Colonel  Arthur  having  invited  us  to  express  freely  any 
thing  we  wished  to  say  connected  with  the  welfare  of  the 
Colony,  we  presented  to  him  on  the  15th  a  paper  entitled, 
'^  Observations  on  the  Distillation,  Importation,  and  Sale  of 
Ardent  Spirits,  as  sanctioned  by  the  Government.''  He 
informed  us  that  he  approved  of  the  suggestions  contained 
in  this  document,  but  felt  a  difficulty  in  regard  to  acting 
upon  it,  on  account  of  the  revenue.  The  state  of  a  Govern- 
ment which  depends  upon  the  continuance  of  the  sins  of 
the  people  for  the  support  of  its  revenue,  is  truly  an  awful 
state.    A  copy  of  this  paper  is  inserted  in  Appendix.  H. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  225 

Some  notice  having  been  taken^  in  the  Sydney  papers,  of 
our  Report  on  the  state  of  the  penal  settlement  at  Macquarie 
Harbour,  which  had  been  printed  among  some  parliamentary 
papers  on  Penal  Discipline,  the  editor  of  the  "Hobart 
Town  Tasmanian  ^'  denounced  us  as  Government  Spies,  and 
took  much  pains  to  bring  us  into  discredit,  and  the  Gospel 
through  us.  One  of  the  Launceston  papers  also  followed, 
in  some  degree,  in  the  same  steps.  The  ^' Colonist  ^^  and 
^^  Courier,^'  of  Hobart  Town,  of  their  own  accord,  defended 
us.  We  believed  it  our  place  not  to  interfere  in  this  matter, 
and  were  preserved  in  calm  dependence  upon  the  Lord, 
to  make  our  sincerity  manifest,  if  such  should  be  his  will ; 
and  ^'the  shield  of  faith  *^  was  made  effectual  to  **  quench 
the  fiery  darts  of  the  wicked.'^ 

The  Lieutenant  Governor  having  expressed  a  wish,  that 
we  should  again  visit  the  Penal  Settlement,  on  Tasmans 
Peninsula,  we  took  the  subject  under  serious  consideration, 
and  came  to  the  conclusion,  that  it  would  be  right  for  us  to 
comply  with  his  wish.  A  whale-boat  was  provided  for 
us,  in  which  we  proceeded,  on  the  I7th  of  11th  month, 
to  the  north-east  extremity  of  Ralphs  Bay,  and  lodged  at 
the  house  of  our  friends,  the  Mathers,  at  Lauderdale.  On 
the  following  morning,  the  men  dragged  the  boat  across 
Kalphs  Bay  Neck,  and  rowed  us  over  Frederick  Henry 
Bay.  We  landed  on  a  small  basaltic  island,  oflF  the  Carlton, 
csalled  Dumpling,  or  Doughboy  Island,  which  is  a  favourite 
name  for  a  small  island  among  sailors ;  here,  in  a  short  time, 
our  boafs  crew  collected  about  twelve  dozen  of  the  eggs  of 
the  Black-backed  Gull.  This  Gull  makes  no  nest,  except  a 
slight  hollow  among  the  grass,  or  in  the  light  earth,  in 
which  it  lays  about  three  eggs,  nearly  as  large  as  those  of 
a  Common  Fowl,  but  more  conical,  and  of  a  dirty  green 
colour,  speckled  with  irregular,  dark  spots. 

This  Island  produces  a  Tree  Mallow,  Lavatera  plebia,  and 
the  other  maritime  plants  of  this  part  of  the  world.  From 
hence,  we  proceeded  to  the  southern  extremity  of  Norfolk 
Bay,  and  walked  from  thence  to  Port  Arthur;  where  we 
occupied  the  house  of  the  Commandant,  who  was  absent 
during  our  stay.     He  had  gone  to  visit  the  signal  stations, 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

226  TA8MANS    PENINSULA.  [llth  mO. 

and  had  lost  his  way  in  the  intricate  forest :  his  life  was 
thus  endangered  more  than  once^  on  similar  excursions. 

The  Settlement  was  greatly  improved  since  our  former 
yisits,  hut  was  still  incomplete  in  accommodation^  for  the 
separation  and  instruction  of  the  prisoners^  who  were  now, 
887  in  number.  The  association  of  men  of  this  descrip- 
tion, in  common  day-yards,  and  sleeping-places,  is  fraught 
with  much  evil,  that  is  very  difficult  to  obviate. 

In  consequence  of  the  prisoners  living  on  salt  meat, 
and  being  defectively  supplied  with  vegetables,  a  large 
number  were  suffering  from  scurvy.  Nineteen,  who  were 
in  the  Hospital,  chiefly  from  this  disease,  presented  as  ap- 
palling a  picture  of  human  wretchedness,  as  I  recollect  ever 
to  have  witnessed. — ^This  defect,  on  being  represented  to 
the  Government,  was  speedily  remedied,  by  the  cultivation 
of  more  land  with  vegetables,  and  an  occasional  supply  of 
fresh  meat. 

The  general  discipline  of  the  Settlement  was  improved, 
but  we  found  very  little  reformation  on  religious  principle; 
and  very  few  of  the  educated  prisoners  showed  any  dispo- 
sition to  assist  in  the  instruction  of  the  others,  in  the 
evening  school,  which  was  held  twice  a  week.  The  few 
books  to  which  the  prisoners  had  access,  were  diligently  read, 
but  the  number  of  these  was  small. 

The  prisoners  were  employed  in  ship-building,  shoe- 
making,  breaking  stones,  cutting  timber,  brick-making,  &c. 
and  many  of  them  were  working  reluctantly,  as  is  always  the 
case  where  labour  is  compulsory,  and  without  reward. — ^A 
few  men,  employed  in  making  bread,  were  locked  up  in  the 
bakehouse  till  the  bread  was  delivered  to  the  Commissariat 
Officer,  to  prevent  pilfering,  which  is  sometimes  attempted 
here,  very  artfully. 

An  interesting  addition  has  lately  been  made  to  this  Settle- 
ment, in  an  establishment  for  convict  boys,  on  a  point  of  land, 
now  called  Point  Puer,  access  from  which  to  the  main  land 
is  cut  off  by  a  military  guard.  157  of  these  boys,  formerly 
kept  on  board  the  hulks,  on  the  Thames,  are  here  placed 
under  restraint  and  coercive  labour,  as  a  pimishment.  By 
these  means,  combined  with  attention  to  education,  they  are 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIBMBNS    LAND.  227 

acquiring  habits^  calculated  to  enable  them  to  maintain  tikem- 
selves  honestly.  The  restraint  is  irksome^  but  upon  the 
whole^  the  boys  seem  pleased  with  the  idea  of  being  put  in 
the  way  of  obtaining  a  livelihood. — Considerable  difficulty 
has  been  found,  as  might  be  expected,  in  raising  the  morals 
of  these  juvenile  delinquents,  from  a  most  degraded  state. 

On  the  21st,  attended  by  a  prisoner  constable,  we  returned 
to  Norfolk  Bay,  and  proceeded  to  ESagle  Hawk  Neck,  and 
from  thence  down  Elagle  Hawk  Bay,  to  Woody  Island,  where, 
as  well  as  at  many  other  places,  constables  are  stationed. 
From  Woody  Island,  we  were  rowed  to  a  coal  mine,  lately 
opened,  on  Sloping  Main,  a  point  of  Tasmans  Peninsula : 
we  crossed  this  point  to  a  hut,  where  we  took  up  our  quar- 
ters for  the  ni^t.  Here  we  read  a  portion  of  Scripture,  to  a 
few  constables  and  soldiers,  and  addressed  them  on  the  im- 
portance of  attending  to  their  eternal  interests. 

When  passing  through  the  forest  between  Long  Bay  and 
Norfolk  Bay,  a  large  Black  Snake  met  us  on  the  path,  which 
we, of  course,  left  to  make  way  for  the  snake:  it  passed  us  with 
its  head  a  little  raised,  and  with  an  air  of  boldness  that  was 
rather  appalling.  Stout  switches  being  plentiful  in  the  bush, 
6.  W.  Walker  immediately  cut  one,  and  following  the 
venomous  reptile,  despatched  it  with  a  single  blow. 

On  the  22nd,  we  returned  to  the  coal  mine,  and  mustered 
the  prisoners  employed  in  it ;  with  whom  we  had  a  religious 
interview,  as  we  had  also  had,  with  the  different  groups  at 
Port  Arthur.  The  coal  from  this  place  makes  hot  fires,  but 
scarcely  changes  its  form  in  burning:  it  finds  a  market  in  Ho- 
bart  Town,  for  about  ten  shillings  a  ton.  Only  the  top  seam 
has  yet  been  worked.  Access  is  gained  to  it  by  a  level,  that 
is  very  little  above  the  high  water  mark. 

Having  completed  our  visit,  we  returned  across  Frede- 
rick Henry  Bay,  and  landed  near  Lauderdale,  where  I  left 
my  companion,  and  proceeded  by  Clarence  Plains  and 
Kangaroo  Point,  to  Hobart  Town,  which  place  I  was  fa- 
voured to  reach  in  safety,  thankful  in  having  been  privileged 
with  fine  weather,  in  a  deeply  interesting  excursion,  in  which 
storms  would  have  exposed  us  to  great  risk. 
AnguUlaria  uniflora,  Anqpterus  glanduloswy  and  several 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

228  HOBART  TOWN.  [11th  mo. 

other  interesting  plants^  were  in  flower^  on  Tasmans  Pen- 
insula, as  was  also  Thysanotus  Patersonii,  on  Clarence 
Plains.  The  last  is  a  low,  twining  plant,  with  fringed,  pur- 
ple blossoms,  delightfully  fragrant. 

On  returning  to  Hobart  Town,  I  had  the  satisfaction  to 
find  my  friend  Daniel  Wheeler  restored  to  health,  and 
proposing  soon  to  depart  for  Sydney ;  whither  G.  W. 
Walker  and  myself  had,  for  some  time,  believed  it  would 
be  right  for  us  to  accompany  him  and  his  son. 

24th.  Greorge  W.  Walker  rejoined  me  in  Hobart  Town, 
where  we  made  up  a  report,  of  our  visit  to  Port  Arthur, 
containing  the  substance  of  the  foregoing  remarks,  and 
presented  it  to  the  Lieutenant  Grovemor. — Feeling  much 
interested  for  the  prisoners,  and  for  the  Catechist  who  had 
lately  come  into  office  at  the  Penal  Settlement,  but  who 
was  absent  during  our  visit,  I  addressed  a  letter  to  him, 
of  which  an  extract  is  inserted  in  Appendix.  I. 

30th.  Our  meetings  were  largely  attended,  and  were  sea- 
sons of  comfort.  D.  Wheeler  and  myself  had  to  inculcate  in 
them,  the  necessity  of  a  more  full  submission  to  the  inward 
dominion  of  Christ,  as  the  leader  and  governor  of  his  people; 
testifying,  that,  without  submission  to  his  Spirit,  we  can 
never  truly  assure  ourselves  of  the  pardon  of  our  sins,  even 
through  faith  in  his  blood ;  as  he  said,  *'  Not  every  one  that 
saith  unto  me.  Lord,  Lord,  shall  enter  the  kingdom  of  heaven; 
but  he  that  doeth  the  will  of  my  Father,  which  is  in  heaven.^* 

12th  mo,  1st.  I  had  a  conference  with  a  person  respecting 
the  settlement  of  his  affairs,  and  took  some  memorandums, 
from  which  the  draft  of  his  will  was  prepared,  which  was  read 
to  him,  in  the  company  of  his  wife  and  sons.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  the  Laws  of  Primogeniture  and  Entail,  which 
are  of  prejudicial  influence  in  Great  Britain,  should  be  in 
force  in  a  new  Colony  like  this.  Their  direct  tendency  is, 
to  preserve  influence  in  the  hands  of  persons  who  may  have 
nothing  to  qualify  them  to  use  it  aright,  and  thus  to  prevent 
the  influence  of  others,  who  may  have  every  necessary  quali- 
fication to  benefit  the  public,  but  may  not  be  possessed  of 
great  property;  and  this  is  but  a  small  part  of  the  evil 
connected  witii  these  laws.     My  attention  has  long    been 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  VAN    DIEMENS    LAND.  229 

attracted  to  their  pernicious  effect  upon  the  progress  of 
civil  and  religious  improvement  in  my  native  land,  tlie  pros- 
perity of  which  lies  near  to  my  heart. 

4th.  We  have  lately  met  with  several  of  the  Pensioners 
who  came  out  with  us  in  the  Science.  Many  of  them,  and 
of  other  persons  of  the  lowest  class,  find  difficulty  in  obtain- 
ing employment.  Some  of  the  steadier  ones  are  employed 
as  police-constables,  at  the  wage  of  one  shilling  and  nine 
pence  a  day.  Several  have  died,  and  others  have  been 
brought  into  circumstances  of  degradation,  through  intem- 

10th.  We  completed  the  shipment  of  our  luggage,  and 
embarked  on  board  the  Henry  Freeling,  after  taking  leave 
of  our  friends ;  from  many  of  whom  it  was  a  trial  to  part. 

11th.  The  wind  being  unfavourable,  we  went  on  shore, 
to  meeting.  To  myself  it  was  a  season  of  poverty,  but 
not  without  consolation.  My  work  being  done  here,  at 
least  for  the  present,  it  has  pleased  my  Heavenly  Father 
to  permit  me  to  feel  much  of  my  own  emptiness,  but  in 
something  of  true  stillness,  in  which  I  desire  to  give  aU 
glory  to  the  Lord,  in  the  acknowledgment  of  being  an 
unprofitable  servant. — ^We  took  tea  with  Philip  Palmer, 
who  was  at  this  time  holding  the  office  of  Rural  Dean,  and 
from  whom  we  had  received  much  kindness.  Several  other 
persons  were  also  of  the  company,  among  whom  was 
William  Marshall,  the  surgeon  of  the  Alligator,  ship-of- 
war,  with  whom  we  had,  at  various  times,  much  pleasant 
intercourse.  He  took  no  active  part  in  fighting,  but  la- 
boured diligently  to  promote  the  spread  of  the  Gospel  of 
Peace  ;  often  reasoning  also  with  the  people,  on  temperance, 
righteousness  and  judgment  to  come.  In  many  respects, 
we  felt  much  unity  of  spirit  with  him,  notwithstanding  we 
considered  his  position  on  board  a  ship-of-war,  a  very 
doubtful  one  for  a  vital  Christian. — [This  valuable  individual 
lost  his  life  in  the  Niger  expedition,  in  1841.] 

After  this  visit  we  returned  on  board  the  Henry  Freeling, 
accompanied  by  our  kind  friend  T.  J.  Crouch,  who  took 
leave  of  us  at  a  late  hour,  when  the  ketch  was  preparing 
for  sea. 

Q  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Vo3rage  to  Sydney. — ^Cape  Howe. — ^Diversity  of  Gifts. — Dangerous  Ktoation. — 
Fort  Jackson. — Sydney. — ^Religious  Instruction. — Aborigines. — Rock  Oysters. 
— Brugmansia. — Visit  to  the  Governor. — Projected  Visit  to  Norfolk  Island. — 
Meetings  on  Ship-board. — S.  Marsden. — ^New  Year's  Day. — Shrubs. — "  Brick- 
fielder." — ^First  Meetings  on  Shore. — ^Temperance  Meeting. — ^Works  of  Crea- 
tion.— ^Visit  to  the  Governor,  at  Parramatta.  —  Card  Playing. — Snake. — 
Elizabeth  Bay. — Fig-tree  and  Acrosticum  grande. — Peaches. — Plants. — School 
Meeting. — Group  of  Aborigines. — Parasites. — Meeting  in  the  Court-House. — 
Luminous  Appearances  in  the  Sea. — ^New  Zealand  Hostages.—  Imposition  on 
Medical  Men. — ^Meeting  on  Board  the  Henry  Porcher. 

12th  mo.  12th.  Thb  weather  was  beautifully  dear,  and  the 
moon  was  shining  brightly,  when  we  came  on  board  the 
Henry  Freeling,  last  night.  The  ketch  was  soon  got  under 
weigh,  and  it  was  proceeding  smoothly  down  the  Derwent 
when  we  retired  to  rest ;  but  we  had  scarcely  cleared  Storm 
Bay,  before  our  gentle  breeze  increased  into  a  gale.  At  an 
early  hour  we  were  roused  by  the  rolling  of  the  vessel,  on  a 
heavy  sea :  it  frequently  washed  over  the  deck,  the  seams  of 
which  had  opened  under  the  influence  of  the  dry  atmosphere 
of  Tasmania,  so  that  some  of  us  were  soon  compelled,  firom 
the  dripping  in,  of  the  salt-water,  to  leave  our  berths,  and 
take  to  the  sofas. 

17th.  At  sun-set,  we  were  off  Cape  Howe,  the  south- 
east point  of  New  South  Wales :  the  cape  and  adjacent  coast 
were  ftdntly  visible.  The  sea  had  been  rough  much  of  the 
time  since  we  left  Hobart  Town.  The  roll  of  the  vessel  was 
so  great  after  roimding  Cape  Pillar,  as  to  make  some  of  the 
oldest  sailors  on  board,  sick.  Birds  have  been  numerous, 
and  we  have  seen  a  few  whales. 

18th.   The  weather  was  fine  in  the  forenoon.  In  the  course 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  COAST   OP  NEW    SOUTH   WALES.  231 

of  the  day  we  passed  Montagu  Island^  Mount  Dromedary, 
and  Point  Dromedary, — In  perusing  the  Journal  of  the  visit 
of  my  friends,  John  and  Martha  Yeardley,  in  Greece,  &c. 
I  was  led  to  admire  the  goodness  of  the  Lord,  in  preparing 
instruments  for  the  particular  fields  of  labour,  into  which 
he  calls  them.  Thus,  these  dear  friends  have  been  prepared 
for  service  among  the  dense  population  of  an  old  continent ; 
our  dear  Daniel  and  Charles  Wheeler  for  a  course  of  voy- 
aging among  the  islands  of  the  Pacific ;  and  6.  W.  Walker 
and  myself,  as  a  sort  of  pioneers,  in  the  bush  of  Tasmania. 
Each  party  would,  I  suppose,  have  found  the  path  of  the 
other  more  trying  than  the  one  in  which  himself  was  sent ; 
the  diversified  gifts  of  each  have  been  adapted  by  the  Lord 
of  all,  to  the  respective  services  in  which  he  has  required 
them  to  be  exercised. 

19th.  The  forenoon  was  beautifully  fine.  We  dried  our 
wet  bedding  in  the  sun,  and  got  a  leak  in  the  deck  stopped. 
Shoals  of  small  fish  were  frequently  passing,  and  numbers  of 
laiger  ones,  rising  out  of  the"  water  among  them,  probably, 
taking  the  small  ones  as  their  prey.  A  few  Albatrosses 
and  Mutton-birds  were  swimming  on  the  smooth  surface  of 
the  sea.  In  the  afternoon,  we  had  thunder,  lightning,  rain, 
and  a  brisk  wind.  The  evening  was  wet  and  dark,  and  the 
current  had  carried  us  so  close  in  shore,  that  when  near 
Cape  George,  at  the  entrance  to  Jervis  Bay,  it  was  dis- 
covered, by  some  lights  of  the  natives  on  the  land,  that  a 
few  minutes'  continuance'  in  the  same  course,  would  have 
run  us  upon  the  rocky  coast.  Alarm  was  excited  among 
the  seamen,  and  I  do  not  doubt  but  our  situation  was  a 
perilous  one;  yet  on  turning  my  mind  to  the  Lord,  as  I 
continued  writing,  I  felt  a  peaceful  calm,  and  sufficient 
evidence  to  satisfy  me,  that  no  harm  should  befall  us. — 
Blessed  for  ever  be  the  name  of  the  Shepherd  of  Israel, 
who  neither  slumbereth  nor  sleepeth,  but  who,  at  times, 
permits  us  to  see  danger,  under  such  circumstances,  as  that 
we  may  know  that  it  is  he  who  delivereth  us.  The  vessel 
was  got  round  in  time  to  clear  the  inhospitable  shore,  and 
we  proceeded  in  safety  on  our  voyage. 

20th.     We  passed   Botany  Bay  this  morning,  and  about 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

232  SYDNEY.  [12th  mo. 

noon^  entered  Port  Jackson.    The  coast  of  this  part  of  New 
South  Wales,  is  bold,  and   in  many  places,  perpendicular. 
The  cli£Fs,  which  are  of  sand-stone,  are  interrupted  by  small 
sandy  bays.     Port  Jackson  is  a  considerable  estuary.     The 
entrance,  with  the  Henry  Freeling,  is  represented  in  the  an- 
nexed etching,  from  a  sketch  by  my  friend  Charles  Wheeler. 
A  light-house   marks   the   South    Head,   which  is  about  a 
mile  from  the  North  Head.     The  estuary  branches  into  nu- 
merous bays ;  some  of  which  have  sandy  beaches,  others  are 
very  rugged,  as  are  also  some  of  the  low  hills  behind  them. 
The  hills,   in    many  places,    are   covered  with    Gum-trees 
and  different  species  of  Banksia,  and  other  trees  and  shrubs, 
such  as  are  peculiar  to  this  part  of  the  world.     Some  of  the 
more  even   places  have   been    cleared,    and    have    houses 
erected  upon   them.     A  few  of  these  are  of  imposing  ap- 
pearance.— A  pilot  boarded  us  at  the  Heads,  and  brought  us 
safely  to  anchor  in  Sydney  Cove.     Thus,  through  the  mercy 
of  him  whose  providential  care  is  over  us,  we  are  at  the  end 
of  another  voyage,  and  advanced  another  step  on  our  way. 
After  dinner,  I  went  on  shore  with  George  W.  Walker. 
We   called   on   Joseph   Orton,  the   superintendent   of  the 
Wesleyan  Mission,   in  these  parts,  for  whom  we  had  des- 
patches from   Hobart   Town,  and   after   spending  an  hour 
pleasantly  with  him,  returned  on  board  the  Henry  Free- 
ling.     In  point  of  building,  Sydney  strikes  us  as  being  more 
like  a  large  English  town,  than  Hobart  Town.     Many  of  the 
houses   are   in   contact:  the   shops  are  quite  English.      In 
general   appearance,  the  buildings  are  like  those   of  towns 
within  thirty  miles  of  London.     In  the  court-yards  and  the 
gardens  of  the   more   retired   streets.  Peach,   Orange,  and 
Loquat  trees.  Grape-vines,  and  many  singular  and  beautiful 
shrubs   are  growing  luxuriantly ;    here   and   there,    tower- 
ing Norfolk  Island  Pines  also  mark  the  difference  from  the 
climate  of  England.      White   Mulberry  forms   a   common 
screen  round   the  gardens,  and  a   small  tree,  called  here 
White   Cedar,  Melia  Azederachy  is   often  planted  between 
the   houses  and  the   outer  fence  of  the  premises.     In  our 
walk,  we   saw   no  person   that '  we  knew.      We  are  again 
strangers,  in  a  strange  land. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

.1    •' 

■  •  •    \«    :  .  1       i>* 

I't  :     .Ti 

...    J   ...1. 

.M     .'   *     -  -         I. 

»■    "  '.  !•    I.    , 

It      <  .J'.l    ot      .«. 
••  ,.     I     ■  .!     I. 

\-.      .  ...  r      ..•  •■ 

"  .f   ..     i-f!v  :!..••>  "'y   I.   I. !«»:'.      1  i.  :iK- '."■■•; -^    '•  -  i.'- 
:.     -1.  !.      .  r    liu*       ..  ;■•     :'"■'' 'c:     ^.:     *  •-     T  -ut  '  .     O     . 
I-    I.     .  M     M    <;•    ;    -\'  .,  s  <...<'    1'  ..•       v:   .,      .'  •     ' 

'.'/.fall'     i''    i '  :j  :.'/'-L        ^'    r...'     .\f'i'  n-^ry    ^)i'is    t    «•  »• 
■i'i«ii    t  :u.Mi    t)  V'    './I'v!*  "I- .    ...'.1    a    .-I    •«'■    t'f«  .   i' ..*•  • 
•^     ■        (\,    1;. ,'"  •    ;  ^f'f't  rtii  ''»,    is    i  iti       |'  '♦''  '    ■ 

'  ■^—    ••     ..  i  i      ll«        *  .      •;  1,    •:    <   ♦     T^f     ••.••  1.,.    ,^  i 

i..    j\   sir:  •:  ..*   1   :■•'!. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



...  K 





Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by 


1834.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  233 

21st.  We  remained  on  board,  and  twice  assembled  with 
the  crew,  for  what  might  more  properly  be  called  religious 
instruction  than  public  worship.  After  a  solemn  pause,  a 
portion  of  Holy  Scripture  was  read ;  another  pause  ensued, 
then  a  few  Psalms  were  read,  after  which  a  considerable 
time  was  spent  in  silence.  In  the  morning  the  silence  was 
broken  also,  by  the  ministerial  labours  of  George  W.  Walker 
and  myself.  In  assembling  with  the  crew  of  the  vessel, 
who  have  not  been  brought  to  the  same  views  with  Friends, 
and  few  of  them  to  clear  religious  principles,  our  friends 
Daniel  and  Charles  Wheeler  have  adopted  the  practice  of 
spending  a  portion  of  time  in  reading  the  Scriptures,  as  we 
have  done  on  like  occasions. 

22nd.  We  received  a  friendly  call  from  John  Saunders, 
the  Baptist  minister,  and  made  acquaintance  with  a  few 
persons  attached  on  principle  to  the  Society  of  Friends. 

23rd.  We  called  at  the  Government  House,  and  entered 
our  names  for  an  audience  with  General  Bourke,  who  at 
this  season  of  the  year,  resides  at  Parramatta.  We  also 
waited  on  Alexander  Mc.  Leay,  the  Colonial  Secretary,  and 
on  Thomas  C.  Harington,  the  Under  Secretary,  to  each  of 
whom  we  had  letters  of  introduction,  and  by  whom  we  were 
politely  received. — From  these  individuals  and  their  family 
connexions,  we  received  unvarying  kindness  during  our 
sojourn  in  this  Colony. 

After  dinner  we  crossed  to  the  north  shore  of  Port  Jack- 
son, and  had  a  walk  in  the  bush.  Though  Gum-trees  and 
Acacias  are  prominent  productions  of  the  vegetable  kingdom 
here,  as  well  as  in  Tasmania,  yet  there  is  so  great  a  variety 
of  other  trees  and  shrubs,  not  found  in  that  island,  as  to 
give  this  country  a  different  aspect,  in  many  places.  Insects 
are  more  numerous  here  than  in  V.  D.  Land.  The  Tetii- 
ffonuBy  here  called  Locusts,  of  which  there  are  several 
species,  keep  up  a  constant  rattle,  like  that  of  a  cotton-miU, 
both  in  the  town  and  out  of  it.  They  are  generally  stationed 
on  the  upper  portion  of  the  trunks  of  trees,  or  on  the  larger 
branches :  some  of  the  kinds  attain  to  four  inches  in  length. 
Moschettos  are  abundant,  and  are  very  annoying  to  some 
persons.     On  returning,  we  passed  a  family  of  Aborigines, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

234  SYDNEY.  [12th  mo. 

sitting  round  a  small  fire :  two  women  had  blankets  thrown 
around  them,  and  one  of  them  had  a  dirty  piece  of  flannel 
about  her  neck :  she  said  she  had  been  very  ill.  They  had 
three  children,  that  seemed  from  five  to  eight  years  old; 
one  of  which,  at  least,  was  a  half-caste.  They  had  also 
several  dogs  and  a  cat.  Some  men  belonging  to  them  were 
fishing;  and  three  fish  were  lying  near  their  fire.  They 
said,  one  of  the  men  had  gone  to  the  town  to  buy  bread, 
but  they  were  afraid  he  would  spend  the  money  in  drink. 
In  features  an  old  woman  reminded  us  of  some  of  the  least 
personable  of  our  acquaintance  among  the  Tasmanian  Abo- 
rigines :  a  younger  woman  was  of  less  forbidding  aspect ; 
and  the  childm  were  of  fine  bvely  countenance,  and  by  no 
means  of  unpleasant  features.  They  spoke  English  tolerably, 
and  gladly  accepted  a  few  pence  to  buy  bread.  Their  whole 
appearance  was  degraded  and  very  forlorn. 

The  Sandstone  rocks  on  the  shores  of  Port  Jackson,  are 
covered  with  Rock  Oysters :  these  are  of  small  size,  and  have 
undulating  shells ;  one  of  which  is  convex  and  fixed  to  the 
rock.  The  upper  shell  is  nearly  flat,  and  is  easily  struck  off 
by  means  of  a  horizontal  blow.  The  fish  is  of  good  flavour, 
and  is  sold  in  Sydney,  clear  of  the  shell,  at  6d;  a  pint.  The 
Aborigines  had  been  eating  Rock  Oysters,  and  another 
shell-fish  that  resembled  a  Cockle. 

24th.  The  evening  was  illuminated  by  lightning;  in  the 
town,  the  air,  after  sunset,  was  perfumed  by  the  blossoms 
of  Brtiffmansia  stuweolenSy  a  large  South  American  shrub, 
cultivated  in  almost  every  garden,  and  bearing  pendulous, 
whitish,  trumpet-shaped  blossoms,  seven  inches  in  length. 

27th.  Daniel  and  Charles  Wheeler,  and  George  W. 
Walker,  and  myself,  proceeded  to  the  office  of  the  Colonial 
Secretary,  who  accompanied  us  to  the  Government-house, 
and  introduced  us  to  Major  General  Richard  Bourke,  the 
Governor,  by  whom  we  were  courteously  received.  Daniel 
Wheeler  presented  his  certificate,  fipom  the  Morning  Meeting 
of  Ministers  and  Elders  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  in  London, 
and  a  letter  from  the  Secretary  for  the  Colonies.  The  Gover- 
nor alluded  to  some  interviews  I  had  had  with  him  in  London, 
in  1831,  when  he  read  my  certificates,  from  our  own  religious 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1834.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  235 

society.  I  now  presented  a  letter  to  him  from  Viscomit  Gode- 
rich^  recommending  G.  W.  Walker  and  myself,  and  the  object 
of  our  visit  to  tbese  Colonies^  to  his  notice;  also  a  letter  from 
Colonel  Arthur,  written  with  a  view  to  forward  our  desire  to 
visit  Norfolk  Island,  and  to  attend  to  similar  services  in  this 
Colony  generally ;  and  one  from  Joseph  Massey  Harvey,  of 
which  the  Governor  was  famished  with  a  copy,  by  the  writer, 
when  in  Ireland.  On  my  expressing  a  desire  to  be  permitted 
to  fulfil  an  apprehended  duty,  in  visiting  the  Penal  Settle- 
ment on  Norfolk  Island,  in  company  with  G.  W.  Walker, 
the  Governor  informed  us,  that  care  was  exercised  to  pre- 
vent persons,  under  ordinary  circumstances,  from  landing 
there,  but  he  readily  consented  to  our  going  thither,  under 
an  apprehension  of  religious  duty ;  and  to  our  being  put  on 
shore  there  by  the  Henry  Preeling,  on  her  way  to  Tahiti, 
and  being  left  to  be  brought  back  by  a  Government  vessel. 
Thus,  through  the  over-ruling  of  the  Most  High,  another 
important  object  was  put  in  train  to  be  accomplished,  by  our 
friends  coming  out  in  the  Henry  Freeling,  in  this  direction, 
and,  for  the  accomplishment  of  which,  way  opened  in  such 
a  manner,  as  to  afford  to  my  own  mind  satisfactory  evidence 
that  the  means  for  its  accomplishment,  as  well  as  the  sense 
of  duty  with  respect  to  the  visit,  were  of  the  Lord. 

28th.  We  assembled  twice  on  deck,  for  public  worship, 
having  "rigged  a  chapeV*  by  putting  up  the  awning,  and 
fixing  a  number  of  the  colours  along  the  sides  and  ends. 
A  small  congregation,  consisting  of  persons  somewhat  con- 
nected with  the  Society  of  Friends  assembled  with  our  ship's 
company.  A  considerable  time  was  spent  in  solemn  silence, 
in  which  there  was  a  sense  of  the  presence  of  the  Lord ; 
whose  presence  gives  Ufe  and  consolation  to  those  who  wait 
upon  him  in  sincerity  and  in  truth,  and  to  whose  goodness 
and  mercy  both  Daniel  Wheeler  and  myself  bore  testimony 
on  these  occasions. 

30th.  The  forenoon  was  occupied  in  conversation  with 
Samuel  Marsden,  the  intelligent,  aged,  episcopal  clergyman, 
of  Parramatta;  whose  heart  has  long  been  open  to  encourage, 
the  improvement  and  civilization  of  this  part  of  the  world, 
and  especially  the  introduction  of  Christianity  among  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

236  SYDNEY.  [1834. 

inhabitants  of  the  isles  of  the  Pacific.  He  dined  with  vls, 
and  gave  us  much  interesting  information  respecting  his 
visits  to  New  Zealand^  &c. 

1st  mo.  1st.  1835.  Our  week-day  meeting  was  held  on 
board.  Several  persons  attended  it  Daniel  Wheekr  al- 
luded to  the  commencement  of  the  new  year,  and  exhorted 
us  to  examine  what  progress  we  had  made  toward  the 
kingdom  of  heaven,  since  we  first  believed.  It  was  a  season 
of  comfort  under  a  sense  of  the  pardoning  and  sanctifying 
mercy  of  the  Most  High. 

We  took  a  walk  near  the  town  in  the  evening.  Many- 
beautiful  native  shrubs  are  in  flower  :  among  them  are 
Lambertia  formosay  Grevillea  btuvifolia  and  sericia,  Epacris 
grandifloray  &c.  which  grow  in  heathy  soil,  on  the  bushy 
ground,  covering  the  sandstone. 

3rd.  The  early  part  of  the  day  was  calm :  the  thermo- 
meter rose  to  100°  in  the  shade.  About  two  o'clock  the 
wind  arose,  with  violence,  from  the  south  east,  and  the 
thermometer  fell  to  70°.  It  rained  in  the  evening.  This 
kind  of  wind  has  occurred  a  few  times  before,  since  our 
arrival:  it  is  frequent  in  the  summer,  and  coming  upon 
the  town  from  the  direction  of  some  old  brick-fields,  has 
obtained  the  name  of  a  Brick-fielder.  It  brings  small 
pebbles  pelting  like  rain,  and  clouds  of  red  dust,  formed, 
not  however,  entirely  from  the  brick-fields,  but  also  from 
the  reddish  sand  and  soil  in  die  neighbourhood.  This 
dust  penetrates  the  houses,  in  spite  of  closed  doors  and 
windows,  till  it  is  seen  upon  ever3rthing,  and  may  be  felt 
grating  between  the  teeth. 

4th.  A  meeting  was  held  in  our  cabin,  this  morning :  it 
was  a  season  preciously  owned  of  the  Lord ;  the  influence 
of  whose  Spirit  brought  us  into  the  feeling  of  solemn 
reverence.  The  like  blessing  was  also  showered  down  upon 
us,  even  more  abundantly,  at  the  first  meeting  of  Friends 
held  on  land,  in  N.  S«  Wales,  at  John  Tawell's,  at  six 
o'clock  this  evening.  Twenty-two  persons  were  present.  On 
both  occasions  I  was  engaged  in  testimony  and  prayer ;  in 
the  evening,  Daniel  Wheeler  spoke  also  in  testimony,  and 
at  the   close  of  the   meeting  exhorted  us  to   endeavour  to 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  237 

keep  close  to  the  sense  of  the  divine  presence,  which  had 
been  so  mercifully  granted  us,  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord* 

5th.  In  the  evening,  we  were  present  at  a  public  meeting 
of  the  Temperance  Society,  in  a  large  school-room,  formerly 
used  as  a  court-house.  It  was  numerously  attended,  and 
many  respectable  females  were  of  the  company.  Richard 
Jones,  one  of  the  vice-presidents,  was  in  the  chair;  and 
Richard  Hill  was  secretary.  Some  resolutions,  which  time 
did  not  admit  of  being  brought  forward  at  a  former  meeting, 
were  now  proposed,  and  carried :  and  the  meeting  was  ad- 
dressed by  William  P.  Crook,  Dr.  Laing,  John  Saunders, 
William  Jarratt,  George  W.  Walker,  myself,  and  a  number  of 
persons,  whose  names  I  do  not  recollect.  I  have  no  doubt 
but  the  cause  of  temperance  was  promoted.  This  was  the 
first  meeting  of  the  kind  at  which  D.  and  C.  Wheeler  were 
ever  present,  their  residence  having  long  been  in  Russia. 
They  were  agreeably  interested.  They,  with  G.  W.  Walker 
and  myself,  were  kindly  and  publicly  welcomed  to  the  Colony 
at  this  meeting. 

6th.  Having  been  prevented  taking  exercise  for  some 
days,  we  went  on  shore,  in  the  evening,  on  the  north  side  of 
Port  Jackson,  and  collected  a  few  specimens  of  plants  and 
insects :  some  of  the  latter,  as  well  as  many  of  the  former, 
are  very  beautiful,  and  all  display  the  power  and  wisdom  of 
the  Creator.  The  more  the  works  of  creation  are  under- 
stood, the  more  the  evidence  of  infinite  wisdom  and  power 
in  the  Creator  is  seen.  If  it  were  designed  that  the  dis- 
play of  these,  in  every  part  of  creation,  should  be  among 
the  incitements  to  adoration  and  praise,  in  the  mind  of 
man,  how  greatly  is  his  fallen  state  exhibited  in  this  con- 
nexion !  Instead  of  being  able  to  name  them  according 
to  their  qualities,  as  Adam  was,  before  the  fall,  most  persons 
pass  them  unheeded  by ;  many  are  disgusted  at  the  proper- 
ties which  render  them  fit  for  the  places  they  are  designed  to 
fill ;  and  among  those  who  study  them,  too  many  make  them 
their  idob,  instead  of  giving  God  the  glory. 

11th.  Having  obtained  leave  to  hold  a  meeting  for  public 
worship  with  the  Inhabitants  of  Sydney,  in  the  Old  Court 
House,  and  extended  an  invitation  to  them,  a  congregation 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

238  PAR&AMATTA.  [1st  mo. 

of  from  four  to  five  hundred  people  assembled  with  us. 
Among  them  were  several  persons  of  influence.  It  was  a 
season  to  be  remembered  with  gratitude  to  Almighty  God ; 
who  strengthened  Daniel  Wheeler  and  myself  to  preach 
Jesus  Christy  and  him  crucified^  and  to  direct  our  auditors  to 
the  teaching  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  manifested  aa  the  light  and 
grace  of  Christ,  in  the  secret  of  the  heart ;  and  leading  to 
repentance  and  to  faith  in  him,  and  to  a  humble  dependence 
upon  God  for  ability  to  work  righteousness. 

13th.  The  Governor  having  invited  Daniel  Wheeler 
and  myself  to  visit  him  at  Parramatta,  the  Private  Secre- 
tary came  on  board  the  Henry  Freeling,  yesterday,  and 
made  arrangements  for  conveying  us  thither.  This  morn- 
ing a  government-boat  took  us  up  to  Parramatta,  which  is 
distant,  by  water,  fifteen  miles,  up  the  estuary  of  Port 
Jackson ;  which  for  the  greater  part  of  the  way,  runs  into 
bays  on  both  sides.  For  about  half  the  distance  from  Syd- 
ney, the*  bays  are  formed  by  woody  hills  of  low  elevation, 
running  into  rocky,  sand-stone  points.  Toward  Parramatta, 
the  shores  are  low  and  muddy,  and  the  contiguous  lands 
cleared  and  cultivated.  Houses  are  interspersed  at  moderate 
distances ;  some  of  them  are  inhabited  by  prosperous  settlers, 
and  have  the  aspect  of  those  of  English  gentlemen.  Many 
of  the  gardens  are  well  stocked  with  Peach,  Orange,  Mul- 
berry, Fig,  and  Loquat-trees,  and  Grape-vines.  The  grass 
lands  are  green  from  the  abundance  of  Cynodon  dactykm,  a 
grass  that  resists  the  drought  more  than  most  other  kinds. 
It  not  only  abounds  in  pastures  in  this  country,  but  takes 
the  place  occupied  by  Poa  annua  in  England,  at  the  roots  of 
walls,  by  the  sides  of  foot-paths,  &c. 

Conversation  on  various  subjects  passed  at  the  Government 
House,  in  the  course  of  the  afternoon  and  evening,  and 
among  them,  on  lunatic  asylums.  The  Governor  remarked  that 
an  institution  of  this  kind  was  greatly  wanted  in  N.  S.  Wales, 
and  seemed  pleased  with  a  proposition  to  supply  him  with  the 
"  Sketch  of  the  Retreat,*'  and  *'  Hints  on  the  Construction, 
&c.  of  Pauper  Lunatic  Asylums  ;**  with  which  I  afterwards 
furnished  him.  Tea  was  introduced  at  eight  o'clock,  and 
after  it,   cards,  with  which  some  of  the  company  amused 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  239 

themselves.  One  who  declined  joining  them,  said  he  had 
not  played  for  so  long,  that  he  had  forgotton  how,  and  that 
his  recollections  of  card-playing  were  painful.  On  behalf 
of  Daniel  Wheeler  and  myself,  I  stated  the  objections  of 
the  Society  of  Friends  to  the  practice,  on  account  of  its 
dissipating  effect  upon  the  mind,  and  its  tendency  to  draw 
into  an  immoral  risking  of  property.  This  elicited  the 
remark,  that  the  present  company  only  played  for  nominal 
stakes.  The  same  objection,  however,  Ues  against  playing 
for  nominal  stakes  in  gaming,  as  that  which  lies  against 
what  is  called  moderate  drinking,  in  the  use  of  intoxicating 
liquors.  It  gives  a  sanction  to  the  practice,  and  opens  the 
door  for  the  greatest  excesses.  Where  money  is  risked  in 
gaming,  to  take  it  one  from  another  on  such  a  ground, 
seems  to  me,  not  only  objectionable  for  the  reasons  already 
stated,  but  as  a  breach  of  that  consideration  one  for  another, 
which  is  an  essential  ingredient  in  true  politeness.  And  I 
have  remarked,  that  the  inconsistency  of  the  characteristics 
of  card-playing,  forces  itself  so  quickly  upon  the  minds  of 
persons,  on  their  coming  decidedly  under  religious  convic- 
tion, that  they  soon  discontinue  the  practice. 

14th.  On  returning  from  Parramatta,  a  large  Black  Snake 
crossed  the  road  close  before  the  carriage ;  it  alarmed  the 
horses,  so  as  to  make  them  start  to  one  side,  and  become 
difficult  to  manage. 

15th.  We  walked  to  Elizabeth  Bay,  and  met  the  Colo- 
nial Secretary,  at  his  beautiful  garden,  which  is  formed  on 
a  rocky  slope,  on  the  margin  of  Port  Jackson,  of  which 
it  commands  a  fine  view. — Here  are  cultivated,  specimens 
of  many  of  the  interesting  trees  and  shrubs,  of  this  Colony, 
along  with  others  from  various  parts  of  the  world,  inter- 
mixed with  some  growing  in  their  native  localities.  Among 
the  last,  is  a  fine  old  Rusty-leaved  Fig-tree,  FicuB  ferruginea^ 
which  is  an  evergreen,  and  has  laurel-like  leaves.  A  noble 
specimen  of  Acrosticum  grandey  a  fern  of  very  remarkable 
structure,  from  Moreton  Bay,  is  attached  to  a  log  of  wood, 
and  secured  by  a  chain  to  a  limb  of  this  Fig-tree.  The 
walks  at  this  place  are  judiciously  accommodated  to  the 
inequalities  of  the  sinuous  bay,  and  are  continued  roimd  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

• '     l" 

(    r  \ 

■.'.  .'.'';•    n. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

240  SYDNEY.  [1st  mo. 

point  covered  with  native  bush.  Peaches  are  ripe  in  the 
open  ground  in  abundance^  and  liberty  to  partake  of  them 
freely,  was  kindly  given,  by  the  open-hearted  proprietor. — 
Dendrobium  speciosum  and  linguiformey  remarkable  plants  of 
the  Orchis  tribe,  are  wild  here,  upon  the  rocks,  and  D. 
tetraffonum  is  naturalized  on  a  branch  of  Avicennia  tomen- 
tosuy  covered  with  Rock-oyster  shells,  and  suspended  in  a 
tree  near  the  shore.  A  fine  patch  of  the  Elks-horn  Fern, 
Acroaticum  alcicomey  retains  its  native  station  on  a  rocky 
point  in  the  garden. 

18th.  Our  meetings  to-day  were  seasons  of  renewed 
fevour  and  mercy.  Several  persons  were  present  in  the 
morning,  who  had  not  before  met  with  us :  at  the  conclu- 
sion of  that  in  the  evening,  D.  Wheeler  alluded  to  the 
sense  of  divine  influence  that  had  prevailed  over  us,  until  it 
might  rightly  be  said,  "The  Lord  God  omnipotent  reigneth/* 

19th.  A  meeting  was  held  for  the  organization  of  an 
Australian  School  Society,  auxiliary  to  the  British  and 
Foreign  School  Society.  Some  opposition  was  exhibited, 
but  ultimately  this  was  overruled,  and  measures  were  adopted 
for  carrying  the  object  into  effect. 

20th.  In  the  evening,  we  went  to  the  north  shore,  and 
again  fell  in  with  a  group  of  the  Aborigines,  that  we  met 
with  there  a  few  days  since.  They  were  now  sitting  around 
a  fire  and  smoking,  not  excepting  a  little,  naked  boy,  about 
two  years  old,  who  seemed  as  busy  with  his  short  pipe  as 
any  of  the  company.  They  often  obtain  in  Sydney,  the 
washings  of  rum-casks,  which  they  call  "  BidV^  and  get  in- 
toxicated with  it.  In  this  state  they  quarrel  among  them- 
selves, notwithstanding  they  are  very  peaceable  toward  the 
white  population. — A  group  of  these  people,  as  they  are 
seen,  degraded  by  contact  with  a  population  of  European 
extraction,  is  represented  in  the  accompanying  etching  from 
the  pencil  of  Charles  Wheeler. 

27th.  At  the  request  of  the  Governor,  we  waited 
upon  him,  and  he  kindly  desired  to  be  informed,  if  he 
could  do  anything  further  to  assist  us  in  our  anticipated 
voyages. — In  the  afternoon  we  joined  a  company  of  pious 
persons,  of  various  denominations,  at  the  house  of  George 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  241 

Allen^  a  short  distance  from  Sydney.  Conversation  took 
place^  on  the  views  and  practices  which  distinguish  the 
Society  of  Friends.  These  we  had  in  some  measure  to  ex- 
emplify^ in  a  religious  opportunity^  which  commenced  with 
the  reading  of  the  first  epistle  to  the  Thessalonians.  I  made 
some  comments  on  this*  occasion^  upon  the  text,  ^'Pray  with- 
out ceasing  ^^  shewing,  that  the  fidfilment  of  this  injunction, 
depended  upon  a  close  attention  to  the  teaching  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  by  which  we  are  made  quick  of  understanding  in  the 
fear  of  the  Lord ;  and  are  enabled  to  discern  our  wants,  so  as 
continually  to  breathe  our  petitions  in  secret,  to  our  Father 
who  seeth  in  secret.  Daniel  Wheeler  was  also  engaged  in 
the  same  line  of  service. 

In  an  evening  walk,  on  the  North  Shore,  we  saw  a  large, 
old,  bushy  Fig-tree,  Ficus  ferrugineay  overhanging  the 
water  ;  some  of  its  limbs  were  almost  covered  with  Acros- 
ticum  akicome  and  Dendrobmm  Imgviffjrme,  A  broad-leaved 
LorarUhuSy  a  parasite  of  the  same  tribe  as  the  Mistle- 
toe, but  with  much  finer  blossoms,  was  growing  upon  some 
of  the  branches.  Plants  of  this  genus  are  of  frequent  occur- 
rence in  this  Colony.  Some  of  them  incorporate  themselves 
with  the  wood  of  the  foster  tree,  and  others  adhere  to  the 
bark  by  an  external  root. 

2nd  mo.  1st.  We  held  our  meeting,  in  the  forenoon,  on 
board  the  Henry  Freeling.  It  was  attended  by  most  of  the 
persons  who  generaUy  assemble  with  us.  Silence  was  only 
interrupted  by  a  few  words,  near  the  conclusion,  expressed 
by  myself,  on  the  doctrine  of  Christian  love,  as  set  forth  by 
our  Saviour  and  the  apostle  John,  and  a  short  addition  on 
the  same  subject  by  Daniel  Wheeler. 

In  the  evening,  we  had  a  large  meeting  in  the  Old 
Court-house,  the  use  of  which  was  granted  us  for  the 
purpose.  It  was  an  exercise  of  faith,  to  invite  people  to 
such  a  meeting,  under  an  apprehension  of  religious  duty. 
But  I  was  enabled  to  believe,  that  whether  it  should  be 
best  for  us  to  set  an  example  of  waiting  on  Ood  in 
silence,  or  to  speak  in  his  holy  name,  qualification  would 
be  given  at  the  time  ;  and  in  this  confidence,  to  fulfil 
the  injunction,  ^'Cast  thy  burden  upon  the  Lord,  and  he  shall 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

242  SYDNEY.  [2nd  mo. 

sustain  thee/^  I  was  preserved  in  great  mental  quietude, 
through  almost  half  the  meeting,  though  feeling  much  of  a 
blank  in  mind,  except  as  regarded  this  sense  of  dependence. 
When,  at  length,  tfie  passage,  "Why  do  the  disciples  of 
John  and  of  the  Pharisees  fast,  but  thy  disciples  fast  not  F' 
was  presented  to  my  view,  with  an  apprehension  that  it  was 
my  duty  to  express  it. — I  saw  but  little  of  the  scope  of 
these  subjects,  to  what  opened,  as  I  gave  utterance  to  them, 
and  by  which  I  was  enabled  to  preach  the  new  birth,  Christ 
crucified,  &c.  Daniel  Wheeler  added  a  few  sentences  in  the 
same  strain.  After  I  had  given  utterance  also  to  prayer,  on 
bended  knees,  the  meeting  separated.  We  felt  thankful 
to  Him  who  continues  to  be,  to  his  dependent  children,  a 
present  help  in  time  of  need,  and  who  qualifies  them  for  the 
labour  to  which  he  calls  them,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  prove, 
both  to  themselves  and  to  others,  that  all  the  glory  belongs 
unto  Himself,  and  to  Himself  alone. 

On  returning  to  the  Henry  Freeling,  the  water  was 
beautifully  luminous,  wherever  it  was  agitated.  This  is 
often  the  case  in  calm  nights.  A  train,  like  the  tail  of  a 
comet,  followed  the  boat;  and  each  oar,  as  it  dipped,  be- 
came surrounded  by  a  luminous  patch,  which  became  fainter 
for  some  time  after  the  oar  left  the  water,  and  at  length 
died  away.  Sometimes  brilliant  shining  points  adhere  to  the 
oars,  which  may  possibly  be  phosphorescent  animalcules. 
The  light,  in  the  wake  of  the  boat,  and  on  the  dip  of  the 
oars,  is  also  probably  occasioned  by  this  race  of  minute, 
animated  beings,  or  by  phosphorescent  matter  disengaged 
from  the  water ;  and  which  may  be  formed  by  decomposing 
animal  and  vegetable  substances. 

4th.  I  had  some  conversation  with  Samuel  Marsden,  and 
with  the  Colonial  Secretary,  on  the  case  of  a  New  Zealander, 
who  was  on  board  the  Henry  Freeling  a  few  days  ago ;  he, 
and  his  wife  and  child,  were  brought  away  from  tiieir 
own  country,  as  hostages,  by  a  house  in  Sydney,  that  has 
a  whaling  establishment  on  that  part  of  the  coast  of  New 
Zealand,  to  which  these  people  belong,  and  of  which,  tliis 
man  is  said  to  be  a  chief.  The  lives  of  the  persons  employed 
by  this    house  were   thought   to   be   in   danger,   and    this 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

18S5«]  NEW   SOUTH    WALES.  243 

expedient  was  adopted  for  their  protection.  Tliere  is  reason 
to  beUeve,  it  was  with  the  consent  of  the  man  and  his  country- 
men^ that  he  and  his  wife  became  hostages^  but  they  seem  to 
have  had  no  idea  of  being  so  long  detained.  The  chief  com- 
plains of  the  detention,  and  says,  that,  if  an  Englishman  had 
been  detained  in  like  manner  in  his  coimtry,  a  man-of-war 
would  have  been  sent  to  demand  him.  It  is  an  important 
question,  how  far  it  is  proper  to  allow  of  acts  of  this  charac- 
ter, and  one  which  merits  the  consideration  of  the  British 
Legislature. — In  the  evening  George  W.  Walker  and  myself 
attended  the  committee  of  the  Temperance  Society.  About 
a  dozen  persons  were  present.  The  cause  of  temperance  ap- 
pears to  be  gaining  ground. 

5th.  We  had  a  visit  from  a  young  physician,  who  was 
prevailed  upon  to  join  a  ship  at  Liverpool,  as  the  medical 
officer,  with  the  understanding,  that  for  his  passage  out,  he 
was  only  expected  to  attend  to  the  state  of  the  crew ;  and 
that  if  his  services  were  required  by  the  passengers,  they 
would  pay  him  on  their  own  private  account.  But  he  after- 
wards found,  that  the  contract  of  the  owners  with  the  passen- 
gers, included  medical  attendance ;  and  of  this,  the  owners 
took  care  to  apprize  him,  when  the  ship  was  on  the  point  of 
sailing.  Thus  they  availed  themselves  of  his  services  for  the 
whole  ship's  company,  when  he  was  unable  to  make  a  stand 
against  their  imposition. — ^This  is  the  second  instance  we 
have  met  with,  of  medical  men  being  imposed  upon,  in  con- 
nexion with  voyages  to  these  colonies.  In  the  other  case, 
the  surgeon  was  invited  to  see  the  ship,  when  at  Gravesend, 
and  to  sleep  on  board,  and  in  the  morning  he  found  himself 
at  sea! 

Having  believed  it  would  be  right  for  us,  before  proceeding 
to  Norfolk  Island,  to  hold  a  meeting  with  such  of  the  crews 
of  the  numerous  vessels,  now  lying  in  Port  Jackson,  as  could 
be  collected,  application  was  made  to  John  Hart,  the  master 
of  the  Henry  Porcher,  for  the  use  of  the  deck  of  his  vessel, 
for  this  pmpose.  This  was  readily  granted,  and  arrange- 
ments were  made  accordingly. 

8th.  Notice  of  our  intended  meeting  having  been  given 
on  board  all  the  ships,  in  the  port,  about  a  hundred  and  fifty 

R  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

244  SYDNEY.  [2nd  mo. 

persons,  chiefly  masters  of  vessels  and  officers,  assembled  on 
board  the  Henry  Porcher,  this  morning.  It  was  a  season  in 
which  Divine  Mercy  brought  us  under  solemn  feeling,  and 
gave  ability  to  preach  the  Gospel  freely,  without  any  compro- 
mise of  principle,  to  the  practices  of  men.  When  constrained 
by  the  love  of  Christ,  to  preach,  it  is  a  favour  to  be  enabled 
to  preach  the  Oospel  fully,  both  with  regard  to  faith  and 
practice,  even  when  we  ourselves  may  feel,  that  we  have  not 
attained  to  the  full  measure  of  that  which  the  Gospel  requires; 
a  feeling  that  ought  to  prompt  to  an  increase  of  diligence, 
in  making  our  calling  and  election  sure.  After  the  meet- 
ing, we  distributed  a  number  of  tracts,  confining  ourselves, 
on  this  occasion,  to  those  published  by  Friends,  and  those 
of  the  Temperance  Society. — ^At  our  meeting  on  shore, 
in  the  evening,  a  long  time  of  silence,  preceded  a  lively  tes- 
timony from  Daniel  Wheeler;  I  also  addressed  the  company, 
and  afterwards  gave  utterance  to  prayer,  in  the  prospect  of 
departing  for  a  season  from  this  land. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Arrangements  for  yiniting  Norfolk  Island. — ^Departure. — Adverse  Winds. — Shark 
and  Pilot-fiBh.— Seamen. — Spiritual  Navigation.— Jelly-fish. — "  The  Elizabeth' ' 
Whaler. — Tropic  Bird.— Norfolk  Island. — ^Departure  of  D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — 
Orange  Vale. — Oak. — Geology. — ^Features  of  the  Island. — Norfolk  Island  Pine 
and  Tree-fern. — Fruits. — ^Description  of  Prisoners. — Assemblies  for  Worship. 

2nd  mo.  12th.  At  the  request  of  the  Governor,  we  again 
waited  upon  him,  to  receive  further  instructions  respecting 
our  visit  to  Norfolk  Island ;  and,  by  his  order,  the  Colonial 
Secretary  furnished  us  with  the  documents  needful  to  secure 
us  a  reception,  addressed  to  the  Commandant.  In  order  to 
be  ready  for  sailing,  the  Henry  Freeling  was  yesterday  re- 
moved from  her  mooring,  into  the  stream,  where  she  lay  close 
by  the  Government  schooner,  Isabella,  also  bound  for 'Nor- 
folk Island,  with  soldiers  and  prisoners.  In  the  evening  we 
took  leave  of  our  friends  in  the  town,  and  returned  on  board 
the  little  vessel,  which  had  been  our  dwelling-place  during 
our  sojourn,  at  this  time,  in  N.  S.  Wales. 

13th.  The  Isabella  sailed  early  in  the  morning;  and  we 
took  a  pilot  on  board,  who  brought  us  to  the  Heads  of  Port 
Jackson,  by  noon.  We  had  not  been  long  at  sea  before  we 
all  fell  sick.  Though  the  distance  to  Norfolk  Island  is  only 
about  a  thousand  miles,  this  voyage  occupied  nineteen  days* 
Adverse  winds  drove  us  far  eastward,  toward  New  Zealand, 
and  we  were  much  delayed  by  calms. 

17th.  Being  pretty  well  recovered,  we  were  able  to  read, 
and  to  take  exercise  on  deck.  A  Shark,  about  seven  feet 
long,  followed  at  our  stem,  most  of  the  day.  It  had  been 
attracted  by  the  offal  of  a  sheep  that  was  killed  in  the 
morning.     Having  had  its  hunger  appeased,  it  could  not  be 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

246  PACIFIC  OCEAN.  [2nd  mo. 

tempted  to  take  a  nice  piece  of  pork  that  concealed  a  large 
hook.  Two  little  Pilot-fish  were  swimming  fearlessly  before 
the  nose  of  this  rapacious  animal^  and  three  lax^r  ones  in 
advance  of  the  bow  of  the  vessel^  often  almost  in  contact 
with  it;  but  they  darted  nimbly  forward^  so  as  always  to 
avoid  a  blow.  To  have  the  precedence  of  something  larger 
than  themselves,  seems  a  pleastu^  to  them;  but  I  could 
not  discover  their  inducement. 

21st.  We  have  lately  spent  a  little  time  in  reading,  not- 
withstanding the  motion  of  the  vessel  renders  the  head  in- 
capable of  bearing  much  effort  at  one  time,  either  in  this 
exercise,  or  in  writing. — It  is  pleasant  to  see  the  seamen 
instructing  one  another  in  nautical  observations  and  calcu- 
lations. The  carpenter  is  a  good  navigator;  he  became 
awakened  to  the  importance  of  eternal  things  on  his  voyage 
from  England;  since  he  became  a  steady  man,  he  has 
taken  pleasure  in  instructing  the  other  sailors,  who  are  im- 
proving in  knowledge  and  conduct.  On  board  the  Henry 
Freeling,  there  is  a  happy  exemption  from  the  foolish  mys- 
tery that  prevails  on  board  many  other  ships,  respecting  the 
course  of  the  vessel,  by  which  the  sailors  are  kept  in 
Ignorance,  to  no  good  purpose. 

22nd.  We  assembled  twice  on  deck,  with  the  crew. 
Some  portions  of  Holy  Scripture  were  read,  and  a  consider- 
able time  was  spent  in  silence.  In  the  morning,  I  spoke 
to  the  seamen  on  the  importance  of  having  the  attention 
constantly  alive  to  the  pointings  of  the  Spirit,  and  on  the 
necessity  of  daily,  close  self-examination,  in  order  to  main- 
tain a  steady  course  heavenward ;  illustrating  these  subjects, 
by  comparing  them  with  the  necessity  of  attention  to  the 
compass,  in  steering  the  vessel,  and  with  making  daily 
observations  of  the  sun's  altitude,  &c.  by  means  of  nau- 
tical instruments,  to  ascertain  the  exact  place  to  which  the 
vessel  had  attained  in  her  course. 

25th.  The  wind  has  generally  been  adverse,  since  we  left 
Sydney ;  to-day  it  is  light,  and  the  swell  is  high  from  the 
opposite  direction.  A  shoal  of  Black-fish  passed  us  this 
morning.  A  Dolphin  threw  itself  out  of  the  water  several 
times  at  our  bow,  being  probably  in  pursuit  of  small  fish. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  PACIFIC    OCEAN.  247 

It  resembles  a  Pike  in  figure,  much  more  than  the  strange- 
looking  thing  that  is  represented  on  signs  in  England.  Some- 
times, however,  it  gives  itself  remarkable  twists,  when  playing 
on  the  water.  Its  colour  is  brilliant  blue,  and  gold  bronze,  on 
the  back,  and  silvery,  underneath.  Jelly-fish  were  very 
numerous;  sometimes  the  sea  seemed  almost  full  of  them. 
The  most  common  species,  represented 
at  Figure  1.  consisted  of  from  five  to 
fourteen  transparent  tubes,  about  three 
inches  in  length,  and  one  inch  in  dia- 
meter, united  lateraUy,  so  as  to  form  a 
truncated  cone,  of  about  twelve  inches 
in  circumference.  These  tubes  had  angular  openings  at 
their  upper  extremities  :  the  lower  ends  were  closed  by 
membranes,  that  'the  animal  drew  in  and  projected  at 
pleasure,  and  which,  in  connexion  with  the  alternate  ex- 
pansion and  contraction  of  the  tubes,  served  to  take  in  and 
eject  water.  By  this  means  the  animal  was  also  propelled 
along  in  the  ocean.  In  the  upper  part  of  each  tube,  there 
was  a  brown,  horse-shoe-shaped  line,  under  which  a  smaU, 
white  body  was  situated  as  in  Fig.  4.  A  smaller  conical 
body  was  enclosed  within  the  circle  of  the  external  tubes. 
The  complete  tubes  ultimately  become  separated,  and  are 
to  be  met  with  swimming  about  separately,  without  any 
apparent  diminution  of  vital  power.  In  these,  the  coloured 
line  was  perfectly  straight.  Fine,  transverse  striee  were  visi- 
ble in  some  portions  of  the  tubes.  At  night,  numerous  ani- 
mals of  another  species,  of  this  tribe,  represented  at  Fig.  2. 
were  floating  about  the  vessel,  and  emitting  a  brilliant  light. 

These  were  conical  tubes,  open  at  one  end,  without  any  inter- 
secting membrane,  transparent,  colourless,  or  slightly  green  or 
brown,  five  to  seven  inches  long,  and  an  inch  wide,  covered 
with  smaU  tubercles,  among  which  were  short,  thick,  trans- 
parent, hooked  protuberances,  pointing  upward.  The  light 
emitted,   was   visible  from  a  considerable  depth  below  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

248  PACIFIC  OCEAN.  [2nd  mo.. 

surface  of  the  ocean,  but  it  was  more  brilliantly  phos- 
phorescent when  the  animals  were  on  the  surface.  When 
taken  out  of  the  water,  these  animals,  which  have  a  slight 
motion,  continued  to  emit  light,  for  a  short  time,  and 
then  shone  only  at  intervals,  particularly  on  being  irri- 
tated by  rubbing.  The  shining  re-commences  at  the  part 
rubbed,  and  soon  spreads  over  the  whole  animal.  There 
were  also  other  molluscous  bodies  taken  out  of  the  seat, 
emitting  light,  like  brilliant  sparks,  but  they  were  so  minute^ 
that  I  could  not  trace  any  distinct  form. 

Another  Jelly-fish  resembled  the  cap  of  a  mushroom, 
about  two  inches  in  diameter.  It  was  entirely  colourless, 
but  was  marked  by  about  thirty  short,  worm-like  tentacuke, 
attached,  a  little  above  the  margin,  alternately  with  patches 
of  a  few  fine  lines.  It  had  also  a  bundle  of  colourless  fibres 
in  the  centre,  internally.  This  animal  is  represented  in 
Figure  3. 

'  The  wood-cuts  of  this  curious  race  of 

animals,  interspersed  in  this  volume,  will 
give  the  reader  a  good  general  idea  of 
some  of  their  remarkable  forms. 

27th.      We  spoke  the  Elizabeth,   of 

Sydney,  a  whaler,  that  had  been  out  eight 

months,    and  had   got  twelve  hundred 

barrels  of  oil.     Some  potatoes  and  onions  were  exchanged 

for  oil,  for  our  lamps.    .The  people  seemed  glad  to  obtain 

fresh  vegetables,  and  they  accepted  a  few  tracts  gratefully. 

i  28th.     More  Jelly-fish  were  examined. 

One  was  somewhat  similar  to  those  no- 

^     /nV       **^®^  yesterday,  see  Fig.  4,  though  of  only 

ifi   ^f^W     ^^^  tubes,  but  it  also  formed  a  truncated 

11  I  tJfjp     cone  of  a  perfect  form.    The  tubes  were 

^j^  ^4lc^^      open  at  the  base,  and  the  animal  propelled 

itself  by  the  force  of  the  water  expelled  from  them.    Another 

species  represented  at  Figure  5,  consisted  of  about  twenty 

associated,  inflated,  transparent  tubes,  an  inch  in  length,  and 

a   quarter  of   an    inch   in  diameter,  slightly   attached   side 

by   side,   in   a  line,   with   about  every  third  standing  out 

of  the  line,   or,   the  whole   mass   was  joined  together  so 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  PACIFIC    OCEAN.  249 

as  to  form  a  compact  body.  Each  of  these  tubes  had  a  red^ 
forked  Ime^  extending  from  the  open  end  to  the  base^  inter- 
secting the  tube  diagonally^  and  terminating  at  the  lower  end^ 
by  a  deep-red^  spherical  body,  not  larger  than  a  pin^s  head. 
The  opposite  end  of  the  tube  was  opened  or  closed,  by  two 
transparent,  projecting  lips.  The  whole  animal  seemed  little 
more  than  a  delicate,  gelatinous  membrane. 


We  observed  animals  of  this  tribe,  in  the  2nd  mo.  1832,  off 
Port  Davey;  some  of  which  resembled  the  single  tubes  of  the 
last,  but  were  several  inches  in  length  and  breadth ;  others 
were  concave,  pellucid  bodies,  tinged  with  pink  or  crimson, 
and  having  fringed  margins.  In  the  5th  mo.  of  the  same  year, 
myriads  of  pellucid  bodies  were  swimming  just  below  the  sur- 
face of  the  sea,  off  the  Mew-Stone,  of  V.  D.  Land  :  they  were 
about  the  size  of  horse-beans  :  most  of  them  were  oval,  and 
resembled  beads  of  cut  glass :  others  were  round  and  encir- 
cled by  smaU  oval  excavations.  Whales  are  said  to  feed  on 
these.  In  the  Tamar,  in  the  12th  mo.  1833,  the  Jelly-fish, 
Fig.  6,  was  numerous.  It  had  a  mushroom-like  cap;  the 
margin  of  which  continually  expanded  and  con- 
tracted. The  cap,  on  the  upper  side,  was  mark- 
ed by  a  purplish  cross ;  underneath,  from  the 
centre,  a  stem  proceeded,  which  spread  out  in^ 
to  a  sort  of  table,  as  wide  as  the  cap  itself;  from 
the  under-margin  of  this,  there  were  eight  stout 

Animals  of  this  tribe  seem  Uttle  more  than  organized 
water,  yet  in  the  beauty  of  their  structure,  as  seen  in  their 
native  element,  they  exhibit  the  inimitable  skill  of  their 
great  Creator,  and  surely  ought,  with  the  rest  of  his  wonder- 
ous  works,  to  incite  to  his  praise. 

3rd  mo.  4th.     Yesterday  and  to-day,  many  Tropic  Birds 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

250  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  [Sfd  mo. 

were  flying  about ;  they  are  called  Boatswains^  by  seamen, 
from  a  fiaiicied  resemblance  of  the  two  long  feathers  of  the 
tail^  to  a  marline-spike^  an  implement  used  on  ship-board^  in 
splicing  ropes^  and  kept  with  others^  under  charge  of  the 
boatswain.  These  birds^  with  Gannets  and  Terns,  indicated 
the  proximity  of  land;  and  early  in  the  morning,  Phillip 
Island,  which  is  high  land,  with  a  bold  peak  to  the  south, 
was  in  view  j  and  close  beyond  it,  the  lower  hills  of  Norfolk 
Island,  clothed  with  lofty  pines,  towering  like  spires,  and 
giving  it  a  very  remarkable  appearance.  Nepean  Island, 
which  is  small,  and  very  sterile,  lies  between  these  islands. 
Two  government  vessels,  the  Governor  Phillip,  and  the 
Isabella,  were  standing  to  and  fro,  off  these  islands,  none  of 
which  have  harbours.  The  sea  was  breaking  heavily  on  a 
low  reef,  fronting  the  little  bay,  on  which  the  settlement  on 
Norfolk  Island  is  situated.  Tlie  commander  of  the  Gover- 
nor Phillip  came  along-side,  and  gave  us  some  instructions ; 
he  kindly  presented  Daniel  Wheeler  with  some  Trumpeter- 
fish  which  are  much  esteemed.  The  Commander  of  the 
Isabella  also  came  on  board,  and  with  him,  an  officer,  who 
brought  us  a  letter  from  Major  Anderson^  the  Commandant. 
We  took  a  hasty  leave  of  our  dear  friends,  D.  and  C. 
Wheeler,  and  their  ship's  company,  and  went  on  shore.  In 
passing  through  a  narrow  opening  in  a  reef  that  fronts  the 
island,  a  surf  caught  the  boat,  and  threw  its  bow  on  the 
rocks ;  but  we  quickly  got  into  deep  water  again.  Being 
delivered  from  the  momentary  danger,  by  the  merciful  pro- 
vidence of  our  Heavenly  Father,  we  soon  stood  again  on  dry 
land,  thankful  for  our  preservation.  On  landing  on  Norfolk 
Island,  we  received  a  very  kind  welcome  from  the  Command- 
ant, who  ordered  a  boat  off  to  bring  our  luggage  on  shore 
immediately;  but  the  surf  became  too  heavy  to  allow  the 
boat  to  proceed.  Having  taken  a  very  hasty  leave  of  our 
dear  friends,  we  wrote  a  parting  letter  to  them,  to  go  by  a 
boat  that  was  to  convey  to  them,  a  few  refreshments  from 
Major  Anderson,  and  to  bring  our  luggage  on  shore,  in  the 

5th.      By  the  return  of  the  boat,  at  an  early   hour,  we 
welcomed  a  feeling  reply  to  our  parting  letter,  from  our  dear 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 





Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  251 

companions.  Tliey  soon  made  sail,  and  before  noon  the 
Henry  Freeling  was  out  of  sight,  on  her  voyage  for  Tahiti, 
&c.  In  the  afternoon,  we  accompanied  the  wife  of  Major 
Anderson,  and  some  other  persons,  to  the  Commandant's 
garden,  which  is  situated  in  a  beautiful  hollow,  called  Orange 
Vale.  The  Commandant  joined  us,  at  four  o'clock,  at  din- 
ner, imder  a  spreading  English  Oak,  that  must  have  been 
planted  at  the  earliest  settlement  of  the  Island,  about  fifty 
years  ago,  as  it  is  as  large  as  an  oak  would  ordinarily  be,  in 
a  century,  in  England. 

Norfolk  Island  is  about  seven  miles  long  and  four  broad. 
A  small  portion  of  its  southern  side,  is  limestone ;  to  the 
east  of  this  there  is  a  still  smaller  portion,  of  coarse,  silicious 
sandstone.  The  remainder  of  the  island  is  basaltic,  and 
rises  into  hills,  covered  with  grass  and  forest.  The  highest 
hill  is  Mount  Pitt,  which  is  on  the  north  side  of  the 
island,  and  about  1,200  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
The  upper  portions  of  the  vallies,  and  the  higher  parts  of 
the  hills,  are  covered  with  wood.  The  Norfolk  Island  Pine, 
AUingia  exceba,  towers  a  hundred  feet  above  the  rest  of 
the  forest ;  it  also  grows  in  clumps,  and  singly,  on  the  grassy 
parts  of  the  island,  to  the  very  verge,  where  its  roots  are 
washed  by  the  sea,  in  high  tides.  In  figure,  this  tree  re- 
sembles the  Norway  Spruce,  but  the  tiers  of  its  branches 
are  more  distant.  Its  appearance  is  remarkably  different,  in 
its  native  soil,  from  what  it  is  in  the  fine  collection  of  trees, 
at  Kew ;  where  it  nevertheless  exhibits  many  of  its  striking 
and  beautiful  features.  Where  the  wood  of  Norfolk  Island, 
merges  into  open  grassy  valley,  a  remarkable  tree-fern, 
Alsophila  excelsa,  exhibits  its  rich  crests,  among  the  sur- 
rounding verdure.  The  fronds  are  from  seven  to  twelve 
feet  long ;  they  resemble  those  of  Aspidium  FUix  mas,  and 
are  produced  in  such  a  quantity,  as  to  make  this  noble  fern 
excel  the  princely  palm-tree,  in  beauty.  It  usually  has 
its  root  near  the  course  of  some  rain-stream,  but  as  its 
trunk  rises  to  fifty  feet  in  height,  and  its  top  does  not  affect 
the  shade,  like  many  of  its  congeners,  it  forms  a  striking 
object  in  the  landscape. 

Much  of  the  land  was  formerly  cultivated,  but  this  is  now 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

252  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

over-run  with  the  Applet  fruited  Guaya^  and  the  Lemon^  which 
were  introduced  many  years  ago^  when  the  Island  was  settled^ 
with  a  view  to  its  becoming  a  granary  to  New  South  Wales. 
Grape  Vines,  Figs,  and  some  other  fruits  have  also  become 
naturalized.  In  the  garden  at  Orange  Vale,  Coffee,  Bananas, 
Guavas,  Grapes,  Pigs,  Olives,  Pomegranates,  Strawberries, 
Loquats,  and  Melons,  are  cultivated  successfully.  Apples 
are  also  grown  here,  but  they  are  poor  and  will  not  keep. 

This  Island  being  inaccessible,  except  at  the  opening  in 
the  reef,  before  noticed,  and  very  remote  from  all  other  in- 
habited lands,  has  been  selected  for  a  penal  settlement,  for 
the  worst  description  of  prisoners.  Most  of  those  now  here, 
have  been  transported  from  New  South  Wales  or  Van 
Diemens  Land,  on  account  of  crimes  committed  in  those 
Colonies,  after  the  parties  had  been  transported  from  Great 
Britain  or  Ireland. 

3rd  mo.  8th.  At  ten  o'clock,  we  accompanied  Major 
Anderson  to  the  congregation  of  Protestant  prisoners,  which 
meets  in  a  room,  called  The  Court-House,  within  the  yard 
of  the  prisoners'  barracks.  This  room  is  capable  of  contain- 
ing about  two  hundred  and  fifty  prisoners  ;  those  who  cannot 
be  accommodated  within  it,  sit  outside.  The  Protestant  pri- 
soners meet  here  on  First-days,  at  ten  and  two,  for  public  wor- 
ship ;  and  from  twenty  to  thirty  of  them,  assemble  at  one 
end  of  the  room,  at  eight,  and  half-past  twelve,  as  an  adult 
school ;  at  the  same  time,  for  the  same  purpose,  about  the 
like  number  of  Roman  Catholics,  meet  at  the  other  end.  The 
prayers,  &c.  of  the  Episcopal  Church  were  read  by  a 
prisoner,  said  to  have  been  brought  up  as  a  minister  of  that 
denomination  of  Christians.  He  delivered  an  appropriate 
address,  or  sermon,  including  an  uncompromising  denun- 
ciation of  sin,  and  an  exhibition  of  the  hopes  of  the  gospel. 
Had  his  own  life  been  an  exemplification  of  the  efiicacy  of 
the  doctrines  he  preached,  and  his  mind  so  kept  under  the 
influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  that  the  baptizing  power  thereof 
might  have  freely  accompanied  his  ministry,  much  good 
might  have  been  expected  from  his  labours.  I  would  not  be 
understood  to  intimate  that  no  benefit  resulted  from  them, 
nor  yet  that  the  man  did  not  in  some  degree,  feel  what  he 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  253 

preached;  ^ut  in  the  coiirse  of  his  address,  he  honestly 
acknowledged,  his  own  want  of  conformity  to  what  he  so 
strongly  urged  as  necessary  for  himself  and  others.  This 
individual  also  reads  prayers,  in  the  Jail,  and  in  the  Hospital, 
on  First-days,  and  attended  to  the  opening  of  the  Protestant 
Adult-school.  After  his  service  was  concluded,  a  short  pause 
ensued,  when  I  briefly  addressed  the  prisoners,  as  did  also 
George  W.  Walker. 

At  two  o^clock,  we  went  with  Major  Anderson  to  the 
public  worship  of  the  Roman  Catholic  prisoners,  which 
commences  at  the  same  hours  as  that  of  the  Protestants,  in 
a  mess-room,  in  what  is  designated  a  Lmnber-yard.  The 
prayers  were  read  by  a  prisoner,  in  English,  except  one,  near 
the  close,  in  Latin.  This  man  is  also  said  to  have  been 
educated  for  the  ministry;  he  seems  likewise  to  have 
some  practical  knowledge  of  the  inward  work  of  grace.  He 
also  read  a  well-arranged  address,  of  his  own  preparing, 
inciting  to  practical  piety ;  and  which,  in  point  of  doctrine, 
would  not,  I  suppose,  have  been  considered  faulty,  by  any 
Protestant  congregation. 

At  the  conclusion,  I  stood  up,  and  remarked,  that  having 
come  among  them  in  the  love  of  Christ,  I  would  take  the 
liberty  of  expressing  what  was  in  my  heart  toward  them. 
They  were  very  attentive,  while  I  referred  them  to  their  own 
convictions  of  sin,  as  the  reproofs  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  by 
which  the  Father  sought  to  draw  them  to  his  beloved  Son, 
in  order  that  they  might  obtain  eternal  life  through  him. 
When  I  had  concluded,  my  companion  also  addressed  a  few 
words  of  Christian  counsel  to  them,  to  which  they  listened 
with  like  attention.  The  prisoners  officiating  as  the  ministers 
to  these  congregations,  had  been  selected  as  the  most  suitable 
persons  on  the  island  for  this  office.  Some  free  persons 
were,  however,  always  present,  to  see  that  good  order  was 
kept,  and  nothing  improper  communicated.  The  free  Pro- 
testants met  at  ten  o^clock,  in  a  room,  at  the  military  bar- 
racks, and  the  free  Roman  Catholics  in  another.  The 
Episcopal  service,  and  a  sermon,  were  read  by  one  of  the 
officers,  and  that  of  the  Roman  Catholics  by  a  sergeant. 
The  First-day  of  the  week  is  now  spent  in  a  very  orderly 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

254  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

manner  upon  this  island ;  where^  in  former  days,  it  is  said 
to  have  been  fax  otherwise.  Before  the  present  arrangement 
was  made,  the  only  apology  for  public  worship  attempted, 
consisted  in  assembling  the  whole  of  the  prisoners  in  a  little 
square,  in  the  front  of  the  military  barracks,  with  the  military 
opposite  to  them,  imder  arms,  while  a  few  prayers  were 
hastily  read  by  an  officer.  The  whole  of  this  was  concluded 
in  the  space  of  little  more  than  ten  minutes.  The  effect 
was  such,  that  to  this  day,  the  prisoners  say  they  formerly 
never  heard  the  Divine  name  on  Norfolk  Island,  except 
when  it  was  blasphemed. 

9th.  We  visited  the  Jail,  an  inadequate  building  for 
the  purpose  for  which  it  is  used.  In  one  room,  about 
30  men  were  confined,  who  had  formed  a  plot  to  take  the 
Governor  Phillip,  on  her  last  voyage  to  this  Island.  They 
had  chains  from  one  ankle  to  the  other ;  through  these,  a 
long  chain  was  reefed,  which  was  secured  outside.  The 
place  was  so  hot  and  close,  that  many  of  the  prisoners  had 
stripped  off  their  clothes  for  relief.  They  were  very  at- 
tentive while  we  read  to  them  from  the  Scriptures,  and 
imparted  to  them  religious  counsel;  comparing  the  misery 
produced  by  sin,  with  the  peace  resulting  from  righteousness, 
and  exhorting  them  to  flee  from  the  former,  and  follow 
after  the  latter.  We  assured  them  of  the  willingness  of 
God  to  enable  them  to  serve  him,  if  they  would  only  seek 
help  from  him ;  seeing  he  gave  his  beloved  Son  to  die  for 
all  men,  and  has  exalted  him  to  his  own  right  hand,  to  be 
a  Prince  and  a  Saviour,  to  give  repentance  and  the  remis- 
sion of  sins. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Norfolk  Island. — ^Kings  Town. — Occupation  of  Prisoners. — ^Mitigation  of  Sen- 
tence.— ^Freycinetia. — ^New  Zealand  Flax.  —  Agriculture.  —  Pigeons.  — Cats. 
— ^Fly-catchers. — ^Parrots. — ^Dying  Prisoner. — Ansons  Bay. — ^Wistaria. — Ipo- 
moea  pendula. — ''  The  Sisters  "  Pines. — Jasminum  gracile. — Lagunea  Pater- 
sonii. — Burial  of  a  Prisoner. — Improyement  among  the  Prisoners. — Provisions. 
— Sweet  Potato. — Profanity. —  Perjury.  —  Madrapores.  —  Sea  Anemonies. — 
Papal  Prayers. — Teaching  of  the  Spirit. 

The  Settlement  on  Norfolk  Island  was  formerly  called 
Sydney,  but  in  order  to  avoid  confusion  with  the  capital  of 
N.  S.  Wales,  its  name  has  been  changed  to  Bangs  Town. 
It  consists  of  the  Commandant^s  Residence,  which  is  a 
commodious  and  substantial  dwelling,  the  Military  Barracks, 
the  Penitentiary,  the  Commissariat  Stores,  the  Jail,  the 
Hospital,  and  a  few  other  buildings,  of  stone,  and  some 
smaU  dwellings,  of  weather-board,  and  a  few  thatched  cot- 
tages, of  dried  grass.  These  are  situated  on  the  narrow 
flat  of  the  limestone,  which  is  on  the  south  side  of  the 
island,  and  but  little  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  There  are 
also  some  weather-board,  farm  buildings,  at  a  place  called 
Longridge,  a  mile  from  the  Settlement.  Many  of  the 
prisoners  are  employed  in  quarrying  stcMie,  and  in  building 
a  new  Commissariat  Store.  As  no  gunpowder  is  used  in 
blasting  the  rock,  and  the  stone  is  raised  by  means  of 
levers,  there  is  great  waste  of  labour.  This  is  also  the  case 
where  persons  in  heavy  irons  are  put  to  work  with  those  in 
light  ones,  or  entirely  without;  the  latter  having  to  wait 
for  the  tardy  movements  of  the  former.  Prisoners,  gene- 
rally,  are  indisposed  to   industry,  and   circumstances   like 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

256  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

these  are  taken  advantage  of  by  them.  The  practice  of 
confining  them  in  jails,  without  work,  tends  to  inure  them 
to  idle  habits,  and  is  a  great  evil. 

3rd  mo.  10th.  The  Isabella  sailed  for  Sydney,  taking  back 
some  prisoners,  whose  time  here  had  expired,  and  others  who 
had  had  their  sentence  shortened,  on  account  of  good  con- 
duct. Mitigation  of  sentence  of  this  kind,  has  been  at- 
tended with  very  happy  results.  When  no  hope  was  held 
out,  the  prisoners  were  reckless. 

12th.  We  had  an  interesting  religious  interview  with 
the  prisoners  employed  in  agriculture,  at  Longridge,  where 
they  were  assembled  in  a  thatched  building  used  for  a 
mess-room.  The  feeling  of  solemnity  was  striking,  both 
while  we  sat  in  silence,  and  while  we  read  the  Scriptures, 
and  addressed  them. 

13th.  After  visiting  the  patients  in  the  Hospital,  we 
walked  into  the  forest — One  of  the  remarkable  vegetable 
productions  of  this  island  is  Freycinetia  Baueriana,  or  the 
N.  I.  Grass  Tree.  It  belongs  to  the  tribe  of  Pandanete,  or 
Screw  Pines.  Its  stem  is  marked  by  rings,  where  the  old 
leaves  have  fallen  off,  and  is  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diame- 
ter; it  lies  on  the  ground,  or  climbs  like  Ivy,  or  winds 
round  the  trunks  of  trees.  The  branches  are  crowned  with 
crests  of  broad,  sedge-like  leaves.  From  the  centre  of  these, 
arise  clusters  of  three  or  four  oblong,  red,  pulpy  fruit,  four 
inches  in  length,  and  as  much  in  circumference.  When 
the  plant  is  in  flower,  the  centre  leaves  are  scarlet,  giving 
a  splendid  appearance  to  the  plant,  which  sometimes  is  seen 
twining  round  the  trunk  of  the  princely  Tree-fern.  The 
New  Zealand  Flax,  Phormium  tenax,  a  large,  handsome 
plant,  with  sedgy  leaves,  covers  the  steep  declivities  of 
many  parts  of  this  Island,  particularly  at  the  tops  of  the 
cliffs  of  the  coast.  It  is  suffered  to  grow  to  waste,  except 
a  little  that  is  converted  into  small  nets  and  cordage,  by  the 
prisoners,  for  their  own  use.  Two  New  Zealanders  were 
once  introduced,  to  teach  the  prisoners  to  prepare  it ;  but 
their  process  was  so  tedious,  that  the  scheme  was  aban- 

14th.    All  the  agricultural  labour  here  is  performed  by 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  25? 

the  hoe,  under  the  idea  of  making  the  work  of  the  prisoners 
laborious  ;  but  they  work  so  idly  as  to  counteract  the  inten- 
tion. They  are  now  harvesting  a  crop  of  Maize.  Scarcely 
enough  of  this  grain  is  raised  for  the  settlement,  where  the 
supply  might  be  very  ample.  They  are  usually  separated  into 
gangs  of  from  ten  to  fifteen  men,  to  prevent  combination, 
but  a  much  larger  number  are  now  together.  After  having 
a  meeting  with  those  employed  in  agriculture,  we  joined  a 
company  of  the  officers,  who  were  taking  a  rustic  dinner,  on 
the  west  coast,  at  a  place  adjacent.  The  cliflFs  here  were 
high  and  steep,  so  that  it  was  difficult  to  reach  the  sea, 
which  washes  perpetually  against  the  lower  rocks.  The 
Domestic  Pigeon  has  become  naturalized,  and  breeds  abun- 
dantly in  these  cliffs ;  as  does  also  the  Domestic  Cat,  under 
like  circumstances,  feeding  on  the  Pigeons,  Tropic-birds, 
Gannets,  and  other  birds,  and  on  Rats,  which  are  very 
numerous.  As  no  gun  is  allowed  to  be  fired  within  a  mile 
of  the  Settlement,  many  birds  are  very  tame;  some  here 
appear  naturally  fearless.  The  Flycatcher  will  come  so  close, 
that  I  have  seen  it  take  flies  off  a  persons  hat,  or  off  his 
hands,  as  he  has  stood  with  them  behind  him.  A  small 
green  Parrot,  with  a  red  ring  around  the  base  of  its  beak, 
is  remarkably  tame.  I  missed  my  way,  in  rambling  from  my 
companions,  and  in  the  evening,  saw  a  pair  of  these  birds 
fly  into  a  bush,  which  I  opened  where  they  were  sitting : 
they  did  not  seem  disturbed  at  my  presence,  but  kept  chat- 
tering one  to  the  other.  When  I  imitated  their  noise,  they 
took  no  notice,  and  did  not  fly,  till  my  hand  was  within  a 
few  inches  of  their  feet.  The  Lory  Parrot,  Psittacus  Pen- 
nantiiy  which  is  crimson  and  blue,  is  common  here,  but  it  is 
rather  shy. 

15th.  We  visited  the  free  Protestant  congregation,  which 
consists  entirely  of  the  Civil  and  Military  Officers,  and  their 
families ;  no  other  free  persons  being  allowed  to  reside  on 
the  Island. 

16th.  We  met  with  a  man,  who  was  in  the  hospital,  sink- 
ing, from  an  old  chronic  disease  of  the  chest :  he  seemed  in  a 
dark  state  of  mind,  but  not  without  some  glimmerings  of 
light.    We  encouraged  him  to  give  way  to  his  convictions  for 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

258  NORFOLK  I8LAND.  [3rd  mo. 

sin^  and  to  pray  for  ability  to  look  upon  Jesus^  as  the  Lamb 
of  God  that  taketh  away  the  sin  of  the  world.  It  is  awfiil 
to  see  repentance  deferred  to  a  death-bed^  when  the  powers 
of  the  mind^  as  well  as  those  of  the  body,  are  weakened  by 

I  rode  with  Major  Anderson  to  Ansons  Bay,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Island.  This  was  formerly  a  landing  place,  but 
the  sand  has  been  washed  away,  and  large  stones  remain, 
too  rough  for  boats  to  venture  upon.  The  road  was  chiefly 
through  thick  forest,  oyerrun  with  luxuriant  climbers* 
Among  them  was  a  Wistaria^  with  pea-flowers,  of  purple 
and  green,  and  leaves  something  like  those  of  the  Ash.  It 
hangs  in  festoons  of  twenty  or  thirty  feet,  from  the  limbs 
of  the  trees  that  support  it.  One  of  the  most  beautiful 
climbers  of  the  Island,  is  Ipomcea  pendula,  which  has  hand- 
some, fingered  foliage,  and  flowers  like  those  of  the  Major 
Convolvulus,  but  of  a  rosy  pink,  with  a  darker  tube.  The 
remains  of  two  Pines,  which  were  noted  for  their  magnitude, 
and  were  blown  down  in  a  storm,  were  lying  by  the  side  of 
the  road.  These  were  called  "The  Sisters;"  they  were 
nearly  200  feet  in  height. 

While  on  Norfolk  Island,  I  usually  took  a  walk  before 
breakfast,  and  explored  some  of  the  beautiful  hills  and 
valleys,  many  of  which  are  thickly  wooded.  In  the  borders 
of  the  woods,  there  is  a  great  variety  of  beautiful  shrubs. 
Among  these  is  the  Slender  Jasmine,  Jaeminum  ffracUey 
known  in  England,  as  a  delicate,  green-house  plant.  Here 
it  climbs  over  the  bushes,  or  with  twisted  stems,  as  thick  as 
a  man^s  wrist,  reaches  the  branches  of  lofty  trees,  at  fifty 
feet  from  the  ground,  and  climbs  in  their  heads.  In  these 
cases,  it  has  probably  grown  up  with  the  trees,  the  lower 
branches  of  which  have  progressively  died  away,  and  left  tihe 
wreathed  stems  of  the  Jasmine,  like  ropes,  hanging  from  the 
upper  boughs.  Scattered  on  the  grassy  hills,  is  HibUcus  or 
Lagunea  Patersonii^  which  forms  a  spreading  tree  of  forty  feet 
in  height :  it  is  here  called  White  Oak :  its  leaves  are  of  a 
whitish  green,  and  its  flowers  pink,  fading  to  white,  the  size 
of  a  wine-glass.  It  is  perhaps  the  largest  plant  known  to 
exist,  belonging  the  Mallow  tribe.     In  a  thick  wood,  I  met 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NOBFOLK    ISLAND.  259 

with  it  eighty  feet  high^  and  with  a  trunk  sixteen  and  a  half 
feet  round. 

18th.  I  attended  the  interment  of  the  prisoner^  before 
alluded  to,  who  died  yesterday.  After  the  *^  Burial  service/* 
of  the  Episcopal  Church  had  been  read,  I  spoke  a  few 
words  to  those  assembled  on  the  occasion,  I  was  never  more 
struck  with  the  inappropriateness  of  much  of  this  service, 
and  of  its  danger  of  misleading  the  ignorant,  and  of  lulling 
them  into  a  state  of  ease,  by  holding  out  the  idea,  that  aU 
would  be  well  with  them  at  last,  without  distinction  as  to 
their  past  Uves.  We  afterwards  had  an  interview  with  a 
considerable  number  of  the  prisoners,  in  the  Court-house^ 
in  which  much  openness  was  felt  in  preaching  the  Gospel. 

19th.  The  dryness  of  the  weather  having  stopped  the 
mill  stream,  a  number  of  men  are  employed  in  grinding 
Maize,  or  Indian  Corn,  in  hand  miUs.  This  is  hard  work,  in 
this  cliniate,  where  the  thermometer  is  usually  at  about  80°, 
at  this  season  of  the  year.  We  had  a  religious  interview 
with  these  men,  and  were  sensible  of  the  love  of  our 
Heavenly  Father  bringing  a  feeling  of  sweet  solemnity  over 
our  minds.  This  we  could  not  but  regard  as  an  evidence  of 
the  continued  extension  of  divine  mercy  to  our  auditors,  and 
we  esteem  this  feeling  as  one  of  the  greatest  of  comforts  to 
ourselves ;  we  had  also  a  religious  interview  with  the  agri- 
cultural gangs  at  Longridge.  On  speaking  to  an  overseer, 
who  had  been  long  on  the  island^  he  informed  us,  that  there 
had  been  a  progressive  improvement  among  the  prisoners 
for  some  time  past ;  especially,  since  Major  Anderson  had 
availed  himself  of  the  means  within  his  reach,  for  their 
religious  instruction,  and  had  regulated  the  appropriation  of 
punishments  to  the  nature  of  the  offences  committed. 

A  man  spoke  to  us  of  the  defective  quality  of  their  pro- 
visions, and  complained  of  the  dryness  of  the  maize  bread, 
and  the  hardness  of  the  salt  meat.  To  be  restricted  to  such 
diet  is  felt  to  be  a  privation,  but  the  state  of  the  health  of 
the  prisoners,  shews  that  it  is  not  unwholesome ;  and  they 
are  not  designed  to  be  pampered  by  indulgence.  The  sup- 
ply of  vegetables  and  wild  fruits,  keeps  off  scurvy,  at  this 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

260  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

The  more  orderly  prisoners  are  allowed  to  cultdvate  small 
portions  of  ground  as  gardens.  They  grow  chiefly  the 
Sweet  Potato^  Batatas  edulis,  a  plant  of  the  Convolvulus 
tribe,  producing  large,  tuberous  roots,  which  are  excellent 
for  food,  either  roasted,  boiled,  or  fried  in  slices.  When 
prepared  by  frying,  this  root  resembles  sweetish  cake,  and 
sometimes  supplies  the  place  of  toast  at  breakfast. 

20th.  Visited  the  hospital  and  jail.  In  the  former,  one 
of  the  patients  was  a  man  whose  ankles  had  become  chafed 
by  his  chains.  In  the  latter,  a  man  confined  for  indolence, 
and  awfully  blasphemous  language,  complained  of  his  sen- 
tence, for  what  he  termed,  a  frivolous  offience.  No  person 
can  be  long  on  Norfolk  Island  without  discovering,  that 
he  is  indeed,  amongst  a  people,  extremely  depraved.  His 
ears  are  assailed  by  dreadfully  profane  language,  especially 
if  the  prisoners  are  not  aware  of  his  presence.  Other 
crimes,  most  degrading  in  their  character,  are  not  unfrequent; 
and  to  avoid  punishment  for  offences,  perjury  is  committed 
with  the  most  hardened  recklessness. 

21st.  I  spent  much  of  the  day  on  the  east  coast ;  where, 
in  some  pools,  among  the  rocks,  there  were  several  species 
of  Madrapore,  of  the  kinds  called  Corals,  and  of  those 
which,  when  fossilized,  are  called  Brainstones.  One  deep 
bason  was  lined  with  them,  and  presented  a  scene  of  un- 
common beauty.-  A  kind  of  Coral  stood  up  in  broad,  thin, 
leaf-like  tables,  rising  one  above  another  on  a  common  stalk. 
Some,  on  the  sides,  were  va]^ously  branched  and  diversified. 
Their  colours  were  white,  light-blue,  and  olive.  There  were 
holes  through  those  on  the  sides,  that  would  admit  a  finger, 
out  of  which  tubular  Polyps,  of  the  Sea  Anemone  tribe 
were  protruded,  displaying  in  the  sunny  water,  their  crests 
of  variegated  feelers,  of  the  richest  hues,  resembling  goi^e- 
ous  flowers. 

22nd.  In  the  morning,  we  visited  the  congregation  of 
free  Roman  CathoUcs,  consisting  chiefly  of  soldiers  and  their 
families,  with  a  few  officers.  The  service  was  conducted  by 
a  sergeant.  The  order  and  attention  of  the  people  was 
exemplary,  but  it  was  sorrowful  to  hear  some  of  their  prayers 
addressed  to  the  Vii^in  Mary  and  other  ''saints;'^  especially 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  261 

when  rememberings  that  they  had  been  trained  in  this 
delusion,  by  those  who  were  not  content  with  the  one  Medi- 
ator between  God  and  poor  fallen  man,  provided  of  the 
Father,  in  his  mercy  and  wisdom,  even  the  Lord  Jesus,  who 
ever  liveth  to  make  intercession  for  us.  We  did  not,  how- 
ever, feel  it  our  business,  to  point  out  to  them  their  errors 
of  doctrine ;  but  rather,  in  connexion  with  those  points  in 
which  their  profession  of  faith  is  sound,  to  lead  them  to  a 
practical  attention  to  the  teaching  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  the 
Spirit  of  Truth,  which,  when  implicitly  obeyed,  leads  out 
of  error,  and  into  all  truth.  In  the  afternoon,  we  visited 
the  adult-schools,  and  the  congregation  of  the  Protestant 
prisoners.  At  the  conclusion  of  their  service  also,  I  had 
something  to  commimicate,  of  the  same  tendency.  How 
lamentably  has  the  teaching  of  the  Holy  Spirit  been  neg- 
lected by  professing  Christians,  notwithstanding  the  promise 
respecting  this  Spirit  as  the  Comforter,  that  He  should  take 
of  the  things  of  Christ  and  show  them  unto  his  disciples. 
— From  this  neglect  arose  the  apostacy  of  the  Christian 
church,  in  early  days,  both  in  faith  and  practice ;  and  from 
the  same  source,  arises  in  the  present  day,  the  unscriptural 
provision  of  most  churches,  in  regard  to  ministry,  and  various 
other  subjects,  by  which  the  people  are  drawn  to  lean  un- 
duly upon  man,  instead  of  being  instructed  to  seek,  to  know 
the  Lord  to  be  their  teacher,  and  to  trust  in  him  alone. 
The  professors  of  Christianity,  are  consequently  very  gene- 
rally, kept  in  great  weakness,  and  in  great  shallowness  of 
Christian  experience. 

24th.  In  a  gang  which  we  visited,  at  an  out-station,  there 
was  a  man,  who  was  under  sentence  of  death,  and  expecting 
to  be  executed,  at  a  time  when  we  had  an  interview  with  the 
prboners  in  the  Jail,  at  Launceston,  in  V.  D.  Land.  This 
man  referred  to  the  meeting  we  had,  at  that  time,  with  the 
prisoners,  with  expressions  of  gratitude,  and  seemed  thank- 
ful to  receive  another  visit. 

s  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Norfolk  Island. — ^Disinclination  to  receive  Religious  Instruction. — Prisoners' 
Barracks. — Iron. — Flagellation. — Overseers. — Sentence  to  Penal  Settlements. 
— Sick  Prisoners. — Rocks. — Cape  Gooseberry. — Palm. — ^Wood-quest — ^N.  I. 
Pines. — ^Roman  Catholic  Prisoners. — Cleanliness. — Temperature. — ^Reckless 
Prisoner. — ^Felling-gang. — ^Plants. — ^The  Cascade. — Flora  of  N.  I. — Sugar 
Cane. — Rum. — Christian  Doctrine. 

3rd  mo.  25th.  Major  Anderson  allowed  such  of  the  prisoners 
as  were  inclined  to  meet  with  us,  for  the  purpose  of  hearing 
the  Scriptures  read,  and  of  receiving  such  counsel  as  we 
might  have  to  impart,  to  remain  behind,  when  the  bell  rung 
for  work,  at  noon.  This  was  designed  to  prevent  any  un- 
pleasant feeling  respecting  encroachment  upon  their  leisure. 
The  number  who  chose  to  remain  was,  however,  small. 

26th.  We  visited  the  Prisoners*  Barracks,  which  form 
a  large  tier  of  buildings,  of  three  stories.  They  are  kept 
very  clean,  and  are  frequently  whitewashed.  The  wards  are 
large,  which  is  disadvantageous.  Opportunity  is  thus  af- 
forded to  considerable  numbers  of  men,  to  unite  in  plotting 
mischief.  The  prisoners  are  lodged  in  hammocks,  suspended 
in  two  tiers,  to  wooden  frames.  The  bedding  is  kept  perfectly 
free  from  vermin,  by  being  not  only  washed,  but  baked  in 
an  oven.  For  this  purpose  it  is  placed  on  bars  of  wood, 
which  are  kept  clear  of  the  sides  of  the  oven  to  prevent  its 

27th.  The  case  of  a  prisoner,  who  complained  of  rigorous 
treatment,  underwent  examination  by  the  Commandant. 
The  man  was  formerly  a  soldier:  he  had  been  sentenced 
to  wear  irons  for  life.  Good  conduct  would  have  entitled 
him  to  have  had  the  irons  only  on  one  leg,  at  the  expiration 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  263 

of  twelve  months ;  but  he  had  been  concerned  in  a  mutmy 
and  had  conducted  himself  improperly  in  other  respects; 
his  irons  were  therefore  heavy,  and  attached  to  both  legs ; 
and  it  did  not  appear  that  he  had  any  just  cause  of  com- 

Flagellation  is  now  but  seldom  resorted  to  here ;  when 
it  was  frequently  inflicted,  some  of  the  more  callous  pri- 
soners said,  they  would  stand  a  hundred  lashes  for  a  small 
piece  of  tobacco;  and  the  recklessness  with  which  they 
committed  offences,  to  which  this  punishment  was  attached, 
accorded  with  their  declaration.  It  was  accounted  a  mark 
of  bravery  among  them,  to  bear  the  punishment  unmoved. 

Overseers,  selected  from  among  the  first-class  men,  have 
the  time  of  their  sentence  reduced,  by  every  two  years 
counting  for  three ;  but  if  they  misconduct  themselves,  and 
be  removed  from  office  in  consequence,  they  lose  the  be- 
nefit of  the  previously  reduced  time.  Two  of  the  overseers 
on  Norfolk  Island  are  free  men.  A  number  who  are  called 
Volunteer-overseers,  are  prisoners,  of  New  South  Wales, 
holding  tickets-of-leave,  who  have  volunteered  to  become 
overseers  on  Norfolk  Island,  for  salaries  of  from  Is.  to  2s.  3d. 
a  day,  with  the  hope  of  obtaining  free  or  conditional  par- 
dons, as  a  reward  for  the  faithful  discharge  of  their  duty. 
The  time  spent  on  Norfolk  Island,  under  a  colonial  sen- 
tence, is  not  reckoned  as  any  part  of  an  original  sentence. 
Thus,  a  man  transported  from  England,  or  from  Van  Die- 
mens  Land,  to  New  South  Wales,  for  seven  years,  com- 
mitting an  offence  at  the  expiration  of  three  years,  and 
being  sentenced  to  Norfolk  Island  for  seven  years,  will  have, 
at  the  expiration  of  that  period,  to  serve  the  four  years  re- 
maining of  his  original  sentence,  in  New  South  Wales,  on 
being  returned  thither. 

We  had  an  interview  with  the  prisoners,  in  the  Jail  and 
Hospital.  In  the*  latter,  there  was  an  aged  man,  who  said 
he  had  lived  so  wicked  a  life,  that  there  was  no  hope  for 
him !  How  awful  is  such  a  reflection  on  a  sick  bed  !  Yet  we 
were  glad  to  find,  even  so  much  reflection  as  this,  hoping, 
even  against  hope,  that  it  might  lead  the  man  to  seek  for 
divine  mercy.      Another  man,  who   was  suffering  severely 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

264  NOEPOiiK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

from  the  effect  of  his  own  sin,  professed  to  hare  found 
mercy  through  Christ,  in  the  day  of  his  trouble:  he  ac- 
knowledged himself  to  be  among  the  chief  of  sinners,  and 
said,  he  sometimes  felt  very  fearful,  but  at  other  times  was 

28th.  Accompanied  by  the  Agricultural  Superintendent, 
we  walked  to  a  stock-station,  called  Cheeses  Gully,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Island ;  where  three  men  are  placed  in 
charge  of  some  cattle,  feeding  on  grassy  hills,  embosomed 
in  wood,  and  partially  overgrown  with  Lemon  and  Guava- 
trees.  On  the  coast,  there  are  two  remarkable  arches,  in 
the  basaltic  rock,  one  of  these  is  between  the  cliff,  some 
portions  of  which  are  columnar  basalt,  and  an  inaccessible, 
little  islet,  inhabited  by  Gannets  and  Tropic  Birds.  The 
latter,  with  their  speckled  young,  and  Common  Pigeons  are 
to  be  seen,  in  many  places  on  the  ledges  of  the  cliffs. 

Many  old  roads,  formerly  used  for  bringing  timber  out  of 
the  woods,  are  grown  up  with  the  Cape  Gooseberry,  Physalis 
edtdiSy  which  produces  abundance  of  pleasant,  small,  round 
fruit,  in  a  bladder-like  calyx.  This  is  eaten  by  the  prisoners, 
who  also  collect  and  cook  the  berries  of  the  Black  Night- 
shade, Solanum  nigrum.  These  berries,  are  accounted 
virulently  poisonous,  in  England,  but  their  character  may 
possibly  be  changed  by  the  warmer  climate  of  Norfolk  Island. 

In  the  woody  gullies,  the  Norfolk  Island  Cabbage-tree, 
Areca  sapida,  abounds.  It  is  a  handsome  palm,  with  a 
trunk  about  twenty  feet  in  height,  and  from  one  and  a  half 
to  two  feet  in  circumference,  green  and  smooth,  with  annular 
scars,  left  by  the  fallen  leaves.  The  leaves  or  fronds  form 
a  princely  crest,  at  the  top  of  this  elegant  column ;  they  are 
pectinate,  or  formed  like  a  feather,  and  are  sometimes 
nineteen  feet  in  length ;  they  vary  from  nine  to  fifteen  in 
number.  The  apex  of  the  trunk  is  enclosed  in  the  sheathing 
bases  of  the  leaf-stalks,  along  with  the  flower-buds,  and 
young  leaves.  When  the  leaves  fall  they  discover  double 
compressed  sheaths,  pointed  at  the  upper  extremity,  which 
split  open  indiscriminately,  on  the  upper  or  under  side,  and 
fall  off,  leaving  a  branched  spadix,  or  flower-stem,  which  is 
the  colour  of  ivory,  and  attached  by  a  broad  base  to  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

•         •••••      •• 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

*  .«..« 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1855.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  265 

trunk.  The  flowers  are  produced  upon  this  spadix :  they 
are  very  small,  and  are  succeeded  by  round  seeds,  red  exter- 
nally, but  white,  and  as  hard  as  horn,  internally.  As  the 
seeds  advance  toward  maturity,  the  spadix  becomes  green. 
The  young,  unfolded  leaves  of  this  Cabbage-tree,  rise  perpen- 
dicularly, in  the  centre  of  the  crest.  In  this  state,  they  are 
used  for  making  brooms;  those  still  unprotruded,  and  re- 
maining enclosed  within  the  sheaths  of  the  older  leaves,  form 
a  white  mass,  as  thick  as  a  man's  arm ;  they  are  eaten  raw, 
boiled  or  pickled.  In  a  raw  state,  they  taste  like  a  nut,  and 
boiled,  they  resemble  artichoke-bottoms.  The  seeds  furnish 
food  for  the  Wood-quest,  a  large  species  of  pigeon,  which 
has  a  bronzed  head  and  breast,  and  is  white  underneath,  and 
principally,  slate-coloured,  on  the  back  and  wings.  This  bird 
is  so  unconscious  of  danger,  as  to  sit  till  taken  by  a  noose 
at  the  end  of  a  stick ;  when  one  is  shot,  another  will  some- 
times remain  on  the  same  bough,  till  itself  also  is  fired  at. 
We  measured  a  Norfolk  Island  Pine,  twenty-three  feet,  and 
another  twenty-seven  feet,  in  circumference.  Some  of  them 
are  nearly  two  hundred  feet  high.  The  timber  is  not  of 
good  quality,  but  it  is  used  in  building;  it  soon  perishes 
when  exposed  to  the  weather.  This  is  said  to  be  the  case 
with  all  the  other  kinds  of  wood  on  the  Island.  Norfolk 
Island  Iron-wood,  Olea  apetala,  is  the  only  other  sort,  re- 
puted to  be  worth  using.  No  fences  of  wood  are  expected  to 
stand  above  three  years.  Vegetation  is  rapid,  in  this  fine 
climate,  but  decay  is  also  rapid.  There  are  very  few  dead 
logs  lying  in  the  bush.  A  group  of  the  remarkable  trees  of 
f^is  Island,  are  represented  in  the  annexed  sketch. 
"  In  the  course  of  our  walk,  we  had  some  conversation 
with  two  prisoner  stock-keepers,  who  were  Roman  Catho- 
lics ;  to  whom  we  ofiered  a  bible  and  some  tracts,  to  instruct 
them  in  their  solitude.  One  of  them  declined  accepting 
them,  saying  that,  according  to  their  church,  he  had  been 
instructed  by  his  parents  and  their  priests,  from  a  child,  not 
to  read  the  Bible !  The  other  said  he  was  not  against  read- 
ing the  Bible,  but  that  it  was  the  most  dangerous  book  that 
could  be  put  into  the  hands  of  an  illiterate  man!  However, 
on  reflection,  they  both  concluded,  that  they  would  read  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

266  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [3rd  mo. 

Bible^  as  they  were  not  able  to  attend  public  worship  at  the 
Settlement,  on  account  of  the  nature  of  their  occi]q[>ation. 

29th«  We  visited  the  congregations  of  the  Protestant 
and  Roman  Catholic  prisoners;  and  before  they  separated^ 
availed  ourselves  of  the  opportunities^  freely  granted  us,  to 
express  what  we  had  to  say  to  them.  This  being  the  last 
First-day  in  the  months  the  prisoners  were  musteredji  and 
inspected  by  the  civil  surgeon,  after  the  morning  service. 
Their  state  of  health  is  good ;  great  attention  is  paid  to 
cleanliness :  they  are  not  only  required  to  wash  themselves 
regularly,  but  every  First-day  morning,  they  aU  bathe  in  the 
sea,  within  the  reef,  opposite  their  barracks,  and  many  of 
them  bathe  also  in  the  course  of  the  week. 

30th.  The  weather  has  become  stormy  and  wet.  The 
temperature  has  lowered  to  75°.  From  65°  to  85°  in  the 
shade,  maybe  considered  the  usual  range  of  the  thermometer 
here :  it  rarely  falls  below  65°  in  winter,  or  rises  above  85° 
in  summer ;  and  the  night  is  but  little  cooler  than  the  shade 
is  in  the  day.  The  temperature  is  registered  three  times  in 
the  day,  at  the  Hospital. 

In  a  visit  to  the  JaU,  we  had  conversation  with  a  man 
of  great  recklessness;  of  such,  there  are  several  on  this  Island. 
He  was  confined  in  a  cell,  for  misdemeanour,  and  was  chafed 
in  his  mind,  and  ready  to  blame  any  one  rather  than  himself, 
for  his  sufferings.  He  said,  he  doubted  the  being  of  a  Deity, 
but  wished,  if  there  were  a  God  in  heaven,  that  he  would 
deprive  him  of  life,  he  was  so  miserable :  also,  that  he  had 
only  five  years  to  serve  as  a  prisoner,  but  he  knew  he  should 
not  live  out  half  his  time ;  for  before  it  was  half  expired,  he 
should  die  upon  the  drop.  He  told  us  likewise,  that  when 
out  of  prison,  he  was  miserable  still,  and  said,  that  if  the 
ofiicers  took  as  much  pains  to  annoy  the  prisoners,  as  many 
of  the  prisoners  took  to  annoy  one  another,  the  place  would 
be  worse  than  hell  itself.  We  endeavoured  to  direct  the 
poor  infatuated  man,  to  the  proof,  afforded  by  himself,  and 
by  others  of  such  character,  of  the  overruling  of  the  Most 
High,  in  the  misery  dispensed  to  them  for  their  perverse- 
ness  and  wickedness. 

Awful  is  the  state  of  those  who  are  in  the  gall  of  bitterness. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  267 

and  the  bond  of  iniquity  !  This  Island^  beautiful  by  na- 
ture^ and  comparable  to  the  Garden  of  Eden^  is  rendered^ 
not  only  a  moral  Wilderness^  but  a  place  of  torment  to  these 
men^  not  so  much  by  the  punishments  of  the  law^  as  by 
their  conduct  one  to  another.  They  form  schemes  of  mis- 
chief^ and  betray  one  another ;  and  being  idly  disposed^  they 
are  very  generally  chafed^  by  the  exertions  of  the  prisoner- 
overseers^  to  keep  them  at  work.  Being  surrounded  by  the 
ocean^  and  all  other  lands  being  so  distant,  the  hope  of 
escape  is  precluded.  This  renders  the  wicked^  very  wretched^ 
particularly  men  of  bad  conduct^  sentenced  for  life.  Those 
of  reformed  character  might  be  moderately  comfortable^  were 
it  not  for  the  society  of  the  depraved. 

4th  mo.  2nd.  We  walked  to  the  north  side  of  the  Island^ 
to  visit  a  ^^  feUing-gang/^  whom  we  found  busy,  rolling  the 
trunk  of  a  large  Pine,  to  a  saw-pit.  While  they  were 
thus  engaged,  we  explored  an  adjacent  gulley,  shaded  by 
dense  forest,  and  abounding  with  ferns,  and  young  palms. 
On  the  upper  branches  of  the  trees  four  epiphytes  of  the 
orchis  tribe,  and  some  ferns  and  Peperomias  were  plentiful. 
The  Peperomias,  which  are  spreading,  green  plants,  allied 
to  Pepper,  grow  also  on  moist  rocks,  on  the  dark  sides  of 
which,  Trichomanes  Bauerianum,  a  membranaceous  fern,  of 
great  beauty,  forms  tufts  exceeding  a  foot  in  height. 

Having  had  a  religious  interview  with  the  men,  we  pro- 
ceeded to  visit  some  others,  near  Ansons  Bay,  who  have 
charge  of  a  flock  of  sheep,  kept  for  supplying  the  officers 
with  fresh  meat:  of  this  privilege  the  well-conducted  pri- 
soners also,  are  occasionally  permitted  to  partake.  Some 
cK>ws  and  pigs  are  likewise  kept  on  the  Island,  and  each 
firee  person  is  allowed  a  smaU  quantity  of  milk,  daily. 

On  the  rocks  of  the  south  coast,  Asplenmm  diformey  a 
fern  resembling  the  Sea  Spleenwort,  Asplenmm  marinum,  of 
England,  is  found.  At  a  short  distance  from  the  shore,  its 
leaves  become  more  divided,  and  in  the  woods,  in  the 
interior  of  the  Island,  they  are  separated  into  such  nar- 
row segments,  that  the  lines  of  fructification  are  thrown 
upon  their  margins.  It  then  becomes  Canopteris  odontites. 
But  every   possible  gradation  is   to  be  met  with   between 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

268  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [4th  mo» 

this  state  and  that  in  which  it  grows^  on  rocks  washed  by 
the  sea. 

4th.  After  visiting  a  gang  of  invalids^  Employed  in  break- 
ing stones^  I  walked  to  a  place  called  The  Cascade,  on  the 
north-west  side  of  the  Island.  A  little  brook  descends 
from  the  woody  hills^  and  winds  among  the  grassy  ones^ 
bordered,  in  many  places^  with  copses,  and  straggling  tree- 
ferns,  till  it  reaches  an  open  valley,  formerly  inhabited  by 
settlers,  where  their  old  chimneys  are  still  standing,  and 
their  orchards  have  run  wild^  and  have  spread  Grape  Vines, 
Lemons^  Figs^  &nd  Guavas,  all  around.  Their  Sugar-canes 
have  also  become  naturalized,  and  border  the  streamlet 
thickly,  till  it  falls  over  a  basaltic  rock,  about  twenty  feet 
high,  decorated  with  ferns,  and  a  variety  of  other  plants. 
Here  the  brook  is  again  narrowed  by  woody  hills,  and  mar- 
gined by  luxuriant  plants,  of  the  broad,  sedgy-leafed  New 
Zealand  Flax,  and  Water  Cress,  till  it  emerges  on  an  open, 
flat,  basaltic  promontory,  from  the  very  point  of  which,  it 
falls,  about  twenty  feet,  to  the  sea  beach,  where  it  is  lost 
among  the  large,  rounded,  tumbled  stones. — Among  the 
Sugar-cane  and  scrub  at  this  point,  a  beautiful  convolvulus- 
like plant,  Ipomcea  cataracta,  is  entwined,  and  exhibits  its 
large,  purple  flowers,  shot  with  red.  It  was  named  from 
this  place,  by  Bauer,  a  celebrated  botanist,  who  accompanied 
one  of  the  earliest  navigators  of  these  seas,  and  whose  Flora 
of  Norfolk  Island,  has  lately  been  published  by  a  person 
named  Endlicher. 

Ipomcea  carinataj  a  large  plant  of  the  Convolvulus  tribe, 
having  white  flowers,  with  long  tubes,  that  open  at  night, 
climbs  among  the  trees,  in  the  borders  of  the  woods.  Among 
the  bushes  there  are  two  pretty  species  of  Passion  flower, 
Disemma  adiantifolia  and  D.  BauerianOy  with  copper-coloured 

From  the  Sugar-cane,  the  old  settlers  of  Norfolk  Island 
succeeded  in  making  molasses,  but  they  failed  in  obtaining 
sugar,  not  being  aware,  that  the  addition  of  a  little  lime,  or 
potash,  was  needful  to  make  it  crystallize.  They  also  dis- 
tilled rum,  and  injured  themselves  greatly  by  drinking  it ; 
but  they  imagined  the  pernicious  effects  of  the  rum  were 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  269 

produced  by  the  lead  of  the  worms^  used  in  the  distillation. 
They  never  seemed  to  dream^  that  they  were  suffering  from 
the  deleterious  property  of  the  '^  balmy  spirit  of  the  cane  ;'* 
under  which^  many  of  them  sank  prematurely  to  the  grave ; 
and  others  became  so  enthralled^  that  the  love  of  strong 
drink  has  gone  with  them,  as  a  curse,  into  other  lands, 
blighting  their  prospects  of  temporal  prosperity,  and  bring- 
ing them  hopeless  and  imhonoured  to  the  end  of  their 

Near  the  foot  of  the  Cascade,  there  is  a  rock,  forming 
a  natural  jetty,  from  which  boats  are  hauled  up  out  of  the 
sea^  when  they  are  unable  to  land  on  the  south  side  of  the 

5th.  We  visited  the  congregation  of  free  and  military 
Protestants,  to  which  the  Commandant's  Clerk  read  the 
prayers  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  a  sermon.  The  sermon 
was  a  very  pointed  one,  on  2  Peter  iii.  3.  At  the  conclusion, 
my  dear  companion  and  myself,  again  availed  ourselves  of 
the  opportunity  afforded  us,  to  bear  a  plain  testimony  to 
the  necessity  of  becoming  the  servants  of  Christ,  in  order 
to  obtain  salvation,  and  to  the  impossibility  of  being  saved 
whilst  remaining  servants  of  the  devil,  through  sin.  We 
also  directed  the  attention  of  the  congregation,  to  the  con- 
victions of  the  Spirit  of  Truth,  making  sin  manifest  in  the 
conscience,  as  the  drawing  of  the  Father  leading  to  the 
Son,  in  order  that  mankind  may  obtain  repentance,  and  re- 
mission of  sins  through  him,  and  know,  through  him,  a  ca- 
pacity wrought  in  them,  to  will  and  to  do  the  good  pleasure 
of  God. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Korfolk  Island. — Cave. — Remarkable  Shrubs. — ^Mount  Pitt, — Group  of  Islands. 
— Capture  of  a  Parrot. — Marrattia. — ^Petty  Sessions. — Marine  Animals. — 
Tree-ferns. — Animals. — ^Visit  of  Officers  to  Phillip  Island. — Guayas. — ^Tnie 
Church. — ^Return  of  Officers. — Wild-boar. — Runaway  Prisoner. — Religionfl 
Interviews. — L\iminous  Fungus. — Prisoner's  History. — Tidings. — ^Relapses. — 
Parting  Opportunities. — Penitent  Prisoners. — ^Departure. — Prisoners  Letters. 
— Voyage. — Storm. — Lord  Howes  Island. — Portuguese  Man-of- War. — ^ArriTal 
at  Sydney. — ^Disorderly  Soldiers. 

4th  mo.  6th.  We  went  to  see  a  singular  little  caye^  not  £eur 
from  the  Commandant's  house.  In  this  place^  two  men  who 
absconded^  a  few  months  since^  concealed  themselves  in  the 
day-time^  and  for  a  considerable  period^  eluded  detection. 
The  cave  is  in  the  rugged  limestone^  that  forms  two  low  hills, 
the  flat,  and  the  reef  on  the  south  of  the  Island.  Nepean 
Island,  and  a  rock  that  resembles  a  ship  under  sail,  off  the 
north  of  Phillip  Island,  are  of  the  same  formation  of  lime- 
stone. The  cave  was  near  to  a  lime-kiln,  and  was  concealed 
by  a  stone,  drawn  over  its  mouth.  The  Sandstone,  adjoin- 
ing this  limestone,  is  very  hard  and  sonorous :  it  is  valued 
for  making  filtering  stones. 

The  rocky  shore  of  this  Island  is  accessible  from  the  land, 
in  some  places,  on  the  south-west.  In  a  few  of  the  valleys, 
near  the  sea,  in  this  direction  Euphorbia  obUqua^  a  remarkable 
shrub,  forms  copses,  attaining,  when  shaded  by  trees,  to  15 
feet  in  height,  and  2  feet  in  circumference.  Here  also,  as  well 
as  in  most  of  the  other  shady  woods  throughout  the  island, 
Botryodendron  latifoliumy  a  shrub  of  singular  form,  allied 
to  the  Ivy,  but  of  a  very  different  appearance,  prevails.  Its 
figure  may  be  compared  to  that  of  a  long-leaved  cabbage, 
mounted  on  a  broom-stick.     Its  stem  is  about  five  feet  high, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  271 

and  five  inches  round ;  its  largest  leaves  are  about  two  feet 
long^  and  one  foot  broad.  The  prisoners  in  the  out-stations, 
wrap  their  bread  in  these  leaves,  and  bake  it  in  the  ashes. 
The  fruit  is  a  dense  cluster,  of  greenish,  purple  berries,  not 
edible,  produced  in  the  centre  of  the  crown  of  leaves. 

8th.  In  company  with  Major  Anderson,  and  the  military 
surgeon,  we  ascended  Mount  Pitt.  The  vegetation  is  of  the 
same  general  character,  as  on  other  parts  of  the  north  of 
the  Island.  Lemon  trees  grow  at  the  very  top.  On  the 
northern  ascent,  a  Pine  was  measured,  29^  feet  in  circum- 
ference, and  a  Norfolk  Island  Bread-fruit,  Cordyline  australis, 
2  feet  9  inches.  The  last,  sometimes  attains  20  feet  in 
height :  it  branches  from  within  a  few  feet  of  the  ground, 
and  forms  several  heads,  with  flag-like  leaves,  and  long, 
branched  spikes  of  greenish,  star  flowers,  succeeded  by  whit- 
ish, or  bluish-purple  berries,  that  are  eaten  by  parrots.  It 
often  forms  a  striking  object,  where  a  woody  valley  runs 
out  into  grass,  growing  at  the  extreme  margin  of  the  wood. 

Niphobolus  serpens  and  Polypodium  teneUum,  two  climbing 
ferns,  ascend  the  trunks  of  trees,  in  the  northern  portion  of 
the  Island;  and  the  Norfolk  Island  Pepper,  Piper psittacorumy 
which  produces  a  yellow,  pulpy,  pendent,  cylindrical  fruit, 
of  a  spicy,  sweetish  taste,  is  every  where  plentiful,  in  the 
woods.  It  rises,  with  a  few,  jointed,  cane-like,  green  stems, 
to  from  four  to  ten  feet  high,  bearing  large,  heart-shaped 

From  the  top  of  Mount  Pitt,  by  ascending  a  tree,  we 
could  see  the  whole  circuit  of  the  Island,  which  approaches 
a  triangle  in  form ;  it  is  rendered  very  beautiful,  by  the 
variety  of  hill  and  dale,  wood  and  open  land.  Nepean  and 
Phillip  Island  are  also  included  in  the  view;  the  former 
being  very  smaU,  and  rising  only  a  few  feet  out  of  the  ocean, 
and  the  latter,  about  five  miles  in  circumference,  steep  and 
lofty,  and  varied  by  thick  wood,  and  bare,  red  peaks.  These 
three  islands  form  the  whole  of  this  remote  group.  Norfolk 
Island  is  the  only  one  inhabited. 

9th.  The  gangs  being  too  busily  occupied  in  harvesting 
Maize,  to  allow  us  to  have  interviews  with  them,  I  made 
another  excursion  into  the  bush,  having  as  guide,  a  prisoner 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

272  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  [4th  mO. 

who  was  sent  here^  from  New  South  Wales,  for  bush-ranging, 
or  in  other  words,  for  breaking  away  from  the  restraint  of 
penal  discipline,  and  becoming  a  robber.  This  course  of  life 
he  informed  me,  he  should  never  have  taken  to,  had  he  not 
fallen  into  the  hands  of  a  bad  master.  In  the  course  of  our 
walk,  one  of  the  Orange-fiwsed,  Green  Parrots,  alighted  on  a 
bush  near  us.  The  prisoner  broke  a  long  stick,  so  near  to 
the  bird,  that  I  expected  it  woidd  fly  away  at  the  noise,  but 
it  sat  still ;  with  a  shoe-string,  he  made  a  noose,  which  he 
fastened  to  the  end  of  the  stick ;  this  he  reached  to  the  bird. 
After  a  few  unsuccessful  attempts,  which  only  occasioned 
the  parrot  to  move  a  little  from  its  place,  he  passed  the 
noose  over  its  head,  and  captured  it. — The  most  remarkable 
object  that  arrested  our  attention  was  Marattia  elegans,  a 
fern  of  great  beauty,  having  fronds  14  feet  in  lengthy  7  fo®* 
of  which  were  destitute  of  branches ;  of  these,  it  had  8i 
pair,  which  were  again  branched,  and  clothed  with  leaflets, 
five  inches  long,  and  three-quarters  of  an  inch  broad. 

13th.  The  petty  sessions  were  held :  they  occur  twice  a 
week.  Several  prisoners  received  reprimands,  or  sentence 
to  sleep  in  Jail,  to  sohtary  confinement,  or  to  wear  chains, 
for  neglect  of  work,  or  for  insolence  to  overseers.  A  cir- 
cumstance of  improper  conduct  in  a  military  officer,  lately 
removed  from  the  Island,  came  to  Ught,  in  the  examination 
of  a  prisoner,  such  as  shewed  the  pernicious  eflects  of  the 
bad  example,  by  which  the  penal  discipUne  is  too  often  let 
down.  It  is  awful  to  see  the  unmoved  hardness  with  which 
prisoners  make  oath,  most  solemnly,  to  the  truth  of  what 
they  state,  on  both  sides,  when  it  is  obvious,  that  on  one 
side  there  must  be  perjury.  Truly  oaths  are  insufficient  to 
secure  correct  testimony,  where  the  moral  standard  of  truth 
is  low ;  where  it  is  gone,  they  only  add  to  crime ;  and  where 
this  standard  is  properly  maintained,  they  are  useless,  yea 
being  yea,  and  nay,  nay. 

The  tide  being  low  in  the  afternoon,  I  walked  among  the 
rocks,  and  detached  a  few  pieces  of  Coral,  of  different  sorts. 
Some  species  of  Alcyoniumy  that  are  met  with  here,  so 
much  resemble  the  Corals,  that  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish 
them,  except  by  the  former  being  soft.     Some  long-spined 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  273 

£chini  or  Sea  Urchins  are  found  here,  and  two  remark- 
able^  sea  Slugs.  One  of  them  is  about  three  inches  long, 
black,  and  covered  with-  spine-like  projections :  it  exudes 
a  milky  slime,  on  being  alarmed.  The  other  is  as  large  as 
a  rabbit,  of  a  week  old :  it  is  drab,  netted  with  dark  lines, 
and  has  folds  on  its  back  and  head.  When  irritated,  it 
exudes  a  large  quantity  of  purple  fluid. 

14th.  In  company  with  Robert  EUson,  the  military  sur- 
geon, and  attended  by  William  Percival,  a  reformed  prisoner, 
as  our  guide,  I  explored  some  of  the  gullies,  on  the  south 
of  Mount  Pitt.  Here  two  tree-ferns,  AhophUa  exceUa  and 
Cyathea  medularia,  were  very  fine;  the  former  measured 
40  feet,  and  the  latter  20  feet,  in  height;  both  had  mag- 
nificent, circular  crests  of  fronds:  those  of  the  Cyathea,  were 
11  feet  in  length. 

When  Norfolk  Island  was  first  discovered,  it  was  un- 
inhabited, and  white  Guinea-fowl  were  numerous  upon  it ; 
they  are  now  quite  extinct.  When  the  Island  was  re- 
occupied,  for  a  penal  settlement,  Pigs,  Goats,  Barn-door- 
fowl,  Pigeons,  Cats,  Rats,  and  Mice,  had  become  very 
niunerous.  Percival,  who  was  sent  here  soon  after  the 
penal  settlement  was  established,  told  us,  that  the  pigs  and 
goats  were  chiefly  destroyed  in  the  first  two  years,  in  which 
time,  from  the  irregular  supply  of  provisions  from  Sydney, 
the  settlement  was  sometimes  dependent  upon  these  animcds 
for  food,  and  the  people  had  to  catch  them  in  a  morning, 
before  they  could  get  anything  to  eat.  Pigs  and  goats,  in  a 
wild  state,  consequently,  soon  became  extinct ;  but  they  are 
still  niunerous  on  Phillip  Island.  Barn-door-fowl  are  also 
now  extinct,  or  nearly  so,  in  a  wild  state.  Pigeons  are  very 
abundant,  breeding  in  inaccessible  places  amotig  the  cliffs. 
Wild-cats  resort  to  the  cliffs  in  summer,  and  in  winter  make 
incursions  on  the  poultry-yards ;  when  they  also  feed  on 
birds,  rats,  and  mice;  the  two  latter  of  which  are  very  numer- 
ous at  certain  seasons  of  the  year.  There  are  neither  snakes 
nor  lizards  on  Norfolk  Island;  but  lizards  are  said  to  be 
found  on  a  small,  rocky,  detached  portion  of  PhiUip  Island. 

Two  young  officers  pressed  me  much,  this  morning,  to 
accompany  them  to   Phillip   Island;    but   I   did    not  feel 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

274  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  [4th  mO. 

satisfied  to  go,  as  there  was  tincertainty  in  regard  to  being 
delayed  there,  and  there  are  no  human  inhabitants  upon  it. 
They  shot  thirteen  Goats,  which  they  sent  back  by  the  boat, 
on  its  return ;  it  brought  also  a  supply  of  fine  fish,  of  the 
kinds  known  here  as  the  Trumpeter,  King-fish,  and  Rock 
Cod.  The  last  is  very  different  from  the  one  called  by  the 
same  name  in  V.  D.  Land. 

Guavas  are  now  ripe;  they  are  so  abundant  on  various 
parts  of  the  Island,  that  the  supply  is  more  than  sufficient, 
for  man,  pigs  and  birds,  all  of  which  consume  great  quan- 
tities of  them.  They  are  the  size  of  small  apples,  and  have  a 
thick  coat,  enclosing  a  pink,  sweet,  seedy  mass,  that  is 
agreeable  to  eat,  either  raw  or  cooked. 

15  th.  We  met  a  nimiber  of  the  prisoners,  in  the  Court- 
house, and  after  reading  a  chapter  in  the  Bible  to  them, 
were  again  strengthened  to  urge  upon  them,  the  importance 
of  attention  to  the  teaching  of  the  Lord^s  Spirit ;  without 
which  no  profession  of  religion  can  avail  anything ;  for  all 
the  members  of  the  true  church,  are  taught  of  the  Lord,  and 
great  is  their  peace,  and  in  righteousness  they  are  estab- 
lished, according  to  the  declaration  of  his  prophet,  what- 
soever may  be  their  name  among  men;  or  how  much 
soever  the  influence  of  education  may  have  led  them  to 
esteem  as  important,  things  that  are  unimportant,  or  even 
encumbering.  Without  this  teaching,  none  can  come  to 
repentance  toward  God,  or  to  faith  in  Christ,  or  persevere 
in  perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord ;  for  all  the 
children  of  the  Lord  are  taught  of  him,  even  though  they 
may  not  clearly  apprehend  the  nature  of  this  teaching,  so  as 
to  acknowledge  it  in  words. 

20th.  The  weather  has  become  fine,  after  being  stormy 
and  wet  since  the  15  th.  Two  boats  were  sent  to  Phillip 
Island,  to-day:  they  succeeded  in  bringing  off*  the  two 
young  officers,  and  all  their  attendants,  except  a  prisoner, 
who  was  too  remote  to  reach  the  boats  before  they  were 
under  the  necessity  of  putting  off,  on  accoimt  of  the  rising 
surf,  and  he  remained  till  the  24ih.  A  soldier  was  washed 
off  the  rocks,  while  they  were  embarking,  and  was  saved 
with  difficulty. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1855.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  275 

While  the  party  was  on  Phillip  Island,  the  prisoner  who, 
is  left  behind,  was  attacked  by  a  Wild-boar ;  he  faced  the 
ferocious  animal  with  a  long  stick,  that  he  happened  to 
have  in  his  hand,  and  with  which  he  parried  off  the  boar, 
at  the  same  time  advancing  upon  it,  till  it  was  on  the  edge 
of  a  lofty  cliff;  he  then  made  a  sudden  rush,  which  occa^- 
sioned  the  boar  as  suddenly  to  recede,  and  it  fell  backward, 
over  the  precipice,  and  was  killed.  This  man  once  made 
his  escape  from  Norfolk  Island  to  Phillip  Island,  where 
he  eluded  pursuit,  among  the  peaks,  for  three  months: 
he  supported  himself  on  wild  animals  and  fruits  ;  but  soli- 
tude became  so  irksome  to  him,  that  he  gave  himself  up, 
and  has  since  been  a  well-conducted  man.  I  have  felt 
thankful  to  the  Lord,  who  restrained  me  from  going  to 
PhiUip  Island,  where  the  party  have  had  a  miserable  time, 
in  the  rain,  and  from  whence  no  boat  could  have  brought 
me  on  the  following  day,  as  was  kindly  proposed. 

21st.  We  went  about  two  miles  into  the  bush,  to  visit 
some  working  gangs,  with  whom  we  had  a  religious  inter- 
view :  they  were  seated,  as  has  been  usual  on  such  occa- 
sions, on  logs  of  wood,  or  on  the  groimd,  in  a  sheltered 
place;  and  we  were  kindly  provided  with  a  wheelbarrow, 
leaned  against  a  tree,  and  covered  with  a  sack,  as  a  seat. 
In  our  visits  to  these  men,  we  have  generally  read  a  chapter 
from  the  Holy  Scriptures,  then  made  a  pause,  and  sub- 
sequently, given  expression  to  such  impressions  as  were 
made  upon  our  minds,  either  in  testimony  or  prayer.  We 
crossed  to  Longridge  in  the  evening,  and  had  an  interview 
of  a  similar  kind,  with  about  two  hundred  of  the  men  who 
are  employed  in  agricidture.  Two  men,  under  religious 
convictions,  spoke  to  George  W.  Walker,  and  he  encou- 
raged them  to  keep  under  these  impressions,  hoping  that  it 
n^ht  please  the  Lord  to  give  them  a  sense  of  the  pardon 
of  their  sins,  and  to  lead  them  in  the  way  of  salvation. 

Being  out  after  dark,  we  were  interested  by  seeing  num« 
bcrs  of  a  small  species  of  agaric,  or  mushroom,  so  luminous 
^  to  reflect  a  shadow  on  substances  near  them.  When 
held  near  a  watch,  the  hour  might  be  distinctly  seen,  or  on 
^ng  put  near  the  face,  the  features  might  be  discovered 

T  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

276  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  [4th  mO. 

This  remarkable  fungus  has  obtained  the  name  of  Blue-light, 
though  its  radiance  is  rather  green  than  blue :  it  grows  firom 
decaying  sticks  or  straw^  and  is  very  abundant  amongst 
the  sugar-canes,  as  well  as  in  the  bush.  Its  cap  is  rather 
conTex5  covered  with  mucilaginous  matter^  and  is  less  than 
an  inch  across;  the  stalk  is  slender,  two  or  three  often 
grow  together ;  the  whole  plant  is  very  watery.  The  bril- 
liancy is  greatest  in  the  cap,  which  shines  most  on  the 
under  side. 

23rd.     At  an  early  hour,  the  Government-schooner,  Isa- 
bella, was  descried;  but  as  the  wind  was  against  her,  she  did 
not  get  near  enough  to  land  her  despatches.     I  took  a  long 
walk,  to  a  wood-cutting  gang,  to  collect  some  transverse  sec- 
tions of  the  wood  of  the  Island,  for  my  kind  friend  Alexander 
M^Leay.      A  prisoner  who  was  my  guide,  gave  me  several 
particulars  of  his  life.     He  said,  he  was  carefully  brought  up 
by  his  mother,  who  made  him  ^^  attend  church,  and  repeat 
the  text ;  '*  and  who  sent  him  to  a  school,  where  he  often  got 
passages  of  Scripture  oflF,  by  heart.     He  was  afterwards  er- 
rand-boy to  a  common-councilman  of    London,  for  whose 
convenience,  he  waited  at  a  neighbouring  public-house,  to  be 
ready  to  run  errands.     This  public-house  was  the  resort  of 
thieves,  and  women  of  loose  character,  with  whom  he  be- 
came entangled ;  at  length,  he  joined  some  of  them  in  rob- 
bing his  master's  premises.     By  the  vigilance  of  a  watchman, 
the  party  was  detected,  and  he  was  tried,  and  transported  to 
Bermuda.     Charged  with   mutiny  there,   along  with  ma^y 
others,   he  was  sent  back  to  England,  and  from  thence  to 
New  South  Wales,  where  he  was  assigned  to  a  master  who, 
he  then  thought,  pinched  him  in  his  rations,  and  from  whom 
he  consequently  pilfered.     He  was  afterwards  removed  into 
the  public  works,  where,  through  bribing  an  under-overseer, 
he  earned  money  by  occasionally  working  for  a  settler.    He 
afterwards  resolved  to  leave  off  all  his  dishonest  tricks,  call- 
ing to  mind  how  much  he  used  to  hate  the  character  of  a 
thief,  when  a  child.     But  being  sent  into  Sydney  one  day^ 
while  he  yet  had  money  in  his  pocket,  he  met  an  old  ac- 
quaintance, who  was  pennyless,  and  took  him  to  a  public- 
house,  to  refresh  him.     Here  he  took  a  glass  of  spirits  with 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  277 

the  man^  out  of  the  idea  of  good-fellowship ;  this  excited  an 
old  appetite  for  strong  drink^  and  he  and  his  companion 
concluded  to  have  a  second  glass.  This  destroyed  their  reso- 
lution to  keep  sober^  and  they  continued  drinking,  until  the 
'whole  of  his  money  was  gone,  and  with  it,  his  resolution  to 
keep  from  thieving.  On  reflecting  upon  this,  he  marvelled 
to  think  how  soon  strong  drink  destroyed  strong  resolution 
to  keep  from  sin  ! 

He  fell  completely  back  into  his  old  habits,  was  appre- 
hended, transported  to  a  penal  settlement  for  life,  and  sent  to 
Norfolk  Island.  He  had  cherished  a  strong  desire  again  to 
see  his  parents ;  but  now,  had  no  hope  of  ever  effecting  this, 
unless  he  could  escape  from  the  settlement;  he  therefore 
joined  some  others  in  taking  off  a  boat.  They  were  pursued, 
one  of  the  party  was  shot  dead,  another  dangerously 
wounded,  and  the  whole  recaptured.  He  had  indulged  in 
infidel  principles,  but  the  sight  of  the  dead  man  had  a  power- 
ful effect  upon  him,  and  he  could  not  help  looking  upon  him 
as  lost  for  ever.  He  was  committed  to  jail  in  irons,  with 
tihe  rest  of  his  fellows,  and  they  were  put  upon  the  chain, 
that  is,  they  had  a  chain  passed  within  their  irons,  and  fixed 
outside  of  their  prison,  to  render  them  more  secure.  Here  he 
felt  his  situation  keenly.  Passages  of  Scripture  were  brought 
to  his  recollection,  and  he  obtained  the  use  of  a  Bible,  which  he 
read  diligently,  determining,  if  through  the  mercy  of  God,  he 
should  get  over  this  offence,  so  as  again  to  be  liberated  from 
the  jail,  he  would  lead  a  different  life.  He  also  began  to 
pray  to  God  for  help.  The  party  were  tried  for  attempting 
to  take  away  the  boat,  found  guilty,  and  sentenced  to  death ; 
but  as  they  had  used  no  personal  violence,  they  were  ulti- 
mately reprieved,  and  after  lying  long  in  prison,  they  were 
returned  to  their  work.  This  was  only  a  short  time  before 
the  mutiny  of  1834,  in  which,  an  attempt  was  made  by  the 
prisoners  to  take  possession  of  Norfolk  Island ;  having  a  bad 
name,  he  was  charged  as  being  one  of  the  party,  and  sent  to 
prison,  but  was  afterwards  dismissed. 

While  in  prison,  on  this  occasion,  he  became  privy  to  a  plot, 
for  rescuing  some  men,  sentenced  to  death,  which  he  was  not 
comfortable  t^ll  he  had  disclosed.      His  comrades  suspected 

T  3 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

278  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [4th  mo. 

that  he  had  commaniGated  their  plans^  they  marked  also  his 
altered  conduct,  for  he  could  no  longer  join  in  many  of  the 
evil  practices  in  which  they  indulged,  and  he  became  in  their 
estimation  and  language,  '^  A  bad  fellow/'  Before^  when  he 
ran  with  them  into  the  depths  of  iniquity,  he  passed  among 
them  as  a  ^^good  fellow*';  for  thus,  among  this  depraved  por- 
tion of  our  race,  is  good  too  generally  called  evil^  and  evil 
good !  and  a  man,  who  in  any  measure  becomes  reformed,  is 
liable  to  much  persecution.  This  man,  and  others  of  reflec- 
tion, say,  such  is  the  wickedness  of  this  place,  that  they  often 
marvel  that  God,  in  wrath,  does  not  cause  it  to  be  swallowed 
up,  or  destroy  it,  as  he  did  Sodom  of  old ;  for  some  of  the 
sins  of  that  ancient  city  are  awfully  prevalent  here.  ^  And 
the  time  was,''  said  the  prisoner,  ''when  there  was  not  half- 
a-dozen  righteous  persons  to  be  found  on  the  Island,"  though 
there  is  reason  to  believe  the  number  is  now  increased. 

24th.     By  the  mail  of  the  Isabella,  we  received  intelligence 
of  our  dear  friends  in  England,  by  a  letter  dated  the  29th  of 
9th   month,    1834.      I   had  also   a  letter  from  Alexander 
M'Leay,  informing  us,  that  the  Friendship  would  call  here,  for 
Coffee  Plants,  on  her  way  to  Tahiti,  and  that  by  her,  we 
might  convey  letters  to  our  late  dear  companions,  D.  and  C. 
Wheeler. — We  had  also  tidings  of  the  tail  of  an  individual 
in  V.  D.  Land ;  for  whose  friends  as  well  as  for  himself,  we 
felt  much  sorrow.     He  was  one  who,  through  repentance  and 
reformation,  had  been  raised  from  a  low  state,  into  which  he 
had  brought  himself  by  transgression.     But  old,  sinful  habits 
are  hard  indeed  to  root  out.     When  they  are  overcome,  close 
walking  with  God  is  required,  to  keep  tliem  down.     If  care- 
lessness be  given  way  to,   they  easily  revive :   and  like  the 
old  inhabitants  of  Canaan,  who  were  driven  to  the  hills,  they 
again   invade  their  old   domain.      In  countries  like  these, 
where  a  large  part  of  the  population,  free  and  bond,  have 
become  exiles  from  their  native  land,  through  habitual  mis- 
conduct,   relapses  may  reasonably   be  expected,   in  many 
cases  in  which  hope  has  been  excited ;  and  care  is  required, 
not  to  be  too  much  discouraged  by  them. 

26th.     In  the  morning  we  visited  the  congregation  of  free 
Protestants.    Their  service  being  short,  we  had  an  opportu- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  279 

nity  again  to  testify  our  Christian  concern,  for  their  present 
and  eternal  weUeure.  On  taking  leave  of  them^  we  went  to 
the  prisoner  Protestants^  in  time  also  to  take  leave  of  them. 

In  the  afternoon^  we  visited  the  prisoner  Roman  Catholics, 
and  topk  leave  of  them  likewise.  On  aU  these  occasions,  we 
were  enabled  to  bear  an  uncompromising  testimony  against 
sin,  and  to  hold  up  the  necessity  of  repentance  toward  God, 
and  faith  toward  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  in  order  to  obtain  the 
pardon  of  past  sins,  and  to  inculcate  a  humble,  as  well  as 
watchful  walking  in  the  Spirit,  as  necessary,  to  being  pre- 
served from  fulfilling  the  lusts  of  the  flesh. 

A  sense  of  the  divine  presence,  has  often  pervaded  our 
minds,  in  a  remarkable  degree,  when  labouring  among  the 
outcasts  of  human  society,  in  this  Island,  inspiring  the  hope, 
that  some  of  them  may  yet  come  under  the  power  of  the 
Gospel.  Though  abundance  of  the  worst  of  crimes  are  to  be 
found  among  the  prisoners  on  Norfolk  Island,  there  are,  even 
among  them,  a  small  number,  who  are  not  insensible  of  the 
operations  of  divine  grace. 

One  man,  who  now  mourns  because  of  his  past  sins,  told 
us,  that  he  had  been  twice  sentenced  to  death,  and  a  third 
time,  had  narrowly  escaped  the  gallows,  when  he  had  been 
concerned  in  a  robbery,  with  attempt  at  murder.  He  was 
formerly  in  high  esteem  with  his  feUow  prisoners,  for  his 
boldness ;  but  this  boldness  was  then  exercised  in  the  practice 
of  iniquity.  He  was  brought  to  reflect  upon  his  sinful  state, 
under  the  divine  blessing,  upon  the  labours  of  William  Mar- 
shaD,  the  Surgeon  of  the  Alligator,  who,  when  that  vessel 
was  here,  a  few  months  ago,  during  the  time  that  a  number 
of  men  were  tried  for  mutiny,  frequently  visited  the  prison- 
ers, and  endeavoured  to  turn  them  from  darkness  to  light, 
and  from  the  power  of  Satan  to  God. — ^This  prisoner  was 
scarcely  known  to  flinch  under  the  lash,  of  which  he  received 
at  one  time,  three  hundred  strokes,  nor  did  he  weep  under  the 
sentence  of  death ;  but  now,  the  tears  steal  down  his  cheeks, 
while  he  lifts  up  his  heart  in  prayer  to  God,  against  whom  he 
has  so  greatly  revolted,  and  implores  the  pardon  of  his  sins 
for  Jesus'  sake.  In  remarking  upon  the  contriting  influence 
of  the  love  of  God,  he  told  us,  that  he  sometimes  heard 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

280  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [4th  mo« 

the  prisoner  who  slept  next  him^  and  who  had  also  been 
very  hardened^  weeping  under  its  uifluence^  while  others  slept. 

28th.  We  had  a  satisfactory  interview  with  two  prisoners^ 
lately  awakened :  they  made  some  feeling  acknowledgments 
respecting  their  past  vicious  lives^  and  said^  they  fully  me- 
rited all  the  punishment  they  had  received.  Such  acknow- 
ledgments are  rarely  made  by  prisoners^  except  in  an  awaken- 
ed state. 

29th.  A  number  of  the  prisoners  having  expressed  a 
wish  to  see  us  again^  before  we  left  the  Island^  we  met  them 
in  the  Court-house^  at  their  dinner-hour.  There  were  about 
forty  of  them^  and  they  desired  us  to  consider  them  as  the 
representatives  of  a  much  larger  number^  who  being  out  at 
work^  on  the  £arm^  and  in  the  gangs^  could  not  then  be  pre- 
sent. They  presented  us  with  the  following  address^  which 
one  of  them  first  read: — 

'^Norfolk  Island,  29th  April,  1835. 
"  Gentlemen, 

'^  We,  the  prisoners  of  the  crown,  embracing 
the  tenets  of  the  Prostestant  fedth,  cannot,  fipom  pure  mo- 
tives of  unfeigned  gratitude,  allow  you  to  quit  this  Island, 
without  thus,  publicly,  expressing  our  sentiments  for  your 
unwearied  zeal,  and  attention  to  our  best  interests,  since 
you  came  amongst  us,  viz.  the  salvation  of  our  immortal 

"  Permit  us  to  implore,  that  you  would  convey  to  Major 
Anderson,  our  Commandant,  the  deep  sense  we  entertain 
of  his  great  anxiety,  since  he  assumed  the  command,  for  our 
well-being,  here  and  hereafter. 

'^  That  a  kind  Providence  may  conduct  you  both,  in  safety, 
through  the  trackless  deep,  to  the  haven  where  you  would 
wish  to  be,  is, 

"  Grentlemen, 

"The  ardent  wish  of 

''This  Congregation." 

''  Messrs.  Backhouse  and  Walker, 
"  Members  of  the  Society  of  Friends.'^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NORFOLK    ISLAND.  281 

We  acknowledged  the  kind  intention  of  the  prisoners^ 
imparted  to  them  a  few  more  words  of  Christian  coimsel^ 
commended  them  again  to  God^  and  to  the  word  of  his 
grace^  and  took  a  final  leave  of  them. 

An  early  dinner  was  provided  for  us^  after  which  Major 
Anderson  and  his  wife^  and  several  other  individuals^  who 
had  shown  us  much  kindness^  accompanied  us  to  the  land- 
ing place^  where  we  took  leave  of  them^  and  went  on  board 
a  whale-boat,  along  with  Ensign  Wyatt,  who  returned  with 
us  to  New  South  Wales.  A  boat,  coming  from  the  Isa- 
bella, a  short  time  before,  was  overtaken  by  a  heavy 
surf,  and  driven  upon  the  rocks,  to  the  imminent  peril  of 
all  on  board  ;  but  it  was  got  ojBf  again  with  little  damage. — 
A  police-runner,  on  this  Island,  formerly  a  notorious  bush- 
ranger, in  New  South  Wales,  was  sent  out  upon  the  point 
of  the  reef,  the  tide  being  low,  to  give  notice  of  approach- 
ing surges ;  and  we  were  favoured,  through  this  precaution, 
to  escape  some,  such  as  might  have  swamped  the  boat. 
Being  apprized  of  their  approach,  we  kept  under  the  shelter 
of  a  point  of  rocks,  till  they  had  passed.  Our  intrepid 
boat's  crew  then  pulled  briskly  out,  and  we  passed  the 
broken  water  safely,  though  not  without  meeting  some 
heavy  surfs,  that  wet  us  a  little ;  within  a  few  minutes,  we 
passed  some  high  swells,  that  would  break  with  awful  force 
in  the  passage  that  we  had  but  just  left.  Thus  being  again 
favoured  to  escape  the  dangers  of  this  shore,  we  soon 
reached  the  Isabella,  which  had  remained  attached  to  a 
buoy,  laid  down  for  the  purpose,  in  eight  fathoms  water, 
to  which  vessels  are  made  fast  in  fine  weather.  If  it  come 
on  to  blow,  vessels  are  obliged  to  stand  off  and  on,  till  it 
be  fine  again.  In  such  cases,  communication  with  the  shore 
is  sometimes  cut  off  for  many  days.  We  loosed  from  the 
buoy  about  four  o'clock  in  the  evening,  with  a  southerly 
breeze,  that  became  so  light,  as  to  place  us  in  doubt  for 
some  time,  as  to  whether  we  should  drift  with  the  tide, 
upon  the  rocks,  or  clear  the  south-west  point  of  the  Island, 
which  we  were  favoured  to  pass  before  night. 

Before  we  sailed,  several  prisoners  requested  leave  of  the 
Commandant,  to  send  letters  by  us  to  Sydney,  to  be  for- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

.383  NORFOLK  ISLAND.  [4th  mo. 

warded  to  their  relations^  under  the  idea,  that  they  would 
be  despatched  from  the  Colony  with  more  certainty^  in  this 
way,  than  if  sent  by  the  regular  packet,  to  the  Government 
Office.  This  was  readily  granted,  on  condition  that  the 
letters  should  be  open,  and  that  we  should  inspect  them, 
to  see  that  nothing  improper  was  communicated.  As  some 
of  these  letters  contained  expressions  illustrative  of  the 
feelings  of  the  writers,  with  regard  to  their  situation  as  Con- 
victs at  a  Penal  Settlement,  and  the  causes  of  crime,  I 
ventured  to  make  a  few  extracts  from  them;  which  are 
introduced  at  Appendix.  J. 

The  voyage  firom  Norfolk  Island  to  Sydney,  occupied  three 
weeks,  in  consequence  of  calms  and  adverse  winds. — ^The 
company  on  board  the  vessel,  were  Ensign  Wyatt,  G.  W. 
Walker,  and  myself,  twenty-five  soldiers,  ten  prisoners,  a 
free  overseer,  a  store-keeper  and  his  wife,  and  sixteen  sea- 
men, inclusive  of  the  captain  and  mate. 

5th  mo.  6th.  A  storm  came  on  in  the  night;  in  which, 
on  reflecting  upon  the  many  snares  that  are  in  the  world, 
and  the  many  persons  that  have  fallen  away  from  righteous- 
ness, after  having  witnessed  a  precious  state  of  divine  favour, 
I  felt  willing  to  perish,  rather  than  that  I  shoidd  be  per- 
mitted to  falsify  the  testimony  which  the  Lord  has  given 
me  to  bear,  to  the  truth  as  it  is  in  Jesus.  Unworthy  as  I 
felt  myself  to  be,  of  the  least  of  the  Lord^s  mercies,  I  prayed 
to  him,  if  he  saw  meet  to  continue  my  life,  to  continue  sdso 
the  baptisms  of  his  Holy  Spirit,  until  the  very  root  of  sin 
should  perish ;  and  to  enable  me  so  to  watch,  as  that  the 
seeds  of  sin  might  not  be  suffered  to  vegetate,  but  their 
smallest  buddings  be  destroyed,  by  the  power  of  the  Spirit. 
While  thus  meditating  and  praying  in  the  storm,  with 
thanksgiving,  for  the  accommodation  of  a  good  berth,  and 
many  other  blessings,  I  was  preserved  very  peaceful,  under 
a  sense  of  the  divine  presence.  Thus,  as  in  days  of  old, 
and  as  on  many  former  occasions,  in  my  own  experience,  the 
Lord  proved  himself  to  be  '^  a  very  present  help  in  time  of 
trouble;'*  and  I  could  adopt  the  language,  ** Therefore  we 
will  not  fear,  though  the  waters  roar  and  be  troubled,  though 
the  mountains  shake  with  the  swelling  thereof:   for  the  Lord 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  PACIFIC   OCEAN.  2S3. 

of  hosts  is  with  us^  the  God  of  Jacob  is  our  refuge^  and 
blessed  be  his  holy  name  for  ever/^ 

10th.  Balls  Pyramid  was  seen  at  smi-rise^  and  a  high 
bluff,  of  Lord  Howes  Island,  towards  simset.  The  distance 
was  only  about  thirty  miles,  but  there  was  so  much  fog  in 
the  horizon,  that  the  island  was  obscured  most  of  the  day. 
In  the  forenoon,  the  whole  of  the  ship's  company,  including 
prisoners,  assembled  on  deck,  and  we  had  a  satisfactory  reli- 
gious interview  with  them.  George  W.  Walker  read  a 
portion  of  Scripture ;  after  which,  we  both  addressed  them, 
on  the  danger  of  deceiving  themselves,  and  imagining  them- 
selves the  servants  of  God,  while  worshipping  the  devil  by 
habitual  and  careless  sin.  The  practise  of  cursing  and 
swearing,  awfully  prevalent,  was  noticed,  as  one  of  these 
habitual  sins;  and  others  were  also  denoimced.  The  test 
pointed  out  by  the  Saviour  of  men,  '*By  their  fruits  ye 
shall  know  them,'^  was  appealed  to,  and  the  doctrines  and 
invitations,  as  well  as  the  denunciations  of  the  Gospel 
were  set  forth,  the  Lord  helping  us.  The  folly  of  neglect- 
ing the  guidance  of  the  Holy  Spirit  was  illustrated,  by  the 
folly  which  it  would  be  accounted  in  a  mariner,  to  neglect 
the  Compass,  in  steering  a  vessel,  and  the  almost  certain 
wreck,  to  which  such  neglect  must  lead.  The  mercy  that 
had  preserved  us  in  the  late  gales,  and  spared  us  till  the 
present  hour,  was  magnified ;  and  all  were  exhorted  to  flee 
from  the  wrath  to  come,  and  to  seek,  in  repentance,  to  be 
reconciled  to  God,  through  the  death  of  his  Son,  and  to 
be  enabled,  by  his  grace,  to  serve  him  in  holiness.  The 
people  conducted  themselves  more  properly  afterwards,  and 
spent  much  of  the  day  in  reading  some  tracts,  with  which 
we  supplied  them. 

14th.  A  dead  calm.  The  sea  was  covered  with  minute, 
red  animalcuke,  like  tadpoles,  with  transparent  tails.  Jelly- 
fish, and  Portuguese  Men-of-War,  also  a  blue  slug,  half  an  inch 
long,  with  a  silvery  back,  and  palmate  appendages,  like 
fore  fins,  and  posterior  ones  of  a  trilobed  form,  with  a 
shark,  sailing  about  with  its  dorsal  fin  above  water,  and  a 
few  birds,  varied  the  smooth,  circular  expanse  of  blue 
ocean,  bounded  only  by  the  sky. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

284  PACIFIC  OCEAN.  [5th  mo. 

15th.  Stood  for  land  in  latitude  31^.  9^  S.^  and  descried 
some  hills  on  the  coast  of  N.  S.  Wales. 

16th.  The  Heads  of  Port  Stephens  were  in  sights  at 
noon.  The  weather  was  so  rough  as  again  to  make  me 
sick:  this  has  often  been  the  case  in  the  course  of  the 
voyage.  The  vessel  leaks  greatly  on  one  tack^  as  the  wind 
lays  her  over  to  that  side.  Some  of  our  company,  at  times 
get  alarmed;  but  I  have  been  favoured  to  feel  peaceful  and 
content,  yet  pitying  the  seamen  who  have  to  work  hard 
at  the  pumps. 

18th.  The  wind  still  adverse.  We  are  out  of  sugar 
and  coals,  and  are  using  the  last  bag  of  biscuit,  but  have 
plenty  of  salt  beef  and  flour.  A  spar  has  been  cut  up  for 
fuel.  The  biscuit  has  long  been  full  of  Weevils,  but  w^e 
have  made  the  best  of  it,  by  putting  it  into  the  oven. 

19th.  OflF  the  Heads  of  Port  Jackson.  The  wind  still 
against  us.  We  remembered  that  this  was  the  time  of  the 
Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends,  in  London,  where  many  of  those 
who  bear  the  care  and  burden  of  the  Society,  would  be  as- 
sembled, and  would  feel  the  loss  of  those  who  have  been 
removed  from  the  church  militant  to  the  chiirch  trium- 
phant. The  prayer  of  our  hearts  was,  that  the  Lord  might 
support  the  burden-bearers,  strengthen  their  hands,  add  to 
their  numbers,  give  them  sound  judgment  and  clear  dis- 
cernment, and  clothe  them  with  the  love  of  Christ:  and 
that  he  might  yet  cause  his  truth  to  be  exalted  among  the 
nations,  to  the  praise  of  his  own  everlastingly  great  and 
glorious  name. 

20th.  A  gentle  breeze  sprung  up  about  midnight.  At 
break  of  day,  we  were  favoured  again  to  enter  the  Heads 
of  Port  Jackson,  in  safety.  A  calm  soon  eflsued,  but  the 
tide,  and  a  light  air  that  arose  about  noon,  brought  us  into 
Sydney  Cove.  G.  W.  Walker  and  myself  went  on  shore 
by  a  boat  from  the  Government  dock-yard,  and  found 
eighteen  letters  for  us  at  the  Post-ofiice,  eleven  of  which 
were  from  our  friends  in  England. 

While  becalmed  in  Port  Jackson,  a  number  of  Venus's 
Girdles,  passed  the  vessel^  swimming  a  little  below  the  sur- 
face of  the  water.      These  remarkable  animals  belong  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  PACIFIC   OCEAN.  285 

same  order  as  the  Jelly-fish^  but  they  resemble  a  long  semi- 
pellucid^  horn  shaving.  There  were  also  in  the  water^  atoms 
glittering  in  the  sun^  and  exhibiting  prismatic  colours^  the 
precise  nature  of  which,  we  were  unable  to  ascertain. 

21st.  We  engaged  a  lodging  in  the  town^  but  as  it  was 
not  ready  for  our  reception,  we  returned  on  board  the  Isa- 
bella, for  the  night.  The  excitement  of  landing,  in  con- 
nexion with  the  squeaking  of  rats,  in  the  pantry,  the  bleat- 
ing of  goats,  and  the  crowing  of  cocks,  on  the  deck,  together 
with  the  quarrelling  of  drunken  soldiers,  in  the  hold,  allowed 
us  but  little  sleep.  The  prisoners  had  been  safely  delivered 
on  board  of  a  hulk,  and  the  Isabella  had  been  brought  close 
up  to  the  Dock-yard.  Many  of  the  soldiers  had  been  on 
shore,  and  had  returned  in  a  state  of  intoxication,  and  ap- 
palling excitement.  They  were  very  quarrelsome.  I  went 
to  them  at  midnight,  fearing  lest  they  should  injure  one 
another  with  their  fire-arms,  which  they  had  with  them, 
loaded.  After  labouring  in  vain,  for  some  time,  to  get 
them  quiet,  I  requested  one  of  the  most  moderate,  to  hand 
me  their  lantern,  which  I  blew  out,  and  sent  away.  They 
became  a  little  quieter,  when  unable  to  see  each  other,  and 
then  were  soon  overcome  by  exhaustion,  and  fell  asleep, 
to  awake  in  the  morning,  in  shame,  at  the  testimony  which 
their  black  eyes,  and  bruised  faces,  bore  to  their  mis- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Sydney. — Penal  Discipline  of  Norfolk  Island  re-modelled. — ^EpisUe  to  Friends 
in  Hobart  Town. — Meetings. — Unclaimed  Property  of  Deceased  Persons. — 
Drought. — Shrubs. — ^Thoughtless  Young  Men. — Conceited  Woman. — ^Prayer 
in  Spirit. — Australian  School  Society. — Unworthy  Descendants  of  Friends. — 
Blacks  Fishing. — Species  of  CsUitris. — Ministry. — Shrubs. — ^Friends'  Books. 
D.  and  C.  Wheeler. — J.  Leach. — Consumption. — ^Meeting  at  Cooks  Biyer. — 
Travelling  in  New  South  Wales. — ^Mounted  Police. — ^Meeting  at  the  North 
Shore. — Botany  Bay. — Dye-woods,  &o. — Orass-tree. — Sweet  Tea. — Miasmal 

After  returning  from  Norfolk  Island^  we  remained  in 
Sydney  nearly  fifteen  weeks.  In  the  course  of  this  time,  at 
the  request  of  the  Governor,  we  presented  him  a  Report, 
on  the  state  of  the  Penal  Settlement,  on  Norfolk  Island, 
containing  the  substance  of  the  preceding  remarks,  and 
some  observations  of  temporary  interest,  not  needful  to  be 
introduced  here ;  especially,  as  the  penal  discipline,  at  that 
station,  has  been  completely  re-modelled,  in  order  to  afford 
Captain  Maconochie  the  opportunity  of  trying  to  carry  out 
his  enlightened  views,  respecting  the  treatment  of  criminals. 
Some  notice  of  these  views  will  be  found  in  this  volume, 
under  date  of  the  19th  of  8th  mo.,  1837- 

The  few  persons  professing  with  Friends,  in  Sydney, 
had  kept  up  a  meeting  for  worship,  during  our  absence, 
both  on  First-days,  and  in  the  forenoon  of  one  other  day  in 
the  week.  The  little  congregation  in  Hobart  Town,  who 
had  lately  been  placed  in  circumstances  of  trial,  excited  our 
sympathy;  and  soon  after  landing,  we  addressed  an  epistle 
to  them,  a  copy  of  which  is  inserted  in  Appendix.  K. 

5th  mo.  24th.  The  meetings  were  owned  of  the  Good 
Shepherd,  by  a  measure  of  heavenly  solemnity.    They  were 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH    WALES.  287 

held  in  silence^  except  that  O.  W.  Walker  expressed  a  few 
sentences  near  the  close  of  that  in  the  afternoon.  The 
effects  of  our  late  voyage^  upon  my  own  health,  have  been 
such,  as  to  render  it  difficult  for  me  to  keep  my  mind 
properly  settled,  on  these  occasions ;  but  divine  mercy  has 
condescended  to  my  weakness,  so  that  I  have  stiU  been 
permitted  to  feel  the  sensible  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit. 

26th.  I  consulted  the  Colonial  Secretary,  respecting  the 
inquiries  of  a  friend,  in  England,  on  behalf  of  one  of  his 
neighbours,  whose  brother  died  in  this  country,  leaving  some 
property.  This,  according  to  a  good  regulation  in  the 
Colony,  was  taken  possession  of  by  the  Registrar  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  and  advertised,  to  enable  the  relatives  of  the 
deceased  to  claim  it.  The  Secretary  kindly  offered  to  obtain 
the  desired  information,  if  I  would  address  a  letter  to  him 
on  the  subject,  which  was  done  accordingly. 

28th.  Very  little  rain  has  fellen  for  many  months. 
Wheat  is  ten  shiUings  a  bushel.  Oranges  and  late  Peaches 
are  beginning  to  ripen.  Apples  from .  Van  Diemens  Land 
are  in  the  market.  Several  fine  shrubs  are  in  blossom,  in 
the  woods  and  bushy  places,  on  the  borders  of  Port  Jackson. 
Among  them  are  Banksia  erietfoUa,  udegTJfolia  and  spumlosa, 
Orowea  salignay  Styphelia  tubiflora,  Acacia  suaioeolens,  Hakea 
gibbosoy  and  Epacris  gratu^hra^  Several  of  these  are  well 
known  in  English  greenhouses. 

31st.  A  few  young  men  who  have  been  brought  up 
among  Friends,  but  have  not  retained  their  membership 
among  them,  have  lately  attended  our  meetings  for  worship. 
Like  too  many  others,  they  seem  never  to  have  given  due 
thought  to  their  eternal  interests :  they  have  evidently  the 
first  principles  of  religion  to  learn,  before  they  can  know 
"the  way  of  peace,'^  either  as  regards  this  world,  or  the 

6th  mo.  3rd.  I  called  upon  an  aged  woman,  who  was 
sent  to  this  Colony  many  years  since,  to  conduct  a  school, 
^der  the  auspices  of  the  Government.  .  She  possessed 
considerable  abilities,  but  overrated  them,  and  assumed  a 
^€pree  of  consequence,  and  expectation,  beyond  her  proper 
sphere.    This  has  stood  greatly  in  the  way  of  her  prosperity; 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

288  SYDNEY.  [6th  mo. 

she  is  now  very  mfirm^  and  in  a  dependent  state^  a  monu- 
ment of  the  folly  of  being  ^'  heady  and  high-minded.'^ 

4th.  In  our  little  week-day  meeting,  I  was  very  sensible 
of  the  spirit  of  supplication^  and  many  secret  petitions 
ascended  from  the  altar  of  my  heart,  both  on  my  own 
account,  and  on  account  of  others ;  but  nothing  of  constrain- 
ing influence  was  felt,  indicating  it  to  be  my  place  to  lift  up 
my  voice  on  behalf  of  the  assembled  company;  who^  I 
believe,  were  also  sensible  of  the  overshadowing  of  the 
Holy  Spirit,  and  had  access  for  themselves  to  the  Throne  of 

5th.  We  attended  the  Committee  of  the  Australian 
School  Society ;  which  is  ready  to  open  its  first  school^  on 
the  8th. 

9th.  We  visited  some  persons  descended  from  Friends ; 
but  though  they  received  us  kindly,  they  neither  appeared 
to  understand  the  principles  of  the  Society,  nor  the  first 
principles  of  the  Gospel^  and  consequently  coidd  not  be 
expected  to  have  much  value  for  the  example  of  their 

*  We  walked  to  Cooks  River,  which  empties  itself  into 
Botany  Bay,  and  fell  in  with  a  party  of  Blacks,  who  were 
fishing.  One  of  them  had  a  canoe,  made  of  a  large  sheet  of 
bark,  stretched  open  with  sticks,  and  drawn  together  in 
folds  at  the  ends.  This  process  they  effect,  by  first  warming 
the  bark  in  the  fire.  The  man  and  his  wife  were  seated  on 
their  knees  in  the  canoe,  *in  which  they  had  a  fire,  on  a  flat 
stone.  The  man  propelled  the  canoe  by  means  of  a  paddle, 
that  he  applied  first  on  one  side  and  then  on  the  other.  He 
used  a  spear  in  fishing,  made  of  a  long  stick,  with  four,  long, 
wooden  prongs,  attached  to  it^  by  means  of  string  and  Grass- 
tree  Gimi.  This  he  brought  slowly,  almost  into  contact 
with  the  fish,  before  striking.  While  fishing,  he  kept  up  a 
noise  like  the  blowing  of  a  Porpoise,  and  accompanied  it  by 
showers  of  saliva,  that  disturbed  the  sur&ce  of  the  water, 
like  small  rain.  He  seldom  failed  in  transfixing  his  finny 
prey.  Another  man,  who  stood  on  a  log  that  extended 
into  the  river,  was  equally  successful,  by  a  similar  process. 

14th.     A  person  spoke  in  the  meeting  this  morning,  but 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH   WALES.  289 

got  into  a  state  of  excitement,  and  exceeded  the  measure 
of  his  exercise,  and  thus  became  confused.  This  gave  rise 
to  some  observations,  after  meeting,  on  the  advantage  of 
being  deliberate,  and  of  avoiding  excitement,  and  the  con- 
sequent risk  of  going  too  far  in  expression.  A  few  remarks 
were  also  made  on  the  views  of  Friends,  in  regard  to  the 
liberty  of  speaking  in  assemblies,  for  worship,  as  some  of 
the  persons  who  met  with  us  needed  information  on  this 
head.  They  were  reminded,  that  though  Friends  admitted 
this  liberty,  in  subjection  to  the  judgment  of  the  church, 
according  to  Scripture,  they  were  careful  that  none  should 
exercise  it,  but  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  and  under  the  belief, 
that  it  was  in  the  counsel  of  his  will,  that  they  spoke. 

15th.  We  committed  a  few  books,  the  writings  of  Friends, 
of  which  we  apprehend  the  religious  world,  generally,  know 
but  little,  to  a  gentleman,  in  the  East  India  Company's 
service,  to  be  placed  in  a  public  library,  at  Madras,  or  dis- 
posed of  in  such  other  way,  as  he  may  think  likely,  to  make 
their  valuable  contents  the  most  useful.  The  weather  of  a 
Sydney  winter  is  fine,  clear,  and  remarkably  agreeable ;  the 
thermometer  varying  from  46°  to  66°,  in  the  shade.  Among 
the  many  beautiful  shrubs,  now  in  blossom,  are  Accicia  pungena, 
BossuBa  heterophyllay  DUlwyma  ericoidesy  Boronia  pUonema 
and  tetrathecoidesy  Eriostemon  salictfoliusy  Lambertia  formosa, 
Bankaia  collina,  and  Leptospermum  baccatum. 

19th.  Yesterday,  we  had  the  satisfaction  of  learning, 
from  Captain  Blackwood,  of  the  Hyacinth,  sloop-of-war, 
just  arrived  from  Tahiti,  that  the  Henry  Freeling,  with  our 
friends,  D.  and  C.  Wheeler,  had  reached  that  island,  in 
safety.  To-day,  we  received  satisfactory  letters  from  them, 
mentioning  the  cordial  reception  they  met  with  from  the 
Missionaries  and  the  Natives. 

20th.  We  took  leave  of  John  Leach  and  his  wife,  on 
board  the  Governor  Phillip,  bound  for  Norfolk  Island. 
They  left  V.  D.  Land,  in  consequence  of  the  increased  in- 
disposition of  John  Leach,  who  has  had  consimiptive  symp- 
toms for  several  years.  General  Bourke  has  appointed  hin^ 
to  the  office  of  Catechist,  to  the  penal  settlement,  on  Nor- 
folk Island,  in  the  hope,  that  the  mild  climate  may  conduce 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

290  SYDNEY.  [6th  mo. 

to  lengthen  his  life^  and  that  he  may  be  made  serviceable 
to  the  prisoners  there,  as  he  has  been,  in  an  eminent  degree, 
to  those  in  V.  D.  Land. — ^We  parted  from  them  in  Chris- 
tian love,  under  a  precious  sense  of  the  divine  presence 
overshadowing  our  minds. 

Consumption  is  not  of  frequent  occurrence,  among  emi- 
grants from  Europe,  but  children  born  in  Australia,  of 
European  parents,  sometimes  die  of  this  disease.  Where 
it  occurs  amongst  emigrants  from  Europe,  it  is  generaUy 
as  many  years  in  running  its  course,  as  it  would  be  months, 
in  England. 

21st.  We  had  a  satisfactory  meeting,  on  the  premises 
of  a  settler,  at  Cooks  River,  seven  miles  from  Sydney, 
where,  by  the  zeal  of  a  Wesleyan,  a  small  congregation  has 
been  collected,  which  assembles  on  First-day  mornings. 
The  congregation  consisted  of  about  twenty  persons.  They 
assembled  in  a  small  hut,  of  split  timber,  placed  perpen- 
dicularly into  the  ground,  having  interstices  between  the 
timbers,  so  open  as  to  admit  more  cold  air  than  was  com- 
fortable, at  this  season  of  the  year.  The  pulpit  and  seats 
were  all  very  rustic.  The  appropriation  of  such  a  place 
to  the  purpose  of  divine  worship,  in  this  neighbourhood, 
is  a  token  for  good,  not  to  be  despised.  Our  kind  friend, 
J.  Tawell,  conveyed  us  to  the  place,  in  a  glass-coach.  A 
few  vehicles  of  this-  kind  are  kept  in  Sydney,  to  let  out  for 
hire ;  but  there  is  no  regular  system  of  posting,  yet  estab- 
lished in  any  part  of  N.  S.  Wales,  though  coaches  run  daily 
to  Parramatta,  Liverpool,  &c. 

We  passed  some  of  the  Mounted-police,  who  are  scour- 
ing the  neighbourhood,  in  search  of  bush-rangers ;  a  party 
of  whom  robbed  a  cottage,  at  the  angle  of  the  road  to  Cool^ 
River,  last  week.  One  of  them  was  shot  in  the  act.  They 
were  prisoners  who  had  escaped  from  a  neighbouring  ironed- 

28th.  We  had  an  interesting  meeting  with  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  North  Shore  of  Port  Jackson,  at  the  house 
of  John  Parker,  a  gardener,  from  Norfolk,  who  emigrated 
to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  in  1819,  and  subsequently  to 
this  Colony.     The  Divine  Presence  was  sensibly  felt,  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH    WALES.  291 

ability  was  afForded  us,  to  direct  the  congregation,  to  the 
teaching  of  the  Lord,  by  his  Spirit,  manifested  to  the 
attentive  mind^  as  a  witness  against  sin,  and  as  a  guide,  a 
counsellor,  and  a  comforter.  The  nature  of  true  worship 
was  explained,  as  well  as  the  advantage  of  waiting  upon  the 
Lord  in  silence,  to  receive  a  knowledge  of  our  states,  and  thus 
to  become  prepared  to  pray  in  spirit  for  the  supply  of  our 
wants,  and  to  give  thanks  in  the  name  of  Jesus,  for  the 
mercies  received.  The  example  of  our  holy  Redeemer  was 
held  up  to  view,  in  rejecting  the  temptation  of  Satan,  to 
worship  him,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  glories  of  the 
world.  The  contrariety  to  this  example,  was  pointed  out,  in 
those,  who,  for  the  sake  of  a  share  of  tiiese  glories,  sacrifice 
trutii,  honesty,  and  justice,  or  immerse  themselves  in  the  love 
of  tiie  world.  These,  and  all  others  who  live  in  transgression 
against  God,  and  in  the  gratification  of  their  own  corrupt 
propensities,  were  shown  to  be,  through  such  things,  falling 
down  to  Satan  in  spirit,  and  worshipping  him.  From  the 
feeling  that  prevailed,  I  have  no  doubt,  but  that  the  Holy 
Spirit  vras  felt  to  bear  witness  to  the  same  truths,  in  the 
minds  of  many  of  the  congregation.  G.  W.  Walker  had  a 
large  part  in  the  vocal  labour  of  this  meeting,  much  to  my 

7th  mo.  4th.  Wishing  to  hold  a  meeting  with  the  few 
settiers,  on  the  shores  of  Botany  Bay,  we  walked  thither, 
and  called  at  their  dwellings.  These  are  chiefly  small  huts, 
on  the  edge  of  a  marsh,  built  by  some  veteran  soldiers, 
who  were  located  there,  a  few  years  since.  The  soil  being 
of  a  nature  requiring  to  be  turned  over,  and  exposed  to 
the  action  of  the  air,  for  two  or  three  years  before  it  be- 
comes fertile,  and  tiiese  men  having  no  capital,  and  not 
being  generally  industrious,  many  of  their  cottages  have 
been  deserted,  and  their  lands  have  passed  into  other  hands. 
Botany  Bay,  with  its  gay  shrubs,  might  wear  an  imposing 
aspect,  to  the  first  navigators  of  these  seas,  after  a  tedious 
voyage ;  but  its  shores  are  shallow,  and  not  convenient  for 
landing,  and  most  of  the  land  on  the  north  side,  is  dreary 
sand  and  marsh,  of  little,  real  value.  The  pieces  that  are 
worth  anything,  are  of  very  limited  extent,  and  are  in  few 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

292  BOTANY  BAY.  [7th  mo. 

hands.  One  of  the  proprietors  has  estabUshed  a  woollen 
manufactory^  which,  from  the  price'  of  labour  in  this  coun- 
try, is  not  likely  to  pay.  He  told  us,  that  the  leaves  of 
the  Wooden-pear,  Xyhmelum  pyrjformey  dye  wool  yellow, 
and  that  the  branches  of  Leptospermum  scqparium,  answer 
the  purposes  of  Fustic-wood,  and  dye  fawn-colour.  A  hand- 
some species  of  Grass-tree,  XatUhorrhma  arb&reay  was  in 
flower,  in  some  of  the  sandy  grounds :  its  root-stocks  were 
surmounted  by  an  elegant  crest,  of  rush-like  leaves;  fromi 
the  centre  of  which,  the  flower  stem  arose  to  ten  feet 
in  height ;  somewhat  less  than  the  upper  half  of  this,  was 
densely  covered  with  brown  scales,  giving  it  an  appearance, 
something  like  a  Bull-rush.  From  amongst  these  scales 
the  small,  white,  star-like  flowers  emerged,  as  in  the  other 
species  of  this  genus.  The  plants  with  large  root-stocks 
had  been  destroyed,  for  fuel,  for  which  purpose  they  are 
much  valued.  In  this  neighbourhood,  as  well  as  at  Port 
Jackson,  the  Sweet  Tea,  SmiUuif  glydphylUiy  abounds.  It 
is  a  low,  climbing  plant,  with  narrow,  heart-shaped  leaves, 
having  a  taste  something  like  Spanish  Liquorice.  It  was 
used  instead  of  tea,  by  the  early  settlers,  apd  formed  the 
chief  ingredient  in  their  drink,  on  occasions  of  rejoicing. 

5th.  Slight  firost  has  occurred  in  some  nights  lately,  so 
as  to  produce  thin  ice.  Heavy  rain  fell  last  night,  which 
was  truly  acceptable  after  the  long  drought.  We  lodged 
with  a  settler  from  Ireland,  and  had  a  meeting  with  about 
forty  persons,  at  the  house  of  his  neighbour;  where  the 
Wesleyans,  from  Sydney,  usually  hold  a  meeting,  on  First- 

6th.  The  rain  continued,  with  little  intermission,  but 
we  returned  to  Sydney;  6.  W.  Walker  became  affected 
with  low  fever,  from  miasmata,  raised  by  the  wet  on  the 
parched  marshes. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Sydney. — Meetings. — Austratian  Settlers. — Weather. — ^Zamia. — Vegetable  In- 
stinct.— ^Beneyolent  Society. — ^Aborigines. — Gospel  Labourers. — ^Temperance 
Lectures. — ^Liverpool. — Bible  Meeting. — Hospital. — Unsteady  Emigrants. — 
Work  of  the  Spirit. — Ferserering  Prayer. — L.  E.  Threlkeld. — Inyalids  from 
India. — Temperance  Committee. — Bible  Meeting. — Spring. — ^Loquat. — ^Deci- 
duous Trees. 

7th  mo.  9th.  Six  persons^  including  G.  W.  Walker  and  my- 
self^ were  present  at  the  week-day  meeting.  It  was  a  season 
in  which  ability  was  granted^  to  point  out  the  necessity 
of  Ijeing  willing,  to  have  ^^  judgment  laid  to  the  line,  and 
righteousness  to  the  plummet/^  in  order  that,  not  only  the 
pardon  of  past  sin  might  be  obtained,  through  faith  in  the 
sacrifice  of  Christ,  but  also  ability  to  do  the  will  of  God, 
by  the  help  of  the  Spirit,  which  is  freely  offered  us,  if  we 
do  but  ask  it.  The  congregation  was  also  shown,  that  we 
cannot  ask  this  help  acceptably,  unless  we  keep  under  the 
operation  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  so  as  to  be  preserved  sensible 
of  our  need  of  help ;  and  that  without  continued  help,  man 
is  sure  to  go  astray,  in  one  way  or  other,  and  to  try  to  recon- 
cile himself  to  an  imperfect  and  sinful  state. 

We  dined,  and  spent  the  evening,  with  some  of  our 
friends,  and  were  again  refreshed  by  reading  some  extracts 
from  the  journal  of  J.  and  M.  Yeardley.  The  state  of 
society  seems  to  be  widely  different,  in  the  thickly-peopled 
parts  of  Europe,  from  what  it  is  in  the  thinly -inhabited  regions 
of  Australia.  In  the  latter,  few  persons  are  to  be  found,  willing 
to  devote  their  time  and  energies  to  endeavouring  to  raise 
the  moral  and  religious  tone  of  the  population.  Most  of 
the  settlers,  who  rank  above  the  lowest  class,  have  come 
hither,  to  try  to  better  their  fortunes ;  this  object  they  seem 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

294  SYDNEY.  [7th  mo. 

chiefly  to  pursue ;  and  where  they  are  successful^  pleasure, 
and  a  measure  of  display,  are,  with  most  of  them,  the  chief 
additional  objects,  combined  with  the  original  pursuit. 

12th.  Our  meetings  were  seasons  of  comfort.  The 
sense  of  divine  favour  was  not  only  granted,  but  also 
ability  to  labour,  to  bring  the  little  congregation  to  a  more 
steady  attention  to  the  impressions  and  operations  of  the 
Holy  Spirit;  in  order  that  they  may  become  more  tho- 
roughly engrafted  into  Christ,  the  True  Vine,  and  be  lively 
branches  in  him,  bringing  forth  fruit  to  the  glory  of  their 
Heavenly  Father. 

18th.  Several  days,  lately,  have  been  very  wet.  To- 
day, in  a  fine  interval,  we  walked  a  few  miles,  to  the  east 
of  Sydney.  In  a  bushy  hollow,  we  met  with  Zamia  apiralisy 
a  singular.  Palm-like  plant,  in  fruit.  The  whole  fruit  has 
some  resemblance  to  a  Pine-apple ;  but  large  nuts,  in  red 
coats,  are  fixed  under  the  scales  forming  the  outside. 
The  Blacks,  place  these  nuts  under  stones,  at  the  bottom  of 
water,  in  order  to  extract  some  noxious  principle  from  them ; 
they  are  afterwards  converted  into  food.  In  wet  weather, 
an  insipid,  jelly-like  gum,  which  is  wholesome,  and  not  un- 
palatable, exudes  from  the  plant. 

20th.  Three  species  of  the  genus  LorantkuSj  which  con- 
sists of  plants,  allied  to  Mistletoe,  grow  parasitically  on 
trees  in  this  neighbourhood.  They  have  handsome  blos- 
soms, a  little  like  Honey-suckle,  but  with  more  green, 
than  yellow  or  red  in  them.  Two  of  them  have  external 
roots,  adhering  to  the  bark  of  the  trees  that  support  them, 
and  incorporating  themselves  with  it ;  but  occasionally*  one 
of  these  species  happens  to  grow  upon  the  other,  and  then  it 
emits  no  external  root !  This  is  a  striking  instance  of  that 
power,  sometimes  exhibited  by  a  plant,  to  adapt  itself  to 
circumstances,  and  which  is  called  Vegetable  Instinct. 

21st.  We  attended  the  anniversary  meeting  of  the  Be- 
nevolent Society,  an  interesting  institution,  for  the  relief 
of  the  infirm  poor,  many  of  whom  are  supported  in  its 
Asylum.  The  funds  of  this  society  are  raised,  to  a  con- 
siderable extent,  by  voluntary  subscription;  but  as  many 
of  the  objects  of  relief,  and  support,  are  persons  who  have 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835«]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  295 

come  to  the  Colony  as  prisoners,  the  Government  makes 
up  the  deficiencies  in  the  funds. 

23rd.  I  met  a  large  group  of  Aborigines,  in  the  street, 
several  of  whom  appeared  to  be  intoxicated.  Some  of  them 
were  dressed  in  dirty  blankets.  A  few  of  the  women  had 
on  skin  garments,  with  the  fur  outside.  Though  some  of 
the  younger  ones  were  not  of  unpleasing  features,  making 
allowance  for  their  national  outline,  they  looked  meagre, 
and  miserably  degraded. 

26th.  The  meetings  were  seasons  of  much  conflict  to 
my  mind,  under  a  feeling  of  the  power  of  temptation,  per- 
haps in  sympathy  with  others,  under  that  power,  but  I 
was  mercifully  enabled  to  trust  in  the  Lord,  and  if  not  to 
stay  my  mind  upon  my  God,  yet  to  keep  him  in  remem- 
brance, in  the  sense  that  help  was  in  him  alone*  In  seek- 
ing this  help,  through  faith  in  the  blessed  Mediator,  I 
found  it  my  place,  out  of  my  own  weakness,  to  call  others 
to  the  source  of  strength,  and  to  testify  to  the  stability 
of  that  Foundation  laid  in  Zion,  which  whosoever  builds 
upon,  shall  not  be  confounded. 

28th.  In  the  evening,  we  attended  the  committees  of 
the  Bible  Society  and  Religious  Tract  Society,  which  were 
interesting.  It  is  comforting  to  find  a  few  persons,  in  this 
Colony,  labouring,  according  to  their  various  measures  of 
spiritual  light,  to  promote  the  spread  of  the  Gospel.  These 
are  chiefly,  individuals  who  left  their  native  land  as  mis- 
sionaries, or  religious  teachers;  but  some  of  them  have 
found  it  necessary  to  enter  into  business,  for  the  support 
of  their  families. 

Having  believed  that  advantage  might  arise  from  giving  a 
few  lectures  on  Temperance,  and  the  matter  having  pressed 
upon  me  as  a  duty,  we  obtained  the  use  of  the  Old  Court 
House,  for  this  purpose.  I  was  enabled  to  get  through 
the  first,  which  took  place  this  evening,  with  more  comfort 
than  I  anticipated.  The  audience  was  pretty  large,  and  I 
trust,  there  was  left  upon  their  minds,  an  increased  convic- 
tion of  the  evils  of  spirit-drinking,  and  of  the  importance 
of  persons,  of  respectable  character,  abstaining  altogether 
from  this  great  source  of  temporal  and  moral  evil,  in  order 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

296  SYDNEY.  [7th  mo- 

to  promote,  by  their  example,  a  reformation  among  the 
population  at  large. 

8th  mo.  3rd.  We  attended  a  meeting  at  Liverpool, 
twenty  miles  from  Sydney,  for  the  re-organization  of  an 
Auxiliary  Bible  Society.  The  one  formerly  existing  there, 
having  become  extinct.  It  is  difiicult  to  keep  up  institutions 
of  this  kind,  in  a  newly  settled  country,  where  they  are 
more  dependent  for  maintenance,  upon  excitement,  than 
upon  principle.  The  attendance  was  not  large  for  the 
town,  which  contains  about  600  inhabitants.  The  Colonial 
Hospital,  at  Liverpool,  is  a  fine  building,  of  brick;  and 
there  are  a  few  good  houses  in  the  place,  of  the  same 
material.  The  road  from  Sydney  to  Liverpool  is  good; 
It  has  two  turnpike  gates,  and  lies  through  a  low  forest  of 
Eucalyptusy  Acacia,  and  Melaleuca :  it  crosses  Georges  Ri- 
ver, by  a  rude  bridge ;  but  a  handsome  one,  of  stone,  with 
one  elliptical  arch,  is  in  the  course  of  erection. 

4th.  I  called  upon  a  young  man,  from  whom  I  had  re- 
ceived a  letter,  imploring  assistance  :  he  came  to  the  Colony 
two  years  since,  and  has  been  sinking  in  the  scale  of 
society,  till  he  has  got  very  low.  To  send  young  men, 
who  are  unsteady,  to  a  distant  land,  is  a  dangerous  expe- 
dient. They  meet  with  numerous  temptations,  and  usually 
give  way  to  them,  till  they  are  brought  into  the  depth  of 
wretchedness.  In  this  state,  some  of  them  commit  suicide, 
others  take  to  thieving  or  forgery,  and  become  convicts ; 
others  get  berths  among  the  lowest  grade  of  sailors;  and 
but  few  reform,  or  obtain  situations  in  which  they  can  re- 
trieve their  characters. 

5th.  We  again  crossed  to  the  North  Shore  of  Port 
Jackson,  and  invited  the  inhabitants  to  a  meeting,  to  be 
held  at  the  house  of  a  settler.  A  young  man  accompanied 
us,  from  a  family,  who  have  become  deeply  interested  re- 
specting the  principles  of  Friends,  and  are  carefully  read- 
ing ^^Barclay^s  Apology.*^  We  had  a  long  ramble,  and 
becoming  hungry,  regaled  ourselves  with  Oysters,  from 
the  rocks. 

9th.  We  returned  to  the  North  Shore  of  Port  Jackson, 
in  a  boat,  kindly  sent  for  us,  by  the  person  at  whose  house 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  297 

the  meeting  was  appointed.  The  congregation  amounted  to 
fifty-four  persons.  I  was  enabled  to  extend  to  them  the 
invitations  of  the  Gospel^  and  to  show,  from  many  passages 
of  Scripture,  the  necessity  of  being  led  by  the  Spirit  of 
God,  if  we  would  become  the  children  of  God ;  and  that, 
without  this  Spirit,  we  have  neither  inclination'  nor  ability 
to  take  one  step  in  the  way  of  holiness.  But  by  the  assist- 
ance of  this  Spirit,  which  is  freely  offered  to  all,  and  which 
works  in  all  who  do  not  resist  it,  we  are  enabled  to  per- 
form the  will  of  God ;  for  his  Spirit  excites  us  to  repent- 
ance, to  faith  in  Christ,  and  to  obedience  to  his  words,  and 
leads  those  into  all  truth,  who  yield  themselves  freely  to  its 
blessed  dominion. 

13th.  The  week-day  meeting  was  a  low  season.  Near 
the  conclusion,  I  had  to  encourage  those  who  felt  themselves 
in  any  degree,  in  bondage  to  sin,  to  commit  themselves  in 
prayer  to  the  Most  High,  and  to  beg,  in  the  name  of  Jesus, 
under  the  sense  of  their  unworthiness,  that  God  would  take 
unto  himself  his  own  great  power,  and  reign  in  them ;  that 
he  would  render  every  thing,  contrary  to  his  will,  so  burden- 
some to  them,  as  to  make  them  seek  his  help  to  put  it  away ; 
and  that  he  would  thus  wean  them  from  the  things  that 
keep  the  soul  in  bondage,  from  which  none  can  deliver 
themselves,  by  their  own  power.  The  happy  results  of  such 
exercise  of  mind  before  the  Lord,  I  could  testify  to,  from 
my  own  experience ;  when,  out  of  the  depths  of  humiliation, 
I  had  cried  unto  the  Most  High,  and  waited  upon  him,  from 
day  to  day,  for  an  answer  to  my  petitions,  which  were  often 
repeated,  under  the  fresh  feeling  of  the  state  of  necessity,  to 
which  my  soul  was  made  alive,  by  the  in-shining  of  the  light 
of  Christ,  or  the  manifestation  of  the  Holy  Spirit ;  and  which 
were,  therefore,  not  vain  repetitions ;  but  in  accordance  with 
the  instruction,  that  "  men  ought  always  to  pray  and  not  to 

14th.  I  gave  my  concluding  lecture  on  Temperance, 
and  felt  thankful,  in  having  been  enabled  to  accomplish 
what,  for  the  present,  may  be  my  duty,  with  regard  to  the 
promotion  of  temperance  in  this  place ;  where  iniquity  has 
flowed  as  a  torrent,  through  the  medium  of  strong  drink, 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

298  SYDNEY.  [8th  mo. 

which  is  still  a  most  formidable  barrier  to  moral  and  religious 

15th.  Lancelot  E.  ThreUceld^  the  Government  Missionary 
to  the  Aborigines^  on  Lake  Macquarie^  breakfasted  with  us : 
he  has  come  to  Sydney,  to  interpret  for  one  of  the  Blacks, 
who  is  charged  with  the  murder  of  a  white  man.  Threlkeld 
has  written  a  grammar  of  the  language  of  the  Aborigines, 
which  has  been  printed  by  the  Government. 

1 7th.  We  took  tea  with  two  pious  persons,  from  India. 
Before  parting  from  them,  the  50th  chapter  of  Isaiah  was 
read,  and  we  spent  a  little  time,  in  silently  waiting  upon  the 
Lord,  greatly  to  our  comfort.  It  is  indeed  a  privilege,  to 
take  sweet  counsel  with  those  whose  hearts  are  turned  to  the 
Lord,  in  these  regions,  that  may  be  called,  spiritually  de- 
solate, notwithstanding,  such  persons  may  not  see  many 
things  belonging  to  the  Gospel,  in  the  same  point  of  view 
with  ourselves.  Many  invaUds  from  India,  come  to  these 
Colonies,  on  account  of  their  health,  which  they  frequently 
recruit,  in  the  drier  atmosphere  and  cooler  winters  of 
AustraUa  and  V.  D.  Land. 

18th.  The  Committee  of  the  Temperance  Society  was 
well  attended.  The  important  moral  reformation,  in  absti- 
nence from  spirituous  liquors,  is  gaining  ground  in  the  public 
mind.  Some  additional  restrictions  have  lately  been  placed 
on  the  sale  of  spirits,  by  the  Government ;  forbidding  the 
payment  of  wages  in  them,  beyond  a  third  part,  and  inter- 
dicting the  sale  of  them  to  prisoners,  &c.  But  while  any 
portion  of  wages  is  allowed  to  be  paid  in  them,  and  houses 
are  very  numerously  licensed  for  their  sale,  and  the  example 
of  free  persons  encoxirages  their  use,  prisoners  will  continue 
to  obtain  them.     Sydney  is  still  an  awfully  drunken  place. 

25th.  The  anniversary  meeting  of  the  New  South  Wales 
Auxiliary  Bible  Society,  was  held  in  a  large  room,  at  the 
Pulteney  Hotel,  granted  gratuitously  by  the  landlord,  who  is 
a  Jew!  The  Colonial  Secretary  was  in  the  chair.  The 
meeting  was  not  very  numerously  attended,  but  was  addressed 
by  several  persons,  who  ably  set  forth  the  privilege  and  im- 
portance of  promoting  the  circulation  of  the  Holy  Scrip- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NKW    SOUTH    WALES.  299 

29th.  The  weather  has  become  much  warmer.  There 
vras  some  hghtning  this  evening.  Peach-trees  are  in  blos- 
som^ and  Vines  and  Weeping  Willows  are  beginning  to 
vegetate.  Oranges  are  in  perfection,  and  Loquats  are  be- 
ginning to  ripen.  The  last  are  the  produce  of  a  large,  bushy, 
evergreen,  Japanese  tree.  They  grow  in  clusters,  at  the 
extremity  of  the  branches,  and  are  yellow ;  they  are  about 
the  size  of  a  large  acorn,  and  contain  one  or  two  large  seeds. 
Some  of  the  varieties  combine  an  agreeable  acidity  and 
sweetness,  others  are  austere,  and  only  fit  for  baking. 
Deciduous  trees,  from  the  northern  hemisphere,  rest  in  the 
mild  winters  of  this  part  of  the  world,  with  remarkable 
regularity.  Though  the  weather  is  as  warm  throughout  the 
winter,  as  in  the  finest  part  of  an  English  spring,  these  trees 
do  not  begin  to  vegetate  prematurely,  as  they  often  do  in  their 
native  coimtry,  after  a  time  of  severe  cold. 

Though  all  the  native  trees  and  shrubs  of  V.  D.  Land 
are  evergreens,  and  the  climate  is  cooler  than  that  of  N. 
S.  Wales,  there  are  a  very  few  trees,  natives  of  the  latter 
couiltry,  that  are  deciduous.  The  chief  of  these  are,  itfc- 
lia  Azedarachy  the  White  Cedar,  which  produces  clusters 
of  flowers,  at  the  extremities  of  its  branches,  having  the 
colour  and  smell  of  Lilac,  just  as  its  foliage  begins  to  ap- 
pear ;  Sterculia  acerifoKay  a  tree  resembling  the  Sycamore, 
but  producing  large  quantities  of  flame-coloured  blossoms, 
before  its  leaves  unfold  in  spring ;  and  Cedrela  Toona  ? 
the  Australian  Cedar,  a  large  tree,  somewhat  like  an  Ash, 
which  casts  its  leaves  in  winter,  at  least  in  the  cooler  parts 
of  N.  S.  Wales. 

Digitized  by  VjOQSI^ 


Journey  to  Wellington  Valley. — Preliminary  Arrangements. — ^Visit  to  Pam- 
matta. — Factory. — Orphan  School. — Lunatic  Asylum. — ^Kissing  Point — Buah 
Fire. — ^Drought. — Schools,  &c. — Meetings. — Civilisation  of  the  Natives. — 
Forest. — South  Creek. — Dislike  of  the  Blacks  to  go  far  from  Home. — ^Pen- 
rith.— Blue  Mountains. — Ironed-gangs. — Huts  and  Caravans  of  Prisoners. — 
Weather-board  Hut.— Views.— Cold.— Black  Heath. — Mountain  Road. — Bul- 
locks.— Eagles.  —  Mount  Victoria  Pass. — ^Vale  of  Clywd. —  Hellvellyn. — 
Biver  Oak. — Junction  Stockade. — Honeysuckle  Hill. — ^Drunken  Landlord. — 
Bathurst. — ^Drunkenness. — ^Famine. — ^The  Bocks. — Newton. — Sheep. — ^Wild 
Dogs. — Exhaustion. — Molong  Biver. — Birds.  — >  Limestone.  — Newry. — Wel- 
come.— Stock-keeper  and  Blacks. — Sheep-feeding. — Cottages. — Arrival  at 
Wellington  Valley. 

9th  mo.  1st.  Having  made  application  for  leave  to  visit 
the  prisoners,  in  the  Jails,  Penitentiaries,  Ironed-gangs,  &c. 
in  the  Colony,  we  received  a  document  to-day,  signed  by 
the  Colonial  Secretary,  on  behalf  of  the  Governor,  granting 
us  this  permission.  An  introduction  to  the  Missionaries  at 
Wellington  Valley,  was  also  given  to  us,  by  Richard  Hill,  a 
pious,  and  laborious  Colonial  Chaplain,  and  the  Secretary 
to  "the  Church  Missionary  Society.''  We  likewise  made 
other  preparations  for  a  journey  to  Wellington  Valley,  be- 
lieving tha-t  the  right  time  was  come,  for  us  to  proceed 
in  that  direction. 

2nd.  We  went  to  Parramatta,  by  a  steamer,  and  took 
up  our  quarters  at  a  respectable  inn.  This  town  is  the 
second  in  size  in  N.  S.  Wales.  In  the  census  taken  in 
1833,  it  contained  2,637  inhabitants.  Its  population,  at 
this  time,  will  probably  be  about  4,000. 

3rd.  We  breakfasted  with  Samuel  Marsden  and  his  fa- 
mily, at  the  parsonage.  After  breakfast,  he  drove  us  to 
the  Female  Factory,  and  the  Female  Orphan  School.     The 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  301 

former  is  a  large  stone  buildings  enclosed  within  a  wall, 
sixteen  feet  high,  divided  into  a  number  of  wards,  and 
having  distinct  yards,  for  assignable  prisoners,  and  for  those 
under  sentence.  There  are  sixteen  solitary  cells,  in  all  of 
which  prisoners  were  suflFering  punishment,  chiefly  for  drunk- 
enness and  insolence.  The  number  of  females  sentenced 
to  confinement  in  this  Factory,  exclusive  of  those  assignable, 
is  about  250 ;  who,  it  is  to  be  regretted,  are  nearly  destitute 
of  employment.  Formerly,  women  of  this  character  were 
employed  in  spinning,  and  in  weaving  coarse,  woollen  cloth, 
but  this  occupation  has  been  abandoned.  The  rooms  where 
it  was  carried  on,  are  empty,  and  like  those  of  other  parts 
of  the  building,  have  the  glass  of  the  windows  much  bro- 
ken. This  is  said  to  have  been  done  by  some  of  the 
women,  in  unruly  fits,  which  they  occasionally  take,  one 
exciting  another.  This  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  among 
so  large  a  number  of  the  worst  portion  of  the  females  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  confined,  but  unemployed.  The 
assignable  women  were  occupied  with  needlework,  and  the 
place  they  were  in  was  clean.  The  Female  Orphan  School 
is  a  good  brick  building,  kept  neat  and  clean :  it  contains 
150  children;  who  are  generally  healthy,  and  much  hke 
others  of  the  same  age. 

On  returning  from  the  Orphan  School,  we  called  upon 
the  Governor,  and  at  his  request,  accompanied  him  to  in- 
spect the  site  of  a  projected  Lunatic  Asylum,  at  Tarban 
Creek.  The  situation  is  a  little  elevated,  on  the  north 
shore  of  Port  Jackson,  or  the  Parramatta  River,  which,  at 
this  point,  spreads,  so  as  to  have  the  appearance  of  a  fine 
lake.  The  view  is  delightful,  extending  eastward  to  beyond 
Sydney,  which  is  seven  miles  off;  it  also  takes  in  Parra- 
matta^ to  the  westward,  distant  ten  miles ;  and  is  bounded, 
in  that  direction,  by  the  Blue  Mountains,  to  the  foot  of 
which,  is  about  thirty  miles.  There  is  good  fresh  water 
upon  the  spot,  which,  at  present,  is  occupied  by  Gum- 
trees  and  scrub.  Betwixt  this  place  and  Parramatta,  there 
is  a  little  settlement,  called  Kissing  Point,  with  a  neat 
Episcopal  chapel.  Not  far  from  it,  a  fire  in  the  bush  had 
extended  to   a   wooden  bridge,   and    burnt  it   down.      In 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

302  PARRAMATTA.  [9th  mO. 

several  places  along  the  road^  fires  had  not  only  ^^  consumed 
the  thickets  of  the  forest,''  and  despoiled  the  trees^  but 
had  burnt  considerable  lengths  of  post  and  rail  fencing. 
In  some  parts  of  the  ride,  tracts  of  clear  ground  were 
yisible,  bounded  and  interspersed  with  wood,  giving  the 
country  the  appearance  of  a  la^e  park ;  but  every  thing 
looks  brown  and  withering^  from  the  drought,  which  has 
now  continued  about  nine  months.  The  rains  that  have 
reached  Sydney,  have  not  extended  many  miles  from  the 
coast.  There  are  some  small  Orange-grounds,  about  Kissing 
Point,  and  many  of  the  settlers'  gardens  are  furnished  with 
Orange-trees,  but  they  are  losing  their  leaves  for  want  of 

4th.  We  called  upon  two  thoughtful  famiUes,  and  then 
went  again  to  the  Female  Factory;  where  we  had  inter- 
views, first,  with  the  third-class  prisoners,  and  next  with 
those  of  the  first  and  second  classes,  jointly.  Much  Chris- 
tian counsel  was  imparted  to  them,  and  supplication  was 
put  up,  on  their  behalf,  to  Hinf  who  regards  with  compas- 
sion, the  poor  outcasts  of  our  race,  and  who  enabled  us 
to  point  out  the  blessed  effects  of  attention  to  the  teaching 
of  his  good  Spirit,  leading  to  repentance,  to  faith  in  Christ, 
and  to  a  holy,  self-denying  life,  and  who  gave  us  some 
sense  of  his  good  presence,  in  the  engagement. 

The  Episcopal  congregation,  at  Parramatta,  is  attended 
by  from  500  to  600  persons,  on  a  First-day  morning,  in- 
clusive of  the  military  and  prisoners.  These  have  no  choice 
in  regard  to  being  present.  The  Wesleyan  congregation, 
on  First-day  evenings,  amounts  to  about  150  persons ;  and 
there  is  also  a  small  Presbyterian  congregation.  There 
are  two  schools  in  Parramatta,  to  each  of  which  the  Go- 
vernment contributes  £100  per  annum,  furnishing  also  the 
school-houses.  There  is  likewise  an  infant  school,  similarly 
supported,  the  parents  of  the  children  contributing  some- 
thing, by  payments  for  the  pupils.  In  addition  to  these, 
there  are  likewise  some  private  schools  in  the  town. 

5th.  We  had  an  interview  with  an  ironed-gang,  of  from 
two  to  three  hundred  prisoners,  in  their  barracks,  at  six 
o'clock  in  the  morning.    They  were  very  quiet  and  attentive; 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  303 

and  there  was  a  measure  of  that  solemn  feeling  over  ns, 
which  we  esteem  to  be  an  evidence  of  the  divine  presence^ 
and  a  proof  of  the  continued  extension  of  the  mercy  of  our 
Heavenly  Father,  both  to  ourselves^  and  to  those  who  are 
straying  from  the  paths  of  righteousness,  whom  he  is  inviting 
to  return,  repent,  and  live. 

6th.  Having  believed  it  our  duty  to  invite  the  Inhabitants 
to  a  religious  meeting,  we  engaged  a  large  room  belonging 
the  inn,  where  oidy  a  small  company  assembled  this  morn- 
ing. We  had  but  little  to  express  among  them :  that  little 
was,  however,  illustrative  of  the  nature  of  true  worship ;  and 
access  was  granted  to  the  throne  of  Grace,  in  prayer,  near 
the  conclusion.  Another  meeting,  held  in  the  evening,  was 
larger.  The  overshadowing  of  the  divine  presence  was  more 
perceptibly  felt,  and  the  doctrines  of  the  Gospel  were  more 
largely  preached,  than  in  the  former.  After  ^e  state  of  the 
country,  from  drought,  had  been  noticed,  and  the  passage, 
^'  He  tumeth  a  fruitful  land  into  barrenness,  for  the  wicked- 
ness of  them  that  dwell  therein ;''  and  some  others,  relat- 
ing to  such  dispensations  of  the  Almighty,  had  been  com- 
mented upon,  the  benefits  of  silence  before  the  Lord,  were 
also  spoken  of,  and  prayer  was  vocally  offered ;  after  which, 
a  solemn  pause  concluded  the  meeting. 

7th.  Samuel  Marsden  provided  us  with  a  guide  to  South 
Creek :  he  was  a  Black,  of  that  place,  named  Johnny,  an 
intelligent  man,  speaking  English  very  fairly,  and  wearing  a 
hat,  jacket,  trowsers,  and  shoes.  He  carried  our  bundles, 
and  was  very  attentive,  and  by  no  means  meriting  the  cha^ 
racter  given  to  us  this  morning,  of  their  race,  by  a  settler 
from  Wollongong:  "That  nothing  could  be  given  to  these 
fellows  that  they  valued  a  straw.^^  I  could  not  think  the 
person  who  made  the  remark,  had  attained  to  much  know- 
ledge of  human  nature.  It  is  quite  true,  that  the  Blacks 
have  not  learned  to  place  the  same  value  upon  many  things, 
that  the  Whites  place  upon  them.  It  is  amusing  to  see  the 
disappointment  of  many  of  the  Whites,  at  the  proofs  they 
meet  with  of  this  fact ;  especially,  when  they  think  to  hold 
out  temptations  to  the  Blacks,  to  work  for  less  than  their 
labour  is  worth.     Few  white  people  seem  to  reflect  upon 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

304  SOUTH  CREEK.  [9th  mo. 

the  fiact,  that  our  notions  of  the  value  of  things^  depend  upon 
our  habits^  and  are^  in  many  instances^  merely  ideal.  It  is^ 
however,  to  be  regretted,  when  benevolent  men  adopt  the 
notion,  that  the  circumstance  of  the  Blacks  not  estimating 
things  by  the  same  standard  as  the  Whites,  is  owing  to  some 
invincible  peculiarity  in  them ;  because  such  an  opinion  para- 
lyzes their  efforts  for  the  civilization  of  this  untutored  race. 

On  the  way  from  Parramatta,  we  stepped  into  several 
cottages,  conversed  with  the  inhabitants,  and  gave  them 
tracts.  We  had  also  many  conversations  with  persons 
travelling  on  the  road,  on  foot,  in  carts,  &c.  We  were 
kindly  received  by  Charles  Marsden,  and  his  family,  at  the 
South  Creek,  sixteen  miles  from  Parramatta,  and  in  the 
evening  had  a  satisfactory  religious  interview  with  them  and 
their  servants.  Before  dark,  we  walked  to  the  side  of  the 
Creek,  to  see  the  Black  Natives,  who  resort  thither.  In 
comparison  with  some  other  tribes,  the  South  Creek  Natives 
may  be  considered  as  half-domesticated,  and  they  often 
assist  in  the  agricultural  operations  of  the  settlers.  The 
wife  of  our  guide  can  read,  she  is  a  half-cast,  who  was 
educated  in  a  school,  formerly  kept  for  the  Natives,  at  Par- 
ramatta. It  is  to  be  regretted  that  this  school  was  aban- 
doned ;  for  though  many  who  were  educated  in  it,  returned 
into  the  woods,  yet  an  impression  was  made  upon  them, 
favourable  to  their  further  progress  in  civilization. 

A  few  of  the  Natives  were,  at  one  time,  located  upon  a 
piece  of  the  worst  land  in  this  part  of  the  country,  at  a 
place,  called  Black  Town.  Here  some  of  them  ridsed  grain, 
in  spite  of  the  sterility  of  the  soil,  at  a  time  when  they 
were  unable  to  dispose  of  it ;  and  to  add  to  their  discou- 
ragement, at  this  juncture,  the  Missionary,  who  had  been 
a  short  time  among  them,  was  withdrawn.  The  want  of 
success,  in  this  unfair  experiment,  is. sometimes  brought  for- 
ward, as  a  proof  that  nothing  can  be  done  for  these  injured 
and  neglected  people. 

8th.  We  set  out,  at  an  early  hour,  to  Penrith,  a  small, 
scattered  town,  on  the  Nepean  River.  Our  guide  was 
another  South  Creek  Black,  named  Simeon.  His  wife  was 
killed,  about  two  years  ago,  by  some  of   those   whom  he 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH   WALliS.  305 

termed  "  Wild  Natives  :^^  he  had  one  litde  boy,  for  whom 
he  shewed  great  affection.  We  tried  in  vain,  to  persuade 
this  man  to  accompany  us  to  Wellington  Valley ;  he  did 
not  like  to  go  to  so  great  a  distance.  These  people  are 
afraid  of  other  tribes  of  their  own  race. 

After  breakfasting  at  a  respectable  inn,  we  proceeded  to  the 
station  of  the  Stockade  Ironed-gang,  on  Emu  Plains.  The 
huts^  in  which  they  are  lodged,  are  but  temporary  structures 
and  the  gang,  which  was  large,  is  now  reduced  to  seventy. 
The  Superintendent,  a  young  man  from  Inverness-shire, 
accompanied  us  to  the  gang,  with  whom  we  had  a  religious 
interview.  They  have  been  employed  in  cutting  a  new  road, 
up  Liapstone  Hill,  the  ascent  of  the  Blue  Mountains,  and  are 
now  completing  it  with  a  bridge,  across  a  deep  gully. 

On  leaving  the  Ironed-gang,  we  proceeded  along  dusty, 
mountain  roads,  through  forests  of  Gum  and  Stringy-bark, 
in  some  parts  of  which,  fire  was  raging  with  fury ;  it  had 
btimt  the  scrub  off  other  parts,  and  left  it  black.  On 
reaching  a  place,  called  The  Valley,  where  there  is  a  plain, 
country  inn,  with  the  sign  of  The  Woolpack,  having  mo- 
derate accommodation,  we  gladly  rested  for  the  night. 

9th.  About  five  miles  from  our  lodging  place,  we  visited 
another  Ironed-gang,  and  three  miles  further,  a  third;  in 
each,  there  were  about  sixty  men,  and  both  were  under  the 
charge  of  a  young  military  officer.  The  prisoners  were 
lodged  in  huts,  upon  large,  open  areas,  by  the  road-side, 
without  any  stockade.  When  not  at  work,  they  are  kept 
on  the  spot,  by  a  guard  of  soldiers,  who  are  ordered  to  fire 
upon  any  that  may  attempt  to  escape,  and  who  will  not 
stop  when  called  to.  We  were  informed,  that  they  had  no 
Bibles,  or  other  books,  and  that  their  only  religious  instruc- 
tion consisted  in  the  reading  of  prayers  by  the  officer,  or 
sergeant  in  charge,  on  First-days.  A  few  of  the  prisoners 
lodge  in  moveable  caravans,  which  have  doors,  and  iron- 
barred  windows,  on  one  side.  Four  or  five  men  sleep  in 
each  end  of  them,  on  the  floor,  and  as  many  more,  on  plat- 
forms. They  are  not  less  crowded  than  the  huts,  and  are 
^uiwholesome  dormitories.  Many  of  the  men  sleeping  in 
them,  become  affected  with  the  scurvy. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

306  BLUE  MOUNTAINS.  [9th  mo. 

After  travelling  eighteen  miles^  we  arrived  at  the  Wea- 
ther-board Hut,  where  we  had  intended  to  lodge ;  but  the 
.  only  good  room  was  occupied.  One,  in  which  we  had  an 
excellent  med  of  beef  and  bread,  with  tea,  was  T/ithout 
glass  in  the  windows,  and  could  not  have  the  door  shut, 
for  the  smoking  of  the  wood  fire.  This,  as  is  common  in 
this  land  of  trees,  was  a  very  large  one,  and  it  was  acted 
upon  by  a  fierce  and  piercing  wind ;  we  therefore  deter- 
mined on  making  another  stage.  The  former  part  of  our 
journey  through  the  forest,  had  been  cheered,  at  intervals, 
by  remarkable  views.  Some  of  these,  opened  to  a  great 
distance,  exhibiting  the  singularly  winding  cliffs  of  sand- 
stone, which  seemed  as  if  it  had  decomposed,  till  ferru- 
ginous veins  had  bid  defiance  to  the  weather.  We  now  set 
out  again,  as  daylight  was  departing,  to  make  our  way  in 
the  dark.  We  were  informed,  that  there  was  but  one  road 
through  the  woods,  yet  we  sometimes  felt  a  little  perplexed 
by  this  road  dividing,  for  a  short  distance.  But  notwith- 
standing these  difficulties,  we  found  our  previously  ex- 
hausted vigour  to  increase  as  we  proceeded,  in  consequence 
of  the  bracing  effects  of  the  cold  wind ;  and  we  reached 
the  ^^  Scotch  Thistle,*'  a  solitary  inn,  at  Black  Heath,  on 
the  top  of  the  mountains,  earlier  than  we  expected.  The 
road  over  the  Blue  Mountains,  winds  nearly  forty  miles, 
along  their  ridge,  which  ascends  and  descends  a  little,  at 
intervals.  Some  parts  of  it  have  been  cut  with  much  la- 
bour, by  prisoners,  and  others  are  sandy  or  rocky,  but 
most  of  it  is  now  good  for  carriages.  There  are  a  few 
miserable,  solitary  public-houses,  by  its  side,  in  addition 
to  the  better  ones,  already  mentioned,  and  another,  of  de- 
cent character.  Along  its  whole  course,  there  are  no  grassy 
openings  to  afford  pasturage  for  cattle.  At  the  present 
time,  the  little  rigid  herbage,  in  the  forest,  is  dried  up. 
The  bullocks  travelling  with  settlers'  drays,  are  ''  ill  favoured 
and  lean  fleshed,''  from  the  scarcity  of  grass  in  the 
countries  below.  Dead  bullocks  were  numerous  by  the 
road  side.  Wedge-tailed  Eagles  were  frequently  to  be  seen, 
feeding  upon   the  fresh  ones. 

10th.      The  night  was  very  cold,   rendering  the   good 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALBS.  307 

fires,  the  soft,  clean  beds,  and  excellent  provision  of  this 
homely-looking  inn,  very  acceptable.  In  the  morning,  the 
ice  was  as  thick  as  a  half-crown.  In  this  cold  region,  there 
is  a  low  species  of  Eucalyptus^  that  I  have  not  before  seen ; 
there  are  also  some  other  remarkable  shrubs. — Our  road 
continued  to  wind  over  the  sand-stone  mountains,  to  the 
pass  of  Mount  Victoria,  on  the  descent  of  which  there 
was  granite.  The  pass  is  carried,  in  two  places,  on  cause- 
ways of  mason-work,  as  wide  as  bridges,  raised  on  narrow 
saddles,  imiting  the  hills ;  in  other  places  it  is  cut  through 
the  rock.  This  great  work  has  been  effected  by  the  labour 
of  prisoners,  a  small  party  of  whom  are  still  at  work.  We 
had  an  interview  with  twenty-eight  of  them,  several  of  whom 
were  of  desperate  appearance.  They  are  under  the  charge 
of  an  overseer,  have  no  Bibles,  and  no  religious  instruction. 

At  the  foot  of  these  mountains,  there  is  a  granite  vale, 
called  The  Vale  of  Clywd,  were  there  are  two  houses,  one  of 
which  was  lately  deprived  of  its  license  to  sell  spirits.  Fur- 
ther along  the  road,  there  is  a  brook,  crossed  by  a  wooden 
bridge.  This  brook  was  formerly  called  The  Rivulet ;  but 
this  name  is  now  corrupted  into.  The  River  Lett!  The 
country  here  is  open  and  grassy,  and  has  a  few  White  and 
Weeping  Gum-trees,  and  a  Banksia  resembling  Bankria  aus-- 
traUs,  scattered  upon  it.  It  will  maintain  a  sheep  to  four 
or  five  acres.  We  turned  a  little  from  the  road,  to  Hel- 
veUyn,  the  residence  of  two  young  settlers,  by  whom  we 
had  been  kindly  invited  to  such  accommodation  as  they 
were  able  to  famish.  On  the  margin  of  the  brook,  there 
are  some  fine  specimens  of  the  species  of  Ctisuarina,  called 
River-oak:  they  are  about  seventy  feet  high,  irregularly 
branched,  and  densely  clothed  witii  green,  leafless  shoots, 
resembling  slender  Horse-tail-weed. 

11th.  Last  evening,  we  had  a  religious  interview  with 
the  family,  and  a  few  other  persons,  who  had  called  to  beg 
a  night's  lodging.  This  morning,  one  of  our  young  friends 
accompanied  us  over  some  of  the  grassy,  forest  hills,  to  the 
road  leading  to  the  Junction  Stockade,  where  an  ironed- 
gang,  of  upwards  of  150  prisoners,  is  employed,  under  the 
charge  of   a  military  officer.      These   men  were  at  work, 

w  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

308  VALE  OP  CLYWD.  [9th  mo. 

cutting  a  road^  about  three  miles  from  the  barracks^  under 
a  guard  of  soldiers^  some  of  whom  returned  from  Norfi^ 
Island,  in  the  Isabella,  at  the  same  time  with  ourselves. 
We  assembled  the  men  by  the  road-side,  and  extended 
some  religious  counsel  to  them ;  the  guard  standing,  at  the 
time,  as  they  generally  do,  in  a  position  to  prevent  any  of  the 
prisoners  running  away.  The  soldiers  often  use  irritating  lan- 
guage, mixed  with  curses,  in  speaking  to  the  prisoners,  which 
is  of  bad  influence,  in  hardening  them,  when  they  greatly 
need  to  be  rendered  more  susceptible  of  good.  While  in  the 
act  of  assembling,  one  man  picked  the  pocket  of  another,  of 
a  tobacco-box  :  he  was  seen,  and  knocked  down  by  one  of 
the  guard,  near  to  the  place  where  I  was  standing.  This 
circumstance  occasioned  no  perceptible  disturbance  among 
the  others ;  and  I  trust  there  were  some  present  who,  at 
least,  for  the  time,  were  brought  to  think  on  eternal  things. 

Near  the  barracks,  we  saluted  a  native  Black  and  his  wife, 
and  they  returned  our  tokens  of  notice.  They  were  the  first 
we  had  seen  in  their  wild  state.  We  took  some  refreshment 
at  a  decent  public-house,  at  Solitary  Creek,  and  afterwards 
visited  a  small  road-party,  on  the  way  to  an  inn,  at  Honey- 
suckle Hill.  As  we  approached  this  place  in  the  dark, 
we  heard  the  cries  of  a  female,  and  on  arriving,  found 
that  the  landlord,  in  a  state  of  intoxication,  had  struck  his 
wife  to  the  ground,  with  a  child  in  her  arms;  and  such 
was  his  phrenzy,  that  it  was  difficult  to  restrain  him  from 
farther  mischief. 

12th.  We  visited  a  small  road-party,  near  the  foot 
of  the  Stony  Ridge,  and  another  betwixt  that  place  and 
Bathurst.  It  was  past  their  work-hours,  on  seventh-day 
afternoon,  before  we  reached  the  last  party,  and  several  of 
the  men  pleaded,  that  they  were  Roman  Catholics,  and  did 
not  wish  to  come  "  to  prayers,^'  as  they  style  all  kinds  of 
religious  interviews.  With  some  difficulty,  we  got  them  to 
understand  our  object,  and  most  of  them  assembled  in  a 
lude  blacksmith^s  shop,  in  which  we  were  glad  of  a  shelter 
from  the  cold.  The  message  of  love  and  mercy  made  a 
softening  impression  upon  these  prisoners,  and  we  separated 
under  different  feelings,  on  their  part,  &t>m  those  with  which 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  309 

they  met  us.  This  we  find  generally  the  ease.  The  bap- 
tizing power  of  the  Holy  Spirit  is  felt,  and  their  attention 
tamed  to  their  own  convictions  of  sin^  as  the  work  of  this 
blessed  Spirit,  and  as  the  message  of  the  mercy  of  their 
Heavenly  Father,  seeking  to  lead  them  to  repentance,  in 
order  that  they  may  obtain  salvation  through  his  beloved 
Son.  When  we  stop  them  during  their  work-hours,  which 
we  have  liberty  from  the  Governor  to  do,  few  plead  excuses ; 
and  as  we  do  not  enjoin  any  forms  of  worship,  but  simply, 
after  a  pause,  say  what  is  upon  our  minds,  or  pray  for  them, 
none  seem  to  take  it  amiss.  If  it  can  be  done,  we  always 
desire  them  to  sit  down,  in  order  that  they  may  rest  at  the 
same  time ;  and  if  exposed  to  the  sun,  we  request  them  to 
keep  on  their  hats  or  caps.  These  little  considerations  for 
their  personal  comfort,  often  prepare  the  way  for  the  recep- 
tion of  our  counsel. 

As  we  ascended  the  hills,  Bathurst  Plains  opened  to  our 
view,  relieving  the  eye  after  a  long  incarceration,  in  thick, 
or  in  open  forest,  by  a  fine,  undulating  expanse,  fifteen 
miles  in  length,  and  ten  in  breadth,  watered  by  the  Mac- 
quarie,  formed  here,  by  the  junction  of  the  Campbell  and 
Fish  Rivers,  all  running  westward,  and  margined  by  a  line 
of  River-oaks,  which  are  almost  the  only  trees  upon  the 
Plain.  Toward  the  western  side  of  this  open  country,  the 
rising  town  of  Bathurst  is  situated,  and  settlers  houses,  of 
respectable  figure,  are  scattered  here  and  there  on  all  sides. 
Much  of  the  land  is  enclosed  with  post-and-rail  fences ;  but 
at  present,  it  is  one  unvaried  surface  of  brown,  dried,  short 
grass.  We  took  up  our  quarters  at  an  inn ;  and  notwith- 
standing the  contentions  of  some  drunken  people  at  the  door, 
and  the  appearance  of  disorder  in  the  house,  we  found  good 
accommodation  in  a  quiet,  well-fitted-up  room,  in  a  square 
area,  at  the  back.  Bathurst  consists  of  a  number  of  inns 
and  cottages,  scattered  along  the  sides  of  a  projected  street, 
for  more  than  a  mile,  with  an  Episcopal  place  of  worship,  of 
brick,  on  a  hill  near  the  parsonage,  and  some  scattered  huts 
on  one  side  of  the  river :  there  are  also  a  place  of  worship, 
of  the  Scotch  church,  and  several  inns  and  other  houses, 
a  jail,  military  barrack,  hospital,  factory  for  female  prisoners, 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

310  BATHURST.  [9th  mo. 

police-office^  bank^  &c.  on  the  other  side  of  the  river ; 
where  the  buildings  are  nearer  one  to  another. 

13th.  The  night  was  very  frosty.  Bathurst  is  said  to  be 
about  two  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea ;  which 
accounts  for  the  coolness  of  its  climate.  We  breakfiisted  at 
the  Parsonage ;  and  wishing  to  have  a  meeting  with  the 
inhabitants  in  the  evenings  spent  the  forenoon  in  inviting 
them  to  assemble  with  us  in  a  school-room^  kindly  granted 
us  by  John  Espie  Keane,  the  Episcopal  Minister.  It  was 
pleasant,  in  the  forenoon^  at  the  hour  of  public  worship^  to 
see  a  number  of  the  carriages  of  settlers  driving  in ;  many  of 
them  coming  from  a  distance  of  several  miles.  The  piety 
and  diligence  of  J.  E.  Keane  has  been  greatly  blessed^  in 
drawing  the  attention  of  people  of  this  class^  to  the  obliga- 
tions of  religion,  at  least,  as  regards  the  outward  acknowledg- 
ment of  them ;  and  there  are  a  few  in  his  congregation  who 
are  considered  spiritually-minded.  Our  meeting  was  not 
large,  but  it  was  owned  by  a  comforting  measure  of  divine 

15th.  G.  W.  Walker  having  taken  cold,  we  were  con- 
strained by  J.  E.  Keane  and  his  estimable  wife,  to  become 
their  guests,  in  order  that  he  might  be  nursed.  In  the  mean 
time,  preparation  was  made  for  the  continuance  of  our 

While  at  Bathurst,  I  saw  much  drunkenness^  such  as  is 
common  in  remote  situations  in  these  Colonies.  Many  men, 
and  some  women,  who  appeared  to  be  servants  of  settlers^ 
were  drinking  at  public-houses.  It  is  common,  with  the 
men,  many  of  whom  have  been  prisoners^  but  have  served 
out  their  sentence,  to  engage  themselves  as  sawyers,  shep- 
herds, &c.  in  distant  places,  and  to  come  into  the  town,  when 
they  have  earned  a  few  pounds,  for  the  sole  purpose  of 
spending  it  in  dnmkenness  and  debauchery.  When  their 
money  is  gone,  they  return  again  to  their  labour.  But  for 
this,  many  of  them  might  have  been  in  easy  circumstances,  for 
they  get  good  wages,  and  a  little  sets  a  man  up  in  this  part 
of  the  world.  They  prove  the  truth  of  the  proverb,  ''The 
workman  that  is  a  drunkard  will  never  be  rich.'' 

16th.      We  set  forward  for  Wellington  Valley.     At  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  311 

short  distance  from  Bathurst,  a  man  was  feeding  a  bullock, 
by  the  road-side,  which  had  fallen  from  exhaustion.  The 
continued  drought  has  made  "the  famine  wax  sore''  to 
these  useful  animals ;  and  should  there  be  no  rain  for  a  few 
weeks  longer,  it  will  be  keenly  felt,  both  by  man  and  beast. 
In  many  places  the  ewes  are  so  weak  as  to  be  unable  to 
rear  their  lambs;  and  to  the  southward,  the  Influenza,  a 
destructive  disease,  is  prevailing  among  the  sheep.  We 
travelled  about  twenty-four  miles  along  a  well-tracked  road, 
through  open  forest,  and  stopped,  about  noon,  by  the  side 
of  a  pool,  at  a  place  called  The  Rocks,  on  account  of  the 
large  masses  of  granite  that  project  above  the  surface. 
Here  we  kindled  a  fire,  and  made  tea,  the  common  beve- 
rage with  every  meal,  in  travelling  in  this  country.  Among 
the  rocks  are  some  large  Banksias,  which  are  the  last  trees 
of  this  genus,  in  this  direction,  toward  the  interior.  On 
our  road,  we  passed  two  or  three  rude  huts,  at  which  we 
were  informed  that  spirits  were  illicitly  sold,  and  about  sun- 
set, reached  a  hut,  called  Kyongs,  of  late  kept,  as  a  public- 
house,  by  a  man  known  by  the  name  of  "  Charley  Booth,'' 
-who  has  been  deprived  of  his  license,  and  has  retired  into 
^'the  bush."  It  is  now  occupied  as  a  stock-station,  by  the 
overseer  and  assigned  servants  of  a  settler.  One  of  the 
men  conducted  us  down  the  side  of  a  creek,  oozing  from 
among  some  low,  basaltic  rocks,  and  opening  into  pools, 
called  Lewis's  Ponds,  and  put  us  into  the  way  to  Newton, 
where  we  were  received  with  much  kindness,  by  some 
pious,  Cornish  Wesleyans.  In  this  neighbourhood.  Acacia 
dealbaia  is  richly  laden  with  its  golden  blossoms,  and  A. 
melanowylon  is  a  frequent  tree  by  the  brooks. 

17th.  We  travelled  nearly  forty  miles,  chiefly  over  low 
hills  of  granite,  or  argillaceous  rock.  At  Broken-shaft 
Creek,  there  was  the  cottage  of  a  blacksmith,  and  in  other 
places,  there  were  a  few  sheep-stations.  We  met  some 
shepherds  driving  their  flocks  towards  Bathurst,  against  the 
shearing  time.  Sheep  are  folded,  in  this  Colony,  at  night,  to 
preserve  them  from  the  Wild  Dogs,  which  are  said  to  be  nu- 
merous J  but  they  hide  themselves  in  the  day-time,  and  do 
not  attack  men.    About  noon,  we  stopped  at  a  place  where 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

312  MOLONG.  [9th  mo. 

there  was  water ;  and  near  sunset^  at  the  side  of  the  Mo- 
long  River^  which^  at  this  season^  is  a  small  stream,  widen- 
ing here  and  there  into  pools.  My  companion  was  so 
much  exhausted  by  thirst,  that  he  lay  helpless  upon  the 
ground,  till  I  prepared  tea,  which  revived  him.  We  after- 
wards proceeded,  at  a  pretty  good  pace,  to  a  stock-station, 
belonging  to  one  of  our  acquaintance,  further  down  the 
river ;  to  which  we  found  our  way  with  some  difficulty,  in 
the  dark.  After  making  a  hearty  meal,  we  extended  some 
religious  counsel  to  the  men,  but  there  did  not  seem  to  be 
so  much  openness  among  them  as  we  often  meet  with, 
among  men  of  this  class. 

In  the  course  of  our  day's  journey,  the  places  that  we 
passed  through  that  were  clear  of  trees,  were  few  and  of 
small  extent.  On  one  of  these  a  flock,  of  a  species  of  Ibis, 
as  large  as  a  goose,  was  feeding ;  and  on  another  there  were 
some  birds  resembling  the  Thick-kneed  Bustard,  which  is 
the  Curlew  of  this  country.  Till  to-day,  we  have  seen 
few  birds  except  eagles,  attracted  by  dead  bullocks,  and  a 
few  Parrots,  and  White  Cockatoos.  We  had  some  soup 
at  Bathurst,  made  from  the  latter  bird,  which  was  pretty 
good.  A  Bandicoot  is  the  only  wild  beast  we  have  seen, 
since  leaving  Sydney.  Near  the  Molong  Biver,  we  came 
upon  a  limestone   country. 

18th.  Our  road  continued  to  be  distinctly  tracked  in 
most  places,  though  in  some  a  little  obscure,  some  of  it 
was  over  basaltic  country,  and  some  over  argillaceous :  the 
soil  of  the  latter  was  poor,  with  sharp  gravel.  In  the  fore- 
noon we  rested  on  a  log,  by  a  shepherd  who  was  watching 
his  flock,  with  whom  we  conversed  on  the  way  of  holiness, 
and  work  of  redemption.  The  young  man's  heart  was 
open  to  understand  the  things  that  were  spoken,  which  he 
frankly  acknowledged  had  not  had  sufficient  place  in  his 
thoughts.  Being  much  fatigued  in  the  evening,  with  our 
walk  of  thirty-two  miles,  we  had  concluded  to  make  a  fire, 
and  sleep  in  the  bush,  when  it  began  to  rain,  lighten,  and 
thunder.  We  therefore  made  our  way,  which  was  now 
become  difficult  to  find  in  the  dark,  to  a  mean,  dirty  hut, 
at  a  place  called  Newry,  belonging  to  a  settler,  and  occupied 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH    WALES.  313 

by  a  ticket-of-leave  stock-keeper^  and  an  assigned  prisoner- 
servant.  These  men  entertained  us  hospitably  with  milk 
and  damper^  tare  such  as  was  offered  to  us  at  every  station 
at  which  we  called,  on  our  way,  and  sometimes  with  the 
addition  of  tea  and  meat.  There  were  two  black  youths 
residing  in  the  hut  with  the  stock-men ;  we  were  informed 
that  they  made  themselves  useful  in  minding  the  sheep, 
milking  the  cows,  &c.  The  stock-keeper  observed  that 
these  Blacks  stopped  with  them  better  than  their  country- 
men generally  do  with  white  people,  because  they  treated 
them  more  like  companions,  and  gave  them  a  part  of  such 
provision  as  they  themselves  eat,  instead  of  throwing  scraps 
to  them,  as  if  to  dogs. 

19th.  Our  accommodation  last  night,  though  the  best 
the  place  afforded,  was  such  as  we  but  seldom  have  had 
to  put  up  with.  Our  bed  was  more  sombre  than  would  be 
found  in  the  meanest,  mendicant  lodging-house,  in  England ; 
it  was  only  outdone  by  a  blanket,  generally  used  by  one 
of  the  Aborigines,  which  was  folded  to  add  to  the  width 
of  the  bed.  Another  such  bed,  spread  on  the  uneven  clay 
floor,  served  our  hosts;  the  two  Blacks  coiled  themselves 
up  on  some  sheep-skins,  near  the  fire,  pulling  a  blanket 
over  them.  My  companion  was  driven  from  his  resting- 
place,  by  bugs,  which  were  very  numerous.  He  tried  to 
rouse  the  Blacks,  in  order  to  obtain  more  fuel,  to  revive 
the  fire,  but  his  efforts  proved  in  vain;  he  therefore  sat 
down  on  the  best  seat  he  could  find :  it  was  an  uneasy, 
narrow  stool,  which  did  not  stand  level.  At  length,  he 
was  obliged  to  return  to  bed,  by  cold  and  faintness,  which 
overcame  all  obstacles,  and  he  fell  asleep. 

These  stations,  as  they  are  called,  usually  belong  to 
opulent  settlers,  Uving  in  or  near  towns,  who  derive  a  great 
part  of  their  wealth  from  their  large  flocks  of  sheep,  and 
herds  of  cattle.  These  are  tended  by  their  servants,  many 
of  whom  are  prisoners,  on  their  extensive  locations,  or  on 
unoccupied,  contiguous  lands,  in  the  interior  of  the  Colony. 
Many  of  them  also  send  flocks  beyond  the  boundaries  of 
the  located  part  of  the  Colony,  which  is,  in  many  directions 
for  a  great   distance,  low,   open,  grassy,  forest  hills,  with 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

314  WELLINGTON    VALLEY.  [9tll  mO. 

here  and  there  dear  flats,  or  plains.  In  such  situations,, 
some  of  the  less  wealthy  settlers  feed  their  own  flocks, 
foregoing,  for  a  few  years,  most  of  the  comforts  of  life. 
Three  men  called  at  the  hut  where  we  lodged,  and  after 
breakfEist,  we  read  a  Psalm,  and  gave  expression  to  the 
exercise  of  our  minds  on  their  account;  pointing  out  the 
terrible  consequences  of  remaining  in  sin,  and  directing 
their  attention  to  the  grace  of  God  which  bringeth  salva- 
tion, and  to  the  mercy  offered  us  in  Jesus  Christ. 

On  the  way  toward  Wellington,  we  passed  a  neat,  but 
humble  cottage,  belonging  to  another  settler.  Most  of  the 
cottages  in  this  part  of  the  country,  are  of  split  timber, 
placed  endwise  into  the  ground,  or  of  large  sheets  of  Gum- 
tree  bark,  fastened  to  a  frame  work  of  poles ;  the  roof  being 
also  of  this  material.  A  few  of  the  timber  cottages,  are 
plastered  inside  and  out,  and  are  whitewashed.  After  re- 
crossing  the  Bell  River,  which  we  crossed  thrice,  yesterday, 
we  again  came  upon  Limestone.  One  of  the  trees  upon 
this  formation,  is  Sterculia  dtversifolia;  it  resembles  the 
Oak  in  form,  and  the  Poplar  in  foliage;  and  is  like  an 
English  tree,  in  verdure.  It  attains  to  forty  feet  in  height, 
and  its  bark  is  so  tenacious  as  to  be  convertible  into 
cordage ;  whence  it  also,  is  called  Corrijong.  Its  roots  are 
thick  and  soft,  so  as  to  be  cooked  for  food  by  the  natives. 
The  trunk  of  the  young  tree  is  remarkably  thick  and  green. 
It  grows  intermingled  with  various  species  of  Eucalyptus^ 
some  of  which  are  distinct  from  any  we  have  before  seen, 
and  are  about  the  size  of  the  Willows  and  Birches  of  Eng- 
land.— On  the  side  of  the  Bell  River,  we  met  a  Black, 
with  a  blanket  thrown  loosely  around  him,  driving  a  team 
of  bullocks  :  he  was  the  first  we  had  seen,  except  the  two 
boys  last  night,  since  the  11th.  On  arriving  at  the  Mis- 
sionary Station,  at  Wellington  Valley,  we  received  a  kind 
welcome  from  John  Christian  Simon  Handt  and  his  wife, 
and  from  Ann  Watson,  whose  husband  was  from  home ; 
and  we  felt  thankful,  that  we  had  reached  this  extreme 
point  of  o\ir  journey. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Wellington  Valley. — Mission  Station. — Worship. — ^Doctrine. — Mission  Stock. — 
Aborigines. — ^Morals. — Language. — ^Aqnatic  Plants. — ^Myami. — Honey. — Ani- 
mals.— ^Food  of  the  KatiTes. — CaTem. — Mount  Arthur. — Shrubs,  &c. — Burial 
Place. — Public  Worship  of  Friends. — ^European  Influence. — Grass. — Initia- 
tion of  Blacks  as  Young  Men. — ^Native  Women. — Prisoner  Servants. — 
Molong. — ^Effects  of  Drunkenness.  —  Infanticide. — ^Feigned  Intoxication. — 
Kangaroo  Bay. — Ci-rilization,  and  Missionary  Labours. — Milk. — Help  in  time 
of  need. — ^Pious  Fellow  Traveller. — ^Definition  of  Love. — Bathurst. — ^Verdure. 

Wellington  Valley  was  formerly  a  Penal  Settlement 
for  educated  prisoners.  The  houses  and  barracks  are  of 
brick ;  most  of  them  are  whitewashed.  The  best  is  occu- 
pied by  the  two  missionary  families ;  another^  temporarily, 
by  two  young  settlers,  and  a  third  by  four  soldiers.  The 
number  of  Blacks  at  present  on  the  settlement,  is  very 
small:  thirty  were  here  lately,  but  most  of  them  have 
gone  away  for  a  short  time,  it  is  conjectured,  on  account 
of  the  death  of  one  of  their  countrymen.  Two  native 
girls  only,  sleep  in  the  house,  the  others  preferring  to  be 
out  of  doors,  by  their  fires. 

20th.  G.  W.  Walker  was  confined  to  the  house  by 
indisposition.  At  eleven  o'clock,  there  was  public  wor- 
ship. Some  of  the  neighbouring  settlers,  and  the  few 
soldiers  stationed  here,  as  a  guard  against  bush-rangers,  &c. 
were  present,  in  addition  to  the  persons  belonging  to  the 
missionary  establishment.  I  remained  as  a  devout  spectator, 
while  two  hymns  were  sung,  and  J.  C.  S.  Handt  read  the 
prayers  of  the  Episcopal  Church.  He  then  addressed  the 
congregation,  informing  them  that,  as  I  was  present,  he 
designed  to  forego  preaching.  Then  turning  to  me,  he  said, 
if  I  had  anything  to  say  to  them  in  love,  they  should  be  glad 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

316  WELLINGTON    VALLEY.  [9th  mo. 

to  hear  me.  My  mind  had  been  mider  much  exercise^  and 
after  a  short  pause^  I  stood  up^  and  gave  utterance  to  what  was 
before  me  ;  alluding  to  what  was  said  by  the  apostle  Paul^ 
when  he  preached  to  the  Athenians ;  and  showing,  that  the 
superstitions  of  the  present  day,  do  not  consist  in  worshipping 
idols  of  wood  and  of  stone,  graven  by  art,  and  man's  device, 
but  in  imagining  that  we  are  doing  God  service,  by  going 
through  certain  forms  and  rituals,  devised  by  man,  in  imitation 
of  the  expressions  of  spiritual  devotion.  These  things  I  had 
to  contrast  with  that  worship  which  is  in  spirit  and  in  truth ; 
showing  their  inferiority,  and  that  the  Lord,  to  many  who 
use  them,  is  an  unknown  God.  In  commenting  on  the 
words,  "  whom  ye  ignorantly  worship.  Him  declare  I  unto 
you,''  &c.  I  had  to  direct  them  to  the  working  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  felt  by  all  men  as  a  witness  in  themselves  against  sin, 
and  to  declare,  that  this  is  the  drawing  of  the  Father,  whose 
goodness  seeks  to  lead  us  to  repentance,  in  order  to  bring  us 
unto  the  Son,  that  we  may  find  life  in  him,  and  for  his  sake, 
receive  the  remission  of  sins  that  are  past,  and  through  him 
be  enabled  to  perfect  holiness  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord.  That 
thus,  we  may  come  to  the  knowledge  of  God,  who  made 
heaven  and  earth,  and  all  things  that  are  therein,  who  is  not 
worshipped  by  men's  hands,  neither  dwelleth  in  temples 
made  with  hands ;  but  who  is  worshipped  in  spirit  and  in 
truth,  by  those  whose  hearts  are  turned  unto  him,  and  who  are 
led  by  his  Spirit ;  and  who  walk  in  his  fear,  and  live  to  his 
glory.  These  regard  his  law,  as  it  is  recorded  in  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  and  as  it  is  put  into  their  inward  parts,  and 
written  in  their  hearts  j  their  whole  lives  are  an  act  of  wor- 
ship, both  when  assembled  especially  for  the  purpose,  and 
when  engaged  in  their  daily  avocations.  Of  such,  the  Lord 
is  truly  their  God,  and  they  are  truly  his  people. 

21st.  I  walked  with  J.  C.  S.  Handt  to  see  a  flock  of 
about  five  hundred  sheep  belonging  to  the  mission,  which 
has  also  a  herd  of  about  one  hundred  cattle,  and  a  few  pigs 
and  horses ;  the  sheep  are  said  to  be  in  the  best  state  of 
any  in  this  country.  The  harvest  of  last  year  was  so 
plentiful  that  the  surplus  wheat  is  sufiicient  for  the  sup- 
ply of  the  present  season.      This   is   a  great  blessing,  as 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH    WALES.  3l7 

the  drought  has  prevented  the  raising  of  an  adequate 
crop  for  the  present  year^  and  the  supply  of  food  is  a 
principal  attraction  to  draw  the  Blacks  to  the  place. 
These  people  are  not  numerous  here  ;  a  hundred  is  the 
greatest  number  that  has  been  seen  at  the  Station^  at  any 
one  time,  since  its  establishment,  and  several  of  these  were 
from  a  distance.  About  thirty  is  the  usual  number  resorting 
hither.  They  are  said  to  be  very  capricious,  and  by  no 
means  desirous  to  learn,  further  than  they  are  tempted  by  a 
supply  of  food.  This  is  what  may  reasonably  be  expected, 
from  a  people  who  are  not  yet  aware  of  what  they  are  to 
gain,  by  learning  to  read.  They  are  contented  with  food  of 
the  plainest  kind,  and  like  other  races  of  men,  are  not  dis- 
posed to  work,  beyond  what  they  find  necessary  for  obtain- 
ing the  supply  they  require.  They  often  prefer  eating  boiled 
wheat,  to  being  at  the  trouble  of  grinding  their  com  in  hand- 
mills,  and  making  bread.  Their  moral  state  is  represented 
as  of  the  lowest  grade.  Immoralities  of  the  grossest  kinds 
are  reported  to  be  practised  amongst  them,  but  these  are,  in 
some  measure,  traceable  to  the  influence  of  the  prisoner 

The  Blacks  of  N.  S.  Wales  are  a  decreasing  race :  they 
do  not,  however,  appear  to  be  inferior  in  intellect  to  other 
nations;  but  man,  when  from  under  the  influence  of  the 
restraints  of  religion,  and  of  civil  institutions,  seems  to  be 
the  same  d^raded  being,  all  the  world  over.  In  N.  S. 
Wales,  he  is  Car  indeed,  removed  from  the  dreams  of  natural 
innocence,  of  those  who  do  not  see  the  effects  of  the  fall 
in  themselves,  or  believe  that  these  effects  exist  in 
others.  The  N.  S.  Wales  Aborigines  do  not  openly  make 
feasts  upon  human  subjects,  like  the  natives  of  New  Zea- 
land, and  of  some  other  islands  of  the  Pacific;  but  there 
are  pretty  well  authenticated  instances  of  cannibalism 
among  them. 

The  missionaries  at  Wellington  have  acquired  a  tolerably 
competent  knowledge  of  the  language  spoken  among  the 
Natives  of  this  part  of  the  country;  it  differs  consider- 
ably from  that  of  the  eastern  coast ;  they  are  teaching 
two  half-domesticated  girls,  and  three  boys  to  read,  both  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

318  WELLINGTON    VALLEY.  [9th  mO. 

their  own  language  and  in  English.  In  the  evening,  all 
the  boys  left  the  establishment,  being  offended  because  one 
of  them  was  refused  a  new  pipe,  as  he  had  had  one  within 
a  few  days.  The  oldest  of  the  boys  may  be  about  sixteen, 
the  youngest  about  twelve;  the  intermediate  one  is  about 
fourteen.  After  the  custom  of  many  others  of  his  race,  he 
wears  a  reed^  about  four  inches  long,  through  the  cartilage 
of  his  nose,  as  an  ornament. 

In  the  margins  of  the  pools  of  the  Bell  River^  there  are 
Reeds,  Arundo  Phragmites,  Bull-rushes,  T^p?ia  kUifolia, 
and  some  other  aquatic  plants,  similar  to  those  of  England. 
The  surface  of  the  water  is,  in  many  places,  covered  with 
AzoUa  mbray  a  beautiful,  mossy-looking  plant,  occupying 
the  place  that  Duck-weed  does  in  England. 

22nd.  Accompanied  by  J.  C.  S.  Handt  and  a  black 
youth,  who,  with  a  man  and  a  woman,  returned  to  the 
settlement  this  mornings  we  walked  to  Myami,  two  miles 
distant,  on  the  banks  of  the  Macquarie  River.  This  river 
is  now  reduced  to  an  inconsiderable  stream,  with  large 
pools  at  intervals.  The  rocks,  where  we  crossed  it,  are 
basaltic.  At  Myami,  a  Sydney  merchant,  has  erected  some 
good,  wooden  buildings;  consisting  of  a  dwelling-house, 
prisoners'  huts,  a  large  wool-shed,  &c.  Most  of  them  are 
weatherboard,  of  the  Pine  of  this  neighbourhood,  which 
is  a  species  of  Callitris :  the  wood  is  fragrant,  but  liable  to 
split.  The  prisoners'  huts  are  of  logs,  of  gum-tree;  and 
the  shingles  with  which  the  whole  are  covered,  instead  of 
slates,  are  of  the  Forest-oak,  Camarina  torulosa.  The 
noble  tree  of  the  same  genus,  called  the  River-oak,  grows 
here  to  a  large  size,  just  within  the  banks  of  the  rivers, 
greatly  ornamenting  the  country.  Myami  is  a  large  loca- 
tion, of  roughish,  basaltic,  open,  grassy,  forest  sheep-hills, 
with  the  advantage  of  an  extensive  back-run,  beyond  the 
boundaries  of  the  located  portion  of  the  Colony. 

Our  black  companion  was  clad  in  a  blanket,  fastened 
round  his  shoulders;  under  it  he  had  a  bag  suspended, 
in  which  he  kept  two  pence,  that  he  several  times  showed 
me,  with  a  pleased  countenance,  though  he  did  not  seem 
to  understand  their  value,  except  as  pretty  things  to  look 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  319 

at.  He  amused  himself  as  he  went  along,  by  throwing  the 
flat,  crooked,  wooden  weapon^  called  by  the  Whites  a 
Boomring,  but  by  the  Blacks  of  this  part,  Barragan :  he 
threw  it  at  anything  that  took  his  fancy,  not  unfrequently 
missing  his  object.  He  informed  us,  that  there  was  plenty 
of  honey  in  the  neighbourhood.  It  is  the  produce  of  small^ 
stingless  bees^  that  inhabit  the  hoUow  limbs  of  trees :  these, 
the  Blacks  cut  down  with  small  tomahawks,  obtained  from 
the  white  people,  and  thus  possess  themselves  of  the  honey, 
which  they  drink  when  mixed  with  water.  The  Blacks 
here  climb  trees,  by  cutting  little  notches  in  them,  into  which 
they  fix  their  hands  or  feet,  as  occasion  requires. 

In  the  afternoon,  I  walked  a  considerable  distance  along 
the  course  of  the  Bell  River,  which  was  dry  in  some  places, 
and  running  in  others.  In  the  pools,  there  were  large 
flocks  of  Wild  Ducks,  of  two  sorts,  and  a  few  of  the  two 
species  of  the  Shag  or  Diver,  common  in  these  Colonies. 
The  Platypus,  or  Water  Mole,  and  a  small  kind  of  Tortoise, 
are  frequent  in  these  rivers.  The  black  youth,  before  al- 
luded to,  assured  me,  that  the  Platypus  brings  forth  its 
young  alive,  several  at  a  time,  in  holes,  in  the  banks  of 
the  river :  he  also  informed  me,  that  the  Tortoise  came  to 
warm  itself  in  the  sun,  on  logs  that  lay  in  the  water, 
and  that  ^' Black  fellows  catch  him  by  the  leg,  and  eat 
him.''  The  Natives  roast  their  food  lightly :  they  eat  almost 
all  kinds  of  living  creatures  that  they  can  catch,  including 
the  Platypus,  the  River-muscle,  which  is  a  species  of  Umo, 
grubs,  moths,  ants'  eggs,  the  larger  lizards,  and  snakes, 
provided  the  last  have  not  bitten  themselves  in  the  agonies 
of  death.  One  of  them  informed  me,  that  the  ants'  eggs 
tasted  like  fowls'  eggs;  and  I  have  been  told,  that  the 
large  moths,  roasted,  are  not  unlike  new  bread.  On  in- 
quiring of  one  of  the  boys,  how  he  had  taken  a  White 
Cockatoo  that  he  was  eating,  he  said,  he  had  buried  himself 
under  the  straw,  near  the  corn-stacks,  and  when  the  birds 
came,  he  caught  one  by  the  leg.  Scarcity  of  food,  from 
the  long  drought,  causes  them  to  come  in  large  flocks,  into 
the  stack-yards,  along  with  Crows  and  Parrots. 

24th.      There  was  a  fine  rain,  with   much   thunder  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

320  WELLINGTON    VALLEY.  [9th  mo. 

lightning.  Accompanied  by  J.  C.  S.  Handt,  and  the  black 
youth  before  mentioned^  we  visited  the  large  cavern  in  the 
Umestone^  about  three  miles  eastward  of  the  settlement. 
The  entrance  is  contracted  and  steep,  opening  among  nu- 
merous small  rocky  projections :  within  there  are  a  number 
of  irregular  chambers,  some  of  which  are  very  large.  TThe 
sides  and  roof  are  formed  of  irregular,  sub-hemispherical 
cavities,  the  surfaces  of  which,  as  well  as  the  floor  of  the 
cave,  are  covered  with  dust,  formed  by  the  decomposing 
stone.  In  a  few  places  there  are  sparry  projections  from 
the  sides :  stalactites,  resembling  icicles,  depend  from  the 
roof^  in  several  parts.  In  some  places,  the  stalactites  from 
the  top  have  joined  the  stalagmites  on  the  floor^  and  in 
one  place  the  mass  has  become  stupendous,  and  remark- 
ably beautiful.  The  base  is  an  ascent  of  irregular  undulat- 
ing narrow  ledges,  forming  a  series  of  perpendicular  hollows, 
rising  gradually  for  six  or  eight  feet:  the  stalactites  are 
slender  columns,  from  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  in  height, 
laterally  united  into  a  mass  of  irregular  outline,  which  may 
be  forty  feet  in  circimiference.  But  these  dimensions  not 
being  from  measurement,  nor  from  memorandums  made  at 
the  time,  may  be  far  from  correct:  they  will,  however,  give 
some  idea  of  this  remarkable  petrifaction,  which  by  some 
has  been  compared  to  a  great  organ,  to  which  it  has  a  faint 
resemblance.  The  furthest  extremity  of  the  cave  may  be 
a  hundred  yards  from  the  entrance :  it  is  terminated  by  a 
sudden  and  almost  perpendicular  descent  to  water;  which 
may  be  perceived  by  throwing  stones  down  the  opening. 
The  top  of  one  of  the  smaller  chambers  in  the  side,  was 
dripping,  and  covered  with  short  stalactites;  another  was 
dry,  and  inhabited  by  small  bats,  that  were  greatly  dis- 
turbed by  our  flambeaux.  Some  bones  are  said  to  have 
been  found  in  this  cave,  but  I  saw  none,  neither  did  I  per- 
ceive any  traces  of  fossil  remains  in  the  limestone,  which 
is  of  a  dove-colour,  intersected  with  white  veins,  and  of 
compact  texture :  possibly  it  may  be  transition  limestone ; 
but  it  is  contiguous  to  basalt,  and  to  hills  of  very  hard, 
compact,  reddish  stone,  traversed  by  white  veins,  possibly 
silicious.     In  the  neighbourhood   there   are  several  smaller 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH   WALES.  321 

cavities ;  but  I  do  not  learn  that  they  had  been  explored. 
Our  black  companion  seemed  a  little  fearful  of  entering 
the  cavern,  but  he  was  pleased  with  exploring  it.  He  en- 
quired, as  we  returned  toward  daylight,  who  made  it ;  and 
on  being  told,  God,  who  made  heaven,  and  earth,  and  all 
things,  a  momentary  awe  seemed  to  occupy  his  mind,  as 
he  repeated  the  answer.  On  the  way  to  the  cave,  we  saw 
a  native  black  man,  quite  naked,  (according  to  the  common 
custom  of  these  people,)  walking  with  his  blanket  folded 
up  in  his  hand.  He  stopped,  and  commenced  cutting 
away  the  decayed  bark  of  a  tree,  with  his  tomahawk,  to  get 
out  grubs.  When  the  aperture  is  cleared,  the  Blacks  in- 
troduce a  long  reed,  terminated  by  a  hook  of  hard  wood, 
pointed  at  the  bend :  this  they  force  into  the  grub,  and  by 
this  means  draw  it  out  of  its  hiding-place.  On  returning, 
we  feU  in  with  another,  who  had  his  head  bound  round 
with  a  fillet  of  netting,  made  of  the  bark  of  the  Currajong, 
of  this  neighbourhood,  and  a  strip  of  Kangaroo  skin  about 
his  loins  :  he  had  in  his  hand,  one  of  the  hooks  described, 
also  a  wooden  paddle  for  digging  up  grubs  and  roots,  a 
small  club,  and  two  opossums.  These  animals  he  had 
taken  out  of  the  hollow  limb  of  a  tree :  they  form  a  chief 
part  of  the  subsistence  of  the  native  Blacks.  At  a  short 
distance,  his  son  joined  us;  he  was  one  of  the  youths 
who  left  the  settlement  a  few  days  ago.  The  man  had 
curly  hair:  some  of  the  Blacks  here  have  straight  hair: 
they  rub  themselves  with  grease,  red  ochre,  yellow  ochre, 
pipe-clay,  &c.  but  I  have  not  seen  them  with  their  hair 
matted  with  ochre  and  grease,  like  the  Tasmanian  Blacks. 
The  rain  of  yesterday  has  greatly  refreshed  the  country: 
already  the  grass  is  beginning  to  put  forth  greenness. 

25th.  A  few  more  Blacks  came  to  the  Station,  and  two, 
who  had  been  there,  went  away,  saying  there  was  going  to 
be  a  fight,  at  a  short  distance.  These  fights  generally  arise 
about  their  women,  and  are  seldom  fatal ;  but  occasionally, 
a  few  of  the  men  get  wounded.  Among  those  who  came 
to  the  station,  were  a  woman  and  two  little  boys,  the  younger 
of  which  might  be  four  years  old. — In  the  afternoon,  we 
walked  to  Mount  Arthur,  a  hill  about  500  feet  high,  near 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

322  WELLINGTON   VALLEY.  [9th  mO. 

the  junction  of  the  Bell  and  Macquarie  Rirers.  From  this 
point,  there  ia  an  extensive  view  of  the  adjacent  country^ 
which  seems  to  be  a  continuation  of  open,  forest  hills. 
Many  of  them  look  black,  and  very  bare,  from  fire,  which 
has  "  devoured  the  pastures  of  the  wilderness/'  This  hill 
is  of  compact,  rufous  stone,  probably  sandstone;  near  the 
top,  its  grain  is  coarse,  and  it  imbeds  larger  pieces,  form- 
ing a  sort  of  Pudding-stone.  On  the  upper  portion,  there 
were  She-oak,  Casuarina  quadrivalvis  and  GrammUis  rui^e- 
foliuSf  a  small  fern,  both  of  which  are  common  in  V.  D. 
Land,  also  a  Cycas  ?  a  remarkable  Eucalyptus,  and  Sierculia 
divernfolia.  Upon  the  last,  there  was  a  remarkable  Fif- 
ctfin,  or  Mistletoe.  Lower  down  the  hill,  the  beautiful  Aca-- 
cia  venustay  formed  a  bush,  about  six  feet  high ;  it  bears  heads 
of  small,  globular,  golden  blossoms. 

26th.  We  went  to  see  the  grave  of  a  native  Black.  We 
were  accompanied  by  J.  C.  S.  Handt,  who  informed  us,  that 
the  legs  of  the  deceased  were  bound  up,  so  as  to  bring  the 
knees  to  the  chin :  that  in  this  posture,  the  body  was 
thrust  into  a  shallow,  round  hole,  and  covered  with  leaves 
and  boxighs,  over  which,  a  mound  of  earth,  like  a  potato- 
heap,  was  raised  up.  On  one  side  of  this  mound,  and  ex- 
tending a  third  part  of  the  way  round  it,  there  was  a  trench, 
formed  of  two  low  banks  of  earth.  On  the  same  side^ 
some  undulating  lines,  and  others  forming  imperfect  ovals, 
were  inscribed  on  the  trunks  of  adjacent  trees. 

27th.  The  public  worship,  this  morning,  was  attended 
by  some  of  the  settlers,  from  beyond  the  Boundary.  One 
of  them  informed  us,  that  he  was  at  a  meeting  which  we 
had  on  the  north  shore  of  Port  Jackson,  a  few  weeks  ago. 
He  expressed,  in  very  decided  terms,  his  preference  for  the 
simple  proceedings  of  Friends  in  regard  to  worship,  over 
those  of  other  communities  of  Christians.  We  find  many 
prepared  to  see  thus  far,  the  beautiful  simplicity  of  what 
we  deem  to  be  the  Truth  5  but  alas !  how  few  are  willing 
to  take  up  the  cross,  and  to  put  it  into  practice !  There 
were  also  present  this  morning,  of  the  Blacks,  an  aged 
man  and  three  women,  attired  in  clean  blankets,  two  girls, 
and  six  or  eight  boys,  some  of  whom  reside  with  neigh- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.3  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  323 

bouring  settlers^  and  make  themselves  useful.  After  the 
Episcopal  prayers  had  been  read,  we  had  an  opportunity 
of  communicating  what  was  on  our  minds,  of  which  we 
availed  ourselves.  I  was  also  engaged  in  vocal  supplication. 
— On  a  few  occasions,  when  assembled  with  the  persons 
of  the  Mission  Establishment,  we  have  not  found  it  our 
place  to  say  anything,  after  simply  reading  a  chapter  in 
the  Bible,  but  more  frequently,  have  had  something  to  ex- 
press in  exhortation,  or  prayer, — William  Watson  returned 
this  evening,  from  an  unsuccessful  expedition  to  endeavour 
to  gain  an  interview  with  some  Blacks,  who  had  killed 
some  cattle  belonging  a  settler,  in  consequence  of  having 
been  exasperated,  by  the  profligate  conduct  of  a  ticket-of- 
leave  stock-keeper,  toward  one  of  their  wives. 

28th.     The  forenoon  was  showery,  but  we  took  a  walk 
with  the  Missionaries,  who  are  both  much  -  to  be  felt  for. 
I    was    never  more   fully   convinced  of  the  importance   of 
attending  to  divine  qualification  and  direction,  in  missionary 
concerns,  than  since  we  came  hither ;  and  though  I  heartily 
desire,  and  earnestly  hope,  that  good  may  result  from  this 
mission,  and  I  consider  the  example  of  such  persons  as  the 
Missionaries,  and  their  wives,  as  a  barrier  against  the  over- 
whelming, evil  influence  of  a  large  proportion  of  the  white 
population  of  the  neighbourhood,  and  a  strength  to  those 
who  desire  to  walk  uprightly ;  yet,  should  this  mission  not 
succeed^  as  regards  any  perceptible  fruits  among  the  Blacks, 
it  will  not  be,  to  my  mind,  any  proof  that  they  are  not 
within  the  influence  of  the  beneficial  effects  of  rightly  di- 
rected religious  labours.     The  Missionaries  themselves  do 
not  think  that  they  have  yet  effected  anything,  in  the  way 
of  the  introduction  of  religious  principle  into  the  minds  of 
the  Natives;  though  they  have  attempted  preaching  to  the 
Blacks,  in  their  own  tongue,  and  they  occasionally  read  to 
them,  portions  of   Scripture,   rendered  into  the  dialect  of 
Australia.     There   is  some  ground  to  apprehend,  that  the 
Blacks  of  Wellington  may  have  been  rendered  more  vicious 
than  some   of  the  other   tribes,   by  the   Europeans    sent 
here,  when  Wellington  was  a  penal   settlement,   and  they 
certainly  are  still  demoralized  by  some  of  those  residing  in 

x  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

324  WELLINGTON    VALLBT.  [9th  QIO. 

the  vicinity.  The  tribes  are  said  to  be  more  numerous, 
fifty  miles  northward  and  soutliward.  Two  half-cirilized 
men^  named  Frederick  and  Jemmy^  returned  with  W.  Wat- 
son, whom  they  had  accompanied  on  the  expedition :  ihey 
make  themselves  useful  in  the  agricultural  and  other  oecu- 
pations  of  the  Establishment.  Frederick  went  lately  to 
Liverpool ;  he  says,  before  he  went,  the  stock-keepers  told 
him  that  what  the  Missionaries  were  trying  to  teach  them, 
was  all  "gammon,^'  or  deceit,  but  now  he  knows  better. 
• — On  visiting  some  of  the  Natives,  at  their  fire,  I  saw  the 
little,  black  boy,  before  noticed,  after  filling  his  pipe  and 
smoking  with  the  rest  of  his  country  people,  lay  it  down, 
and  kneel  in  his  mother's  lap,  and  suck  !  This  was  a  com- 
bination of  circumstances  such  as  I  had  never  imagined  ; 
and  one  that  quite  overpowered  the  feelings  of  gravity, 
excited  by  the  degraded  condition  of  the  people. 

The  afternoon  being  fine,  I  walked  to  a  distance,  among 
some  hills,  on  which  there  were  fine,  small  trees,  of  the 
CaUitris  of  this  neighbourhood;  which,  like  other  species 
of  the  genus,  resembles  the  Cypress  and  Red  Cedar.  In 
some  of  the  vallies,  dry  Kangaroo-grass  was  ankle  deep 
upon  the  ground;  and  thicker  than  I  had  seen  it  in  any 
other  place. 

29th.  After  an  early  breakfast  with  the  two  mission 
families,  we  set  out,  to  return  to  Bathurst.  J.  C.  S.  Handt 
accompanied  us  to  Newry.  We  had  much  conversation 
with  him,  respecting  the  discouragements  attendant  upon 
their  engagements  as  missionaries,  and  parted  from  him 
under  a  more  than  common  degree  of  interest. 

At  Newry,  there  were  four  black  men,  at  the  hut  where 
we  lodged  on  the  18th.  The  hut-keeper  expressed  r^et, 
at  one  of  their  kings  having  come  to  take  away  the  two 
youths,  who  had  become  so  useful,  in  order  to  make  them 
young  men ;  that  is,  to  initiate  them  as  young  men  in  the 
tribe  to  which  they  belong,  by  knocking  out  a  front  tooth, 
and  putting  them  under  certain  restrictions  as  to  diet  and 

We  also  called  at  another  station,  where  now,  as  well  as 
on  our  way  to  Wellington,  we  were  hospitably  entertained 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH    WALES.  325 

with  beef^  damper^  and  tea.  There  were  four  black  women 
and  a  little  boy  sitting  before  the  fire^  in  a  state  of  complete 
nudity^  except  having  skin  rugs  thrown  over  their  backs. 
The  principal  use  of  these  skin  rugs,  which  they  usually 
carry  with  them,  is,  to  draw  over  themselves  at  night,  when 
they  sleep  on  the  ground,  by  their  little  fires.  The  dews 
of  N.  S.  Wales,  are  often  very  heavy,  and  the  nights 
chilly,  rendering  this  kind  of  protection  needful.  The  flesh 
side  of  the  rug  is  turned  outward,  and  is  ornamented  by  a 
number  of  lines,  forming  oblong  compartments  and  undula- 
tions, cut  into  the  skin,  and  marked  with  a  red  pigment. 
They  likewise  carry  with  them,  skin  bags,  with  the  fur  out- 
side, containing  a  few  wooden  implements  for  digging  up 
roots,  and  taking  grubs,  also  vessels  for  water,  made  of 
the  large,  tubercular  excrescences  of  the  gum-tree,  hollowed 
out,  which  are  here  called  Calabashes.  These  women  were 
smoking  and  drinking  tea ;  they  said,  the  men  they  belonged 
to  were  gone  up  the  creek.  Though  prisoner-servants  are 
generally  without  religious  principle,  and  are  so  degraded, 
that  in  situations  of  this  kind,  they  are  little  above  the 
Aborigines,  in  point  of  cleanliness  and  manner  of  living, 
they  are  to  be  pitied,  in  being  exposed  to  the  company  of 
such  as  were  now  here. 

On  proceeding,  we  traced  the  foot-marks  of  the  Natives, 
as  far  as  the  Three  Rivers,  where  we  again  halted,  made  a 
fire,  and  prepared  tea;  we  also  cooked  some  Mushrooms, 
which  are  springing  up  abundantly,  since  the  rain. 

The  day  was  showery.  The  ground  being  soft  toward  the 
conclusion  of  our  day^s  journey,  made  it  very  fatiguing,  and 
a  slight  error  in  regard  to  the  road,  lengthened  thirty- 
eight  miles  to  Molong,  to  forty.  My  companion  was  so 
much  afliected  by  the  wet,  cold,  and  fatigue,  that  he  was 
seized  with  cramp  in  his  legs,  and  was  obliged  to  go  to  bed, 
where  rest  and  warmth  restored  him.  Two  yoimg  men, 
also  on  their  way  from  Wellington,  reached  this  station 
before  us,  on  horseback,  and  were  kindly  attentive.  The 
overseer  was  from  home:  the  men  had  got  some  spirits, 
from  a  dray  that  had  stopped  here  for  the  night,  and  were 
in  a  state  of  excitement  and  disorder.     One  man,  however, 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

S26  MOLONG.  [9th  mo. 

was  prompt  in  furnishing  us  with  such  things  as  "we 
needed;  and  we  were  thankful  to  have  reached  a  place  of 
shelter  before  the  rain  set  in^  though  it  was  one  wi^out 
glass  in  the  windows^  which  were  closed  with  shutters^ 
and  where  the  plaster  had  fallen  from  between  the  logs, 
till  a  hand  might  be  put  through  in  many  places.  On  the 
way^  we  passed  two  drays^  encamped  for  the  night,  by  a 
large  fire.  They  were  conveying  stores  from  Sydney,  to  a 
settler  further  into  the  interior.  The  poor  draymen  often 
spend  very  uncomfortable  nights  on  these  weary  journeys, 
that  take  them  many  weeks ;  and  in  a  morning,  they  have 
often  to  wander  far  after  their  bullocks,  which  stray  in 
search  of  pasturage. 

A  short  time  after  our  visit  to  Molong,  one  of  the 
men,  went  off  the  road,  with  a  cart,  toward  a  house,  where 
spirits  were  sold  illicitly.  On  the  way,  he  upset  the  cart, 
which  fell  across  his  breast :  he  had  cut  away  part  of  the 
side  of  the  cart,  with  a  pocket  knife,  but  had  died  before 
he  could  extricate  himself.  When  he  was  found,  a  wild 
dog  was  eating  his  head,  and  his  own  dog  was  eating  the 
horse. — Accidents  from  the  use  of  intoxicating  drinks  are 
not  unfreqaent  in  this  land,  where  the  quantity  of  spirituous 
liquors  consumed  is  very  great,  in  proportion  to  the  popu- 
lation. We  lately  heard  of  a  jnan  falling,  in  a  state  of 
helpless  drunkenness,  on  one  of  the  large,  flat,  loose,  ant- 
hills, that  are  common  in  the  bush.  When  found,  he  was 
lifeless,  the  exasperated  ants  having  eaten  the  interior  of 
his  nostrils  and  throat. 

30th.  The  night  was  very  wet,  and  the  rain  continued 
to  fall  heavily  in  the  morning.  Four  black  women  arrived 
here,  with  two  half-cast  female  children.  The  males  of  the 
mixed  race  are  almost  universally  destroyed  in  infancy. 
This  is  more  particularly  the  case  in  the  remote  parts  of 
N.  S.  Wales ;  where  we  only  met  with  two  or  three  in- 
stances, in  which  their  lives  had  been  preserved.  A  person 
of  our  acquaintance  expostulated  with  a  woman,  who  had 
killed  her  child,  but  she  only  laughed;  and  when  he  ap- 
pealed to  another,  as  to  the  wickedness  of  the  act,  she 
said,  "  It  was  not  a  pretty  baby.^* 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH   WALES.  527 

The  women  who  visited  Molong  this  mornings  were 
mach  pleased  on  being  presented  witih  an  emptied  sugar- 
bag.  They  soaked  it  in  a  bucket  of  water^  and  drank  the 
muddy  infitsion^  with  avidity.  One  of  them  folded  portions 
of  the  bag,  took  them  into  her  capacious  mouth,  and 
sucked  them,  to  extract  the  sweetness.  They  did  not  ap- 
pear in  the  least  degree  intoxicated  with  their  ample  pota- 
tions of  the  liquor ;  which,  in  common  with  the  washings 
of  rum  casks,  is  called  '^  Bull.^'  The  Blacks  of  Sydney 
reel  after  drinking  the  infusion  of  sugar-bags,  and  put  on 
the  appearance  of  intoxication  so  well,  that  it  has  generally 
been  supposed,  that  the  liquor  really  made  them  drunk. 
The  following  circumstances  satisfied  an  acquaintance  of 
ours,  that  this  appearance  of  intoxication  was  feigned,  and 
our  own  observation  has  confirmed  this  view : — ^The  son 
of  this  person  was,  on  a  certain  occasion,  boiling  down 
brine,  to  make  salt,  when  a  black  man  came  in,  and  asked, 
if  the  liquor  were  rum.  The  young  man,  instead  of  an- 
swering the  question,  asked  the  Black,  if  he  would  have 
some :  he  answered  in  the  affirmative,  and  took  a  tin-pot 
full,  which  he  drank  off.  He  then  began  to  throw  about 
his  arms,  and  to  stagger.  The  yoimg  man  derided  him, 
saying  he  surely  did  not  mean  to  pretend  to  be  drunk. 
The ,  man  replied — "  Me  murry  (very)  drunk  like  a  gentle- 
man.^^ This  circumstance  induced  our  informant  to  remon- 
strate with  some  Blacks,  who  were  making  the  same  pre- 
tence in  Sydney,  and  they  made  similar  replies ;  certainly 
not  much  to  the  credit  of  some  of  the  gentlemen  of  N.  S. 
Wales,  but  strongly  illustrating  the  force  of  example. 

Towards  noon  the  rain  ceased.  Our  young  friends  com- 
menced their  journey,  and  kindly  offered  to  mark  the  road 
for  us,  to  Kangaroo  Bay.  We  soon  followed,  and  found 
they  had  done  this  effectually,  by  detaching  bark  from  a 
tree,  at  the  place  of  turning  off,  and  scattering  branches 
of  a  species  of  AcadUy  with  striking  flowers,  as  they  went 

Kangaroo  Bay  is  a  beautiful,  sequestered,  grassy  cove, 
among  the  hills,  fertilized  by  a  streamlet,  now  reduced  to 
a  chain  of  pools ;  by  the  side  of  which  we  saw  one  of  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

328  KANGAROO  BAY.  [9th  mo. 

large  Bustards^  called  here  Wild  Turkeys.    At  this  place, 
we  received  a  hearty  welcome,  from  a  warm-hearted  Irish 
couple,  who  told  us,  that  they  had  heard  of  our  passing 
along  the  other  side  of  the  hills,  on  the  way  to  WelliDgton^ 
in   consequence  of  our  having  given  tracts  to  some  shep- 
herds, and  had  heen  regretting  that  they  should  not   be 
likely  to  receive  a  visit  from  us. — ^An  old   Irishman,  who 
was  also  a  sojourner  in  the  family  for  the  night,  informed 
us,  that  he  could  trace  many  points  of  resemblance  to  tiie 
ancient  Irish  language,  in  the  language  of  the  Blacks  of  this 
Colony.     There  were  here  two  black  boys ;  one  of  whom, 
named  Dickey,  said  he  was  an  orphan,  belon^g  a  tribe  to 
the  southward,  on  the  Lachlan  River.     They  were  clothed 
in  some  old  garments  of  the  stock-men  ;  which,  though  they 
fit  badly,  made  them  more  decent  than  usual.     Dickey, 
who  appeared  to  be  about  twelve  years  of  age,  had  become 
useful  in  the  house,  in  the  work  of  which,  his  mistress  in- 
structed him  with  motherly  kindness:  she  also  gave   him 
his  meals  in  the  same  room  with  themselves,  and  of  the 
same  kind  of  victuals  as  themselves  eat.    Being  thus  raised 
to  the  same  grade  with  the  family,  in  many  points,  the 
boy  was  making  more  progress  in  civilization  than  most  of 
his  race. 

A  rational  attention  to  points  of  this  kind,  in  labours 
to  improve  the  condition  of  the  Aborigines,  is  of  more  con- 
sequence than  many  well-intentioned  Christians  imagine. 
A  line  of  consideration  and  conduct,  such  as  Christian  prin- 
ciples, fully  carried  into  practice,  would  lead  to,  is  of  the 
utmost  importance,  in  preparing  the  mind  to  receive  the 
doctrines  of  the  gospel.  I  now  see  more  clearly  than  be- 
fore, how  much  the  Tasmanian  Blacks  on  Flinders  Island, 
were  indebted  to  the  rational,  and  well-directed  endeavours 
of  W.  J.  Darling  and  A.  M^Lachlan,  in  raising  them  in  the 
scale  of  civilization.  Though  neither  of  these  men  could 
be  looked  upon  as  religious  missionaries,  their  labours  mate- 
rially advanced  the  Blacks  toward  a  state,  in  which  they 
might  have  been  benefited  by  well-directed  religious 
labours;  not  by  teaching  them  to  use  forms  of  religion, 
without    the    power,    or  to  go  through  formal  repetitions 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NBW   SOUTH   WAI.BS.  329 

of  devotional  compositions ;  but  by  simply  reading  the 
Scriptares  to  them^  and  turning  their  attention  to  the 
convictions  of  the  Holy  Spirit  upon  their  own  minds^ 
as  the  drawing  of  the  love  of  their  Heavenly  Father^ 
seeking  to  bring  them  to  his  beloved  Son^  in  order  that 
they  may  find  the  pardon  of  sin,  and  help  to  work  right- 
eousness, through  him.  To  these  exercises,  devout  con- 
versations, and  the  reading  of  religious  biography,  and  other 
practical  works,  might  be  usefully  added,  as  the  instructors 
became  able  to  engage  in  such  communication,  and  way 
opened  for  it.  O,  that  many  would  give  way  to  a  right 
exercise  of  soul  before  the  Lord  !  who  would  then  raise  up, 
both  ministers  and  missionaries,  qualified  for  their  work  to 
his  own  glory. 

10th  mo.  1st.  We  left  Kangaroo  Bay,  accompanied  by 
the  two  black  boys,  as  guides.  Soon  after  they  left  us,  we 
missed  our  road,  taking  a  sawyer's  track,  which  was  more 
strongly  marked  than  the  one  along  which  we  ought  to 
have  gone,  a  common  circumstance  in  Australia.  This 
lengthened  our  journey  a  few  miles,  and  brought  us  across 
some  rough  hills  of  white  quartz,  covered  with  trees  and 
scrub.  At  length  we  came  out,  upon  a  verdant  tract,  called 
Fredericks  VaDey,  where  a  man,  who  was  making  cheese,  in 
a  solitary  hut,  kindly  gave  us  some  milk.  This  article, 
which  is  scarce  in  V.  D.  Land,  is  abundant  in  this  part  of 
N.  S.  Wales ;  and  constitutes  a  part  of  the  provision  for  the 
servants  of  many  of  the  pastoral  establishments. 

From  over-exertion  on  the  29th  ult.  I  became  affected 
with  violent  pain  in  one  leg ;  and  when,  becoming  so  lame 
as  scarcely  to  be  able  to  get  along,  one  of  our  acquaintance, 
from  Newton,  came  up,  with  a  spare  horse  ready  saddled, 
on  which  he  invited  me  to  ride.  This  circumstance  might 
be  regarded  by  some  as  a  mere  casualty ;  but  I  could  not 
but  consider  it,  as  one  of  the  many  cases,  in  which  relief 
was  sent  by  the  overruling  of  Him,  who  cares  for  the  spar- 
I'ows,  and  much  more  for  those  who  put  their  trust  in 
Him,  unworthy  of  his  notice  as  they  may  feel  themselves 
to  be;  and  who,  in  his  providence,  often  causes,  circum- 
stances, casual  in  appearance,  so  to  meet,  as  to  bring  about 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

SSO  NEWTON.  [10th  mo. 

important  ends.  By  this  help  we  reached  Newton  in  the 
evening ;  and  spent  a  little  time  with  comfort,  among  tlie 
little  company  of  Wesleyans  there. 

2nd.  We  proceeded  to  Bathurst,  in  company  with  a 
pious  man  from  the  north  of  Ireland^  who  has  known 
something  of  the  power  of  religion  for  many  years^  and 
is  more  clear  than  many^  in  his  views  of  the  teaching  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  and  attentive  to  this  guidance^  in  many 
respects.  His  conversation  was  cheering  and  edifying. 
Among  many  other  things^  he  mentioned,  that  on  asking 
a  poor,  bare-footed,  Irish  girl,  a  pupil  in  a  Sabbath-school 
that  he  attended  in  his  native  land,  to  explain  the  meaning 
of  love,  the  word  having  occurred  in  one  of  their  Scriptore 
lessons,  she  replied :  ^^  It  is  the  union  of  all  the  powers  of 
the  mind,  in  one  strong  desire  to  please.^^  This  lucid  and 
concise  definition,  from  a  child  of  drunken  parents,  greatly 
surprised  him,  but  it  tended  to  confirm  him  in  his  view  of 
the  benefits  of  such  instruction.  On  arriving  at  Bathurst 
we  again  met  a  hearty  welcome  from  John  Espie  and  Mary 
Keane.  Instead  of  the  brownness  of  the  country  that 
existed  on  our  first  arrival  in  this  part  of  the  Colony,  a 
fine  verdure  now  covers  the  surface  of  the  earth.  The 
late,  bountiful  rain  has  caused  both  the  people  and  the  cattle 
to  rejoice. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


BathuTst. — CHmate  of  N.  8.  Wales.— Public  Worehip.— Doctrine  of  Baptism.— 
Settlers. — Bank. — Prisons. — ^Woodlands. — Geology. — O'Connell  Plains. — Spi- 
ritual "Worship. — ^Fish  River. — Dogs  and  Snakes. — Milk. — Prisoners. — Shrubs. 
— Blue  Mountains. — ^Black  Heath. — Goyetts  Leap. — Awful  Death. — Couch 
Grass. — Penrith.  —  Flagellation. — Nepean. — ^Doctrine. — ^Vineyard. — Absence 
of  Dew. — Horses  destroyed  by  thirst. — Nepean  RiTer . — Castlereagh. — ^Windsor. 
— Richmond. — Information  of  a  Black. — Pitt  Town  and  Wilberforce. — Unfaith- 
ful Professor. — ^Pious  Persons. — TemperanceMeeting. —  Jail. — Religious  Meet- 
ings.— Currajong. — Country. — ^Maize  add  Wheat  Crops. — Orange  Orchards. — 
Return  to  Sydney. 

10th  mo.  3rd.  The  climate  of  Newton  and  Bathurst,  is 
much  cooler  than  that  of  Wellington  Valley,  or  of  Syd- 
ney. At  Newton  there  was  hoar  frost  yesterday  morn- 
ing. At  Bathurst  and  Newton,  Apples  and  Gooseberries 
succeed,  but  not  Grapes.  At  Wellington  and  Sydney,  the 
heat  is  too  great  for. the  fruits  of  the  cooler  chmates,  and  the 
winter  of  Wellington  and  Bathurst,  is  too  cold  for  Oranges, 
and  some  other  fruits,  from  the  warmer  parts  of  Europe. 

4th.     We  had  two  meetings  in  the  school-house.     The 
Episcopal  Minister  being  at  one  of  the  out-stations,  there 
was  no  congregation  in  his  place  of  worship   to-day,  and 
many  of  the  people,  usually  assembhng  there  for  devotional 
purposes,  met  with  the  Presbyterians.     I  cannot  but  greatly 
esteem  the  privilege,  of  having  been  trained  to  the  practice  of 
meeting,  to  wait  upon  the  Lord,  independently  of  the  interven- 
tion of  a  minister.     The  common  custom,  of  no  minister,  no 
public  worship,  ill  accords  with  the  precept,  **  Not  forsaking 
the  assembling  of  yourselves  together,  as  the  manner  of  some 
is.'*    Indeed,  I  know  of  no  people  but  Friends,  who,  exer- 
cising faith  in   the  Redeemer's  declaration,   **  Wheresoever 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

332  BATHUR8T.  [10th  DIO. 

two  or  three  are  met  together  in  my  name^  there  am  I  in 
the  midst  of  them/^  act  upon  the  Apostle's  precept  fully, 
by  meeting  when  there  is  no  preacher  present.  Much  as  I 
esteem  Gospel  Ministry  as  a  gift  of  God,  conferred  for  the 
edification  of  his  church,  I  cannot  but  look  upon  those  views 
of  public  worship,  which  render  it  dependent  upon  the 
intervention  of  a  priest  or  a  minister,  as  belonging  rather  to 
the  dispensation  of  the  law  of  Moses,  than  to  the  Grospel 
of  Christ. 

5th.  I  spent  some  time  in  the  school,  under  the  care 
of  J.  E.  Keane,  in  which  there  are  about  thirty  pupils^ 
who  are  trained  with  much  Christian  care,  and  are  diligently 
instructed  in  the  Holy  Scriptures.  I  could  not,  however, 
but  lament  to  hear  them  taught  such  palpable  error  as  is 
conveyed  in  the  Catechism  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  by 
which  they  are  instructed  to  say,  that  they  become  mem- 
bers of  Christ,  and  children  of  God,  by  baptism,  clearly 
implying  by  baptism  with  water.  I  know  this  fallacy  is 
attempted  to  be  explained  away,  by  various  arguments; 
but  it  is  quite  in  vain  to  try  to  twist  the  plain  meaning 
of  the  words.  It  remains  palpably  untrue,  that  any  infant, 
by  water-baptism,  becomes  a  member  of  Christ,  or  a  child 
of  God;  and  the  direct  tendency  of  such  instruction,  as 
teaches  them  to  say  that  this  is  the  case,  is  to  deceive  the 
young,  with  regard  to  their  own  religious  state,  and  to  lead 
them  to  attach  to  this  rite,  the  imaginary  effect  of  a  mys- 
tical charm,  and  to  divert  their  attention  from  the  baptism 
of  the  Holy  Ghost,  received  only  through  the  mediation 
of  Christ,  by  which  alone  they  can  become  members  of 
Christ,  children  of  God,  and  heirs  of  eternal  life. 

6th.  In  company  with  J.  E.  Keane,  we  visited  several 
of  the  settlers  on  Bathurst  Plains,  who  generally  live  a 
mile  or  two  from  each  other.  Their  houses  are  comfort- 
able and  well  furnished,  and  more  like  those  of  England, 
than  most  we  have  seen  in  country  situations,  in  this  part 
of  the  world. 

7th.  A  Branch  Bible  Association  and  an  Auxiliary  Tem- 
perance Association  were  organized.  A  number  of  the 
respectable  settlers  were  present.    These  came  from  various 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NBW    SOUTH   WALES.  33S 

dist&nces^  within  nine  miles.      Several  of  them  are  in  sta- 
tions in  life^  similar  to  those  of  the  more  opulent  of  the 
middle  class^  in  England.    Among  them,  there  is  a  pleasing 
attention  to  spiritual  things :  they  generally  assemble  their 
"whole  families,  including  prisoner-servants,  daily :  for  read- 
ing the  Scriptures,  and  other  devotional  exercises.     At  the 
suggestion  of  the  zealous.   Episcopal   Minister,  they  have 
established  a  Bank,   in    which   they  take    small  deposits, 
with    the  view  of  encouraging  the  labouring  classes  to  save 
their  money.    This  has  dready  succeeded,  in  an  encourag- 
ing  degree,  in  regard   to   this  object;   it  has   considerably 
restrained  the  spending  of  money  in  strong  drink,  and,  in 
other  respects,  has  proved  very  useful  in  the  district. 

9th.  We  visited  the  Jail,  Factory,  and  Hospital.  The 
first  of  these,  generally  contains  about  fifty  prisoners,  con- 
victs and  others,  under  charges  and  sentences,  all  mixed 
together,  and  without  employment ;  eating  and  sleeping  in 
the  same  room.  It  has  also  five  cells,  and  two  rooms  for 
debtors;  all  without  airing  courts.  The  Factory,  which 
is  occupied  by  female  prisoners,  and  the  Hospital,  have 
better  accommodations;  but  the  latter  is  without  enclo- 
sure^ which  is  a  great  defect,  especially,  as  many  of  its 
inmates  are  prisoners.  These  places  are  regularly  visited 
by  the  Episcopal  Minister,  whose  care  for  the  prisoner, 
as  well  as  the  free  population  of  the  district,  is  exemplary. 
Having  concluded  our  labours  at  Bathurst,  we  accom- 
panied a  respectable  settler,  residing  at  Woodlands,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Campbell  and  Fish  Rivers,  to  his  com- 
fortable residence. 

10th.  The  country  about  Woodlands  is  fine:  the  soil 
is  a  mixture  of  decomposed  basaltic  and  granitic  rocks, 
with  pieces  of  rolled  Jasper  scattered  on  the  surface.  In  a 
well,  of  seventy  feet  deep,  in  which  water  has  not  yet  been 
obtained,  a  substance  resembling  soap-stone  occurs,  under 
the  decomposed  granite. — Several  of  the  neighbouring  set- 
tlers dined  with  us.  Considering  the  shortness  of  the  time 
since  the  Blue  Mountains  were  first  crossed  by  Europeans, 
the  respectabiUty  of  the  population  in  this  district  is  re- 
markable.    They  are  placed  under  inconvenience  at  present. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

334  o'coNNBLL  Pi^AiNS.  [10th«  mo. 

by  the  difficiilties  of  obtaining  necessaries^  from  the  long 
droughty  which  has  weakened  the  cattle^  and  has  caused  the 
expense  of  carriage  over  the  mountains,  to  be  very  great. 

11th.  We  had  a  meeting  at  (yConneU  Plains,  in  a 
chapel,  built  by  a  prirate  individual.  The  perceptible 
influence  of  our  Heavenly  Father's  love  was  with  us,  both 
in  time  of  silence,  and  when  we  were  engaged  in  vocal 
labour.  Ability  was  afforded  us,  to  show  clearly,  the  dif- 
ference between  formal  and  spiritual  worship,  and  to  illus- 
trate the  delusion  and  unprofitableness  of  the  former,  and 
the  validity  and  profitableness  of  the  latter;  proving,  that 
it  extended,  not  only  to  the  right  ordering  of  the  mind 
and  conduct,  in  public  and  private  devotion,  but,  having 
its  root  in  the  fear  of  God,  to  a  consequent  regard  to  his 
law,  in  all  our  public  and  private  actions,  as  well  as  to  oar 
words  and  thoughts ;  so  as  to  render  the  whole  life  of  the 
spiritually-minded  Christian,  a  continued  act  of  worship. 

12th.  We  took  leave  of  our  hospitable  friends,  at  Wood- 
lands, who  kindly  lent  us  their  gig  for  the  day,  and  pro- 
ceeding by  O'Connell  Plains,  we  traversed  several  miles  of 
grassy  and  herby,  open  forest  hills,  affording  pasturage  for 
sheep  and  cattle,  till  we  came  to  the  dwelling  of  a  setder^ 
on  the  Fish  River.  This  person  rented  a  section  of  land, 
probably  six  hundred  and  forty  acres,  of  the  Government, 
for  £2  per  annum. 

13th.  Our  route  lay  along  the  Fish  River,  which  here 
has  a  granite  bed,  and  except  in  rainy  weather,  is  a  slender 
stream.  It  takes  its  name  from  a  fish,  about  the  size  of  a 
Cod,  that  inhabits  its  waters.  We  passed  over  a  ridge  of 
granite  and  compact  sandstone,  the  highest  point  of  which 
is  called,  Evans's  Crown.  Exarrhena  suaveolenSy  a  plant 
resembling  Forget-me-not,  but  having  large,  white,  fragrant 
flowers,  and  some  others,  common  also  in  V.  D.  Land,  but 
rare  in  N.  S.  Wales,  were  growing  here.  The  mid-day  sun 
was  very  hot,  and  Snakes,  basking  in  its  rays,  were  numerous. 
Two  young  dogs  belonging  one  of  our  friends  from  Helvellyn, 
who  accompanied  us  frY)m  O'Connell  Plains,  killed  four.  One 
of  the  dogs  barked  in  front  of  the  snake,  while  the  other 
seized  it  in  its  mouth,  gave  it  a  violent  shake,  and  dropped 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1BS5.^  NBW   SOUTH    WALBB.  335 

it.  The  other  then  barked,  while  his  fellow  attacked  the 
reptile.  This  they  continued,  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  till 
one  of  our  party  finished  the  destruction  of  the  snakes  with 
a  slick.  At  Antonios  Creek,  we  were  refreshed  with  milk 
and  damper,  by  a  man  formerly  a  prisoner.  Milk  is  now 
so  plentiful  at  many  stations,  that  where  ihey  have  not  pigs 
to  consume  it,  much  of  it  is  thrown  away,  after  the  cream  is 
taken  off. 

14th.  One  of  the  prisoners,  at  the  house  where  we 
lodged,  having  been  flogged  by  order  of  a  magistrate,  for 
allowing  the  sheep  to  ramble  over  a  piece  of  marshy  ground, 
the  whole  of  those  at  the  establishment  refused  to  come*  to 
the  reading  of  the  Scriptures,  last  evening.  I  went  to  them 
this  morning,  and  gave  them  some  counsel,  which  was  well 

We  pursued  our  way  to  Black  Heath.  The  advance  of 
spring  has  decorated  the  Vale  of  Clywd,  as  well  as  the  Blue 
Mountains^  with  many  pretty  blossoms.  Among  these, 
may  be  enxunerated  several  species  of  GreviUea,  a  genus, 
including  shrubs,  with  handsome  flowers,  but  of  very 
various  foliage,  aspect,  and  altitude;  some  of  them  are 
creepers  on  the  ground,  others  are  lofty  trees. 

Arriving  at  Black  Heath,  early,  and  not  thinking  it  pru- 
dent to  proceed  further  to  day,  we  turned  aside,  to  visit 
Govetts  Leap ;  where,  at  an  interval  of  a  few  hundred 
yards,  two  small  streams  fall  over  a  precipice,  at  the  oppo- 
site sides  of  a  cove,  in  a  sandstone  cliff.  The  cove  is  half 
a  mile,  or  more,  in  width,  extending  beyond  the  falls ;  and 
having  ledges,  upon  which  shrubs  are  growing;  notwith- 
standing that  to  the  eye  it  appears  perpendicular.  The 
perpendicular  fall  of  one  of  the  streams,  is  calculated,  at 
600  feet.  The  water  is  diffused  into  a  shower  of  drops,  before 
it  reaches  a  mound  of  moss,  that  has  grown  up  from  below, 
to  meet  it,  The  other  fall,  is  somewhat  less  in  height.  The 
course  of  the  water,  from  the  foot  of  the  cliff,  is  traceable, 
in  the  dense  forest  of  "the  inaccessible  valley,'*  where  it  joins 
the  Grose  River,  by  the  darker  verdure,  and  the  tree-ferns, 
on  the  margins  of  the  streams.  The  cliffs,  on  the  opposite 
side  of  this  dark  glen,  are  of  similar  character,   forming  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

336  BLUE  MOUNTAINS.  [lOth  mo. 

long  series  of  coves.  Above  them^  rise  some  considerable 
woody  eminences^  on  which  the  snow  lies  in  winter.  Among 
these^  are  Eling  Georges  Mounts  Mount  Hay^  and  Mount 
Tomah;  some  of  which^  are  visible  from  Sydney.  The 
access  to  the  pointy  from  whence  the  waterfttUs  were  seen, 
was  difficulty  but  the  magnificence  of  the  scene,  amply- 
repaid  for  the  trouble,  in  reaching  it.  The  lofty,  sinuous, 
sandstone  cliffs,  of  this  neighbourhood,  have  given  it  the 
name,  of  Hassans  Walls. 

15th.     We  set  out  in  a  smart  snow-storm,  dined  at  the 
Weatherboard-hut,  and  reached  the  Valley  in  the  evening. 
Several  showers  of  hail  and  rain  feU,  in  the  course  of  the 
day.     In  the  lower  altitudes  of  the  moimtains,  the  advance 
of  spring  was  more  striking.     Telopea  speciosissima,  form- 
ing low  bushes,  with  heads   of  flowers   as  large  as   small 
Peonies,  was  in  full  blossom.     The  Blue  Mountain  Parrot, 
partly  blue,   and  with  a  breast  of  crimson,  as  brilliant  as 
the  flowers,   was   drinking  nectar  out  of  the  blossoms  of 
this  splendid  shrub ;  and  a  brown  Honey-eater  was  darting 
its  tongue,  like  a  slender  pencil  of  hair,   into  the  elegant 
pink  flowers  of  Grevillea  linearis.     Gompholobium^  grmidin 
florumy  a  large,  yellow,  pea-flowered  shrub,  of  great  beauty, 
and   several  species  of  Platylobium,  Diwiesia,  Baronial  and 
Eriostemon,  enlivened  the  solitude,  and  beguiled  the  walk, 
of  thirty-one  miles,  through  this  dreary  forest,  which  we 
accomplished  in  ten  hours.     This  kind  of  exercise,  in  sach 
a  climate,  gives  vigour  to  the  digestive  powers,  and  cheer- 
fulness to  the  spirits.     The  number  of  dead  bullocks  had 
increased   considerably,    since  we  last  crossed   the   moun- 
tains.    We  fell  in  with  several  parties  of  meii  with  drays, 
conveying  supplies  for  the  settlers  to  the  westward.     Some 
of  them  were  resting,  others  pursuing  their  way  with  cattle, 
so  weak,  that  many  of  them  appeared  likely  to  die  before 
reaching  the  other  side.      Notwithstanding   the  late   rains 
have  caused  the  grass  again  to  grow,  it  is  still  very  scarce 
in  the  little  mountain  glens,  where  it  is  not  of  a  nutritious 
qxiality ;  and  the  cattle,  in  the  low  countries,  have  not  yet 
had  time,  since  the  rain  fell,  to  get  into  such   condition,  as 
is   necessary  to  enable  them  to  endure  such  a  journey. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW    SOUTH   WALES.  SB/ 

16th.  Toward  the  close  of  the  day,  we  overtook  a  ma- 
gistrate, returning  from  an  inquest,  on  the  remains  of  a 
woman,  who  had  hung  herself,  in  a  state  of  excitement 
from  drinking.  Her  husband  had  been  committed  to  pri- 
son, on  the  charge  of  wilful  murder,  for  having  assisted  his 
wife,  in  the  accomplishment  of  this  rash  and  wicked  act ! 
— The  man  was  afterwards  tried,  found  guilty,  and  sen- 
tenced to  death ;  but  was  respited  till  the  opinion  of  the 
English  Judges  could  be  had,  upon  the  before  unheard  of 
case ;  and  this  opinion  had  not  been  received,  when  I  lefit 
N.  S.  Wales. 

Our  walk  to  Penrith  was  pleasant.  As  we  descended 
from  the  mountains,  the  grass,  on  Emu  Plains,  looked 
beautifully  green.  It  is  of  the  kind,  called  here.  Couch- 
grass,  Cynodon  dactyUm,  which  creeps  deep  in  the  ground, 
and  spreads  over  the  cultivated  lands,  of  this  part  of  N.  S. 
Wales.  It  is  a  widely  difiiised  species,  occurring  also  on  the 
south  coast  of  England,  and  in  India,  &c. 

On  visiting  the  Police-office  at  Penrith,  to  apply  for  leave 
to  hold  a  meeting  in  it,  we  witnessed  the  inffiction  of  the 
degrading  punishment  of  flagellation,  on  two  prisoners,  to 
the  amount  of  one  hundred  lashes  each.  One  of  them 
bore  his  punishment  without  complaint ;  the  other  writhed 
much  under  it,  complained  piteously,  and  was  so  faint,  as 
to  require  to  be  frequently  supplied  with  water.  Yet  I 
saw  this  man,  a  few  minutes  after,  putting  on  his  clothes, 
behind  the  jail,  and  jeering  with  a  woman,  in  a  way  that 
proved  that  his  mind  was  not  beneficially  operated  upon, 
though  in  body,  he  must  have  suffered  severely,  unless  the 
torpor  of  the  mutilated  flesh,  rendered  him  temporarily 
insensible.  I  beUeve  the  disposition  of  mind,  of  those  who 
think  to  keep  mankind  in  subjection  by  severity,  is  much 
the  same  as  it  was  in  Rehoboam,  when  he  took  the  counsel 
of  the  young  men ;  and  that  it  will,  in  one  way  or  other, 
lead  to  similar  results. — See  2  Chron.  x. 

At  Penrith,  a  Jew,  professing  Christianity,  the  father-in- 
law  of  the  landlord  of  the  inn,  told  us,  that  as  we  had  come 
among  them  to  preach  the  gospel,  we  should  be  free  of 
all  charges.     We  acknowledged  his  kindness,  and  explained 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

338  PBNKiTH.  [10th  mo. 

how  oar  expenses  were  pud,  to  which  he  replied,  he  hoped 
we  wotdd  not  debar  him  of  this  privilege. 

18th.  At  ten  o'clock,  a  small  congregation  met  ns  at 
the  Police-office,  at  Penrith,  where  religion  and  morality 
are  at  a  low  ebb.  In  the  afternoon,  we  had  a  meeting  at 
Nepean,  which  was  well  attended.  The  Wesleyans  preach 
here  occasionally,  but  the  tone  of  religious  feeling  is  low. 
The  message  we  have  generally  to  proclaim  is,  that  all  un- 
righteousness is  sin,  and  all  sin  the  service  of  the  devil; 
that  none  can  be  saved  in  the  service  of  the  devil,  for  he 
is  the  enemy  of  God,  and  so  are  all  his  servants.  We 
find  it  also  omr  place,  to  state  the  fundamental  doctrines  of 
the  Gospel,  and  to  urge  the  importance  of  attention  to  the 
convictions  of  the  Holy  Spirit  upon  the  mind,  discovering 
sin,  condemning  it,  and  leading  to  repentance,  as  being  the 
only  way  by  which  we  can  come  to  a  true  faith  in  Christ, 
and  a  holy  walk  with  God.  These  doctrines  we  are  engaged 
to  press,  with  a  variety  of  Scripture  illustrations,  and  with 
appeals  to  the  convictions  of  their  truth,  in  the  minds  of  our 
hearers,  and  with  exhortations  to  seek  after  an  experimental 
knowledge  of  them. — ^After  meeting,  we  called  to  see  an 
aged  man,  who  had  been  confined  to  bed  with  palsy,  for 
several  years,  and  was  in  a  state  of  great  suffering.  He 
was  formerly  a  prisoner,  became  thoughtful  without  instru- 
mental means,  got  a  little  forward  in  his  circumstances, 
gave  the  land  where  the  school-house  is  built,  and  reared 
a  large  family,  by  some  of  whom,  he  has  been  in  danger  of 
being  again  led  away  from  righteousness,  by  their  joining 
a  medical  man,  in  recommending  him  to  take  spirits  as  a 

19th.  We  breakfasted  at  Regentville,  the  hospitable 
owner  of  which,  has  a  large  vineyard  on  his  fine  property, 
but  the  promise  for  fruit  this  season  is  not  great,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  late  drought,  during  many  weeks  of  which, 
the  sky  was  clear,  and  there  was  "  neither  rain  nor  dew,^' 
a  circumstance  not  uncommon  in  these  regions.  During 
the  droughty  the  proprietor  of  R^entville,  had  a  herd  of 
sixteen  horses,  which  strayed  to  a  peninsula,  on  the  moun- 
tains, where  they  could  hear  the  fall  of  water,  but  could 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

1835.]  NEW   SOUTH   WALES.  339 

not  reach  it.  As  if  enchanted  by  the  sound,  they  had  con- 
tinued to  pace  round  the  spot,  till  they  all  perished  by  thirst. 

20th.  We  called  upon  some  of  the  neighbouring  settlers, 
and  visited  Glen  Brook,  a  romantic  valley,  through  which  a 
branch  of  the  Nepean  River  flows,  between  high,  woody 
difis,  of  the  same  character  as  those  forming  the  inaccessible 
Tallies  of  this  part  of  the  country.  It  contained  several 
remarkable  trees  and  shrubs ;  among  which  were  a  wild  fig- 
tree,  and  Hibiscus  heterophyUtiSy  the  flowers  of  which  resem- 
ble the  Hollyhock,  and  are  of  a  delicate  white,  with  a  deep, 
purple  eye.  * 

21st.  We  walked  by  way  of  the  little  village  of  Castle- 
reagh,  to  Windsor,  a  town  of  about  1,500  inhabitants, 
beautifully  situated,  upon  the  Hawkesbury,  and  of  very 
English  appearance,  where  we  found  pretty  good  accommo- 
dation at  an  inn. 

22nd.  We  called  upon  some  of  the  Inhabitants,  and 
made  arrangements,  for  holding  some  meetings,  in  which, 
we  were  kindly  assisted  by  the  Wesleyan  Minister. 

23rd.  We  went  to  Richmond,  another  little  town  on 
the  Hawkesbury,  four  miles  distant  from  Windsor.  The 
country  here  is  very  fine,  and  productive,  with  extensive 
grassy  flats,  along  the  sides  of  the  river.  On  these,  people 
continue  to  build  and  reside,  notwithstanding  there  have 
been  floods,  at  intervals  of  a  few  years,  that  have  risen  far 
above  the  tops  of  their  houses. 

A  respectable  Wesleyan,  at  Richmond,  told  us,  that  he 
had  heard  of  our  visit  to  Wellington  Valley,  several  days 
ago,  from  a  Native,  who  had  had  the  particulars  detailed 
to  him,  by  a  Black  from  that  coimtry.  Our  persons, 
costume,  and  many  other  particulars,  including  our  man- 
ner of  communicating  reUgious  instruction,  had  been  mi- 
nutely described.  And  on  our  Wesleyan  friend  inquiring 
what  the  Black  supposed  all  this  meant,  he  replied,  ^^  God 
Almighty  come  and  sit  down  at  Wellington;^'  implying, 
that  the  Most  High  would  be  worshipped  there.  The 
scattered  natives  of  Australia,  communicate  information 
rapidly;  messengers  being  often  sent  from  tribe  to  tribe, 
for  great  distances.     In  the  evening  we  returned  to  Windsor. 

Y  2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

340  RICHMOND.  [lOth  mo. 

24th.  Accompanied  by  a  thoughtful,  military  officer^ 
we  walked  to  the  villages  of  Pitt  Town,  and  Wilberforoe. 
At  Pitt  Town,  we  were  helped,  in  obtaining  a  place  to  hold 
a  meeting  in,  by  the  Episcopal  Minister. 

25  th.  We  had  meetings  at  Richmond,  in  the  forenoon, 
and  at  Windsor,  in  the  afternoon.  There  was  a  painful 
feeling  in  both  meetings,  on  behalf  of  such  as  profess  to  be 
awakened,  but  do  not  maintain  an  inward  exercise  of  soul 
before  the  Lord ;  and  who  try  to  feed  upon  external  excite- 
ments, instead  of  upon  "  the  true  Bread,"  "  which  oometh 
down  from  heaven,  and  giveth  life  unto  the  world.*' 

26th.  We  had  some  conversation  with  an  unfaithful  pro- 
fessor of  religion ;  with  whom  we  expostulated,  on  his  in- 
consistency, in  endeavouring  to  add  to  his  income,  by 
distilling  spirits,  both  to  his  own  injury,  and  to  that  of 
those  who  consumed  them.  This  man  tried  to  vindicate 
his  practice,  but  himself  became  gradually  ensnared  by  the 
insidious  poison;  he  ultimately  died  of  delirium  tremens, 
declaring  that  the  pains  of  hell  were  already  his  portion. 
We  also  visited  some  thoughtful  people,  not  professing  \iritli 
any  associated  body  of  Christians;  one  of  whom  left  the 
army  on  half-pay,  when  he  became  religiously  awakened, 
finding  military  associations  inimical  to  his  religious  pro- 
gress.— In  the  evening,  a  Temperance  Meeting  was  held  in 
the  government  school-room,  when  we  gave  the  company- 
some  information,  on  the  progress  of  Temperance  Societies* 
There  are  about  ninety  members  here,  many  of  whom  are 
soldiers :  one